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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Cardinal (now Christ Church) College, Oxford.
Being associated with John Frith and other
favourers of the Reformation, he was imprisoned
upon suspicion of having concealed some (so-
called) heretical books, but, by the favour of
Wolsey, was released. His compositions consist
of masses and motets, many of which are extant
in MS. in the Music School and Christ Church,'
Oxford, the British Museum,^ and elsewhere.
Hawkins printed a 3-part motet by him, '0
splendor glorise,'^ and Bumey a 5-part motet,
'Dum transisset Sabbatum.' Morley includes
him among the eminent musicians of his time.
He died at Boston and was buried there.

Another John Taverner, of an ancient Nor-
folk family, son of Peter Taverner, and grandson
of Richard Taverner, who in the reigns of Ed-
ward VI. and Elizabeth was a lay-preacher, and
in the latter reign high-sheriff of Oxfordshire,
was born in 1584. On Nov. 17, 1610, he was
aippointed professor of music at Gresham College
upon the resignation of Thomas Clayton. His
autograph copy of 9 lectures, part in Latin and
part in English, delivered by him in the college

1 17 motets for 3i 4, 5, 6 voices.

2 Among the most inteiestirig are parts of a Mass for 6 voice's
' Gloria tibi, Trinitas." copied by Dr. Bumey, Add. MS. Il,6b7.

3 This is noted iu the Christ Church Catalogue as ' partly by Tye.'



66



TAVERNER.



TEDESCA.



in that year, is preserved in the British Museum
(Sloane MSS., 2329). He subsequently entered
into Holy Orders, and in 1622 became Vicar of
Tillinghain, Essex, and in 1627 Rector of Stoke
Newington. He died at the latter place in
August, 1638. [W.H.H.]

TAYLOR, Edwakd, was born Jan. 22, 1784,
in Norwich, where, as a boy, he attracted the
attention of Dr. Beckwith, who gave him in-
struction. Arrived at manhood he embarked in
business in his native city, but continued the
practice of music as an amateur. He possessed
a fine, rich, full-toned bass voice, and became
not only solo vocalist, but an active manager
of the principal amateur society in Norwich. He
took a leading part in the establishment in 1824
of the existing triennial Norwich Musical Fes-
tival, training the chorus, engaging the band and
singers, and making out the entire programmes.
In 1825 he removed to London, and, in connec-
tion with some relatives, entered upon the pro-
fession of civil engineer, but not meeting with
success he, in 1826, adopted music as a profession,
and immediately attained a good position as a
bass singer. In 1830 he translated and adapted
Spohr's 'Last Judgment.' This led to an in-
timacy with Spohr, at whose request he subse-
quently translated and adapted the oratorios,
'Crucifixion' (or 'Calvary'), 1836, and 'Fall of
Babylon,' 1842. On Oct. 24, 1837, he was ap-
pointed professor of music in Gresham College in
succession to R. J. S. Stevens. He entered upon
his duties in Jan. 1838, by the delivery of three
lectures, which he subsequently published. His
lectures were admirably adapted to the under-
standing of a general audience ; they were
historical and critical, excellently written, elo-
quently read, and illustrated by well chosen
extracts from the works described efficiently
performed. In 1 839 he published, under the title
of 'The Vocal School of Italy in the i6th century,'
a selection of 28 madrigals by the best Italian
masters adapted to English words. He conducted
the Norwich Festivals of 1839 and 1842. He
wrote and composed an ode for the opening of tlie
present Gresham College, Nov. 2, 1843. In 1844
he joined James Turle in editing ' The People's
Music Book.' In 1845 ^^ contributed to 'The
British and Foreign Review,' an article entitled
'The English Cathedral Service, its Glorj', its
Decline, and its designed Extinction,' a produc-
tion evoked by some then pending legislation
connected with the cathedral institutions, which
attracted great attention, and was afterwards
reprinted in a separate form. He was one of the
originators of the Vocal Society (of which he was
the secretary), and of the Musical Antiquarian
Society (for which he edited Purcell's ' King
Arthur'), and the founder of the Purcell Club.
[See Mdsical Antiquarian Society, Pdecell
Club, and Vocal Society.] Besides the before-
named works he wrote and adapted with great
skill English words to Mozart's ' Requiem,'
Graun's 'Tod Jesu,' Schneider's 'Siiadfluth,'
Spohr's ' Vater Unser,' Haydn's ' Jahreszeiten,'
and a very large number of compositions intro-



si



duced in his lectures. He was for many ya|
music critic to 'The Spectator' newspaper. ]
died at Brentwood, March 12, 1863. His val
able library was dispersed by auction in the f«
lowing December. [W.H.B

TA YLOR.FEANKLiN.a well-known pianofor
player and teacher in London, born at BiriniB
ham, Feb. 5,1843, began music at a very early a§
learned the pianoforte under Chas. Flavell, a
the organ under T. Bedsmore, organist of Lichfit
Cathedral, where at the age of 11 he was al
to take the service. In 1859 he went to Leipi
and studied in the Conservatorium with SuUivj
J. F. Barnett, etc., under Plaidy and Mosche
for pianoforte, and Hauptmann, Richter, a
Papperitz for theory. He left in 1861 and ma
some stay in Paris, where he had lessons ia ^,'.
Mme. Schumann, and was in close intercourse wi
Heller, SchulhofF, Mme. Viardot, etc. In 18
he returned to England, settled permanently
London, and began teaching, and playing at i
Crystal Palace (Feb. 18, 1865, etc.), the Mond
Popular Concerts (Jan. 15, 66, etc.), as well as
the Liverpool Philharmonic, Birmingham Cha
ber Concerts, and elsewhere. At the same til
he was organist successively of Twickenham Par
Church, and St. Michael's, Chester Square.
1876 he joined the National Training School
teacher, and in 1882 the Royal College of Mn
as Professor of the Pianoforte. He is Presidt
of the Academy for the higher developmeni
pianoforte-playing.

His Primer of the Pianoforte (Macmillan 18;
— emphatically a ' little book on a great subje
and a most useful and practical book too — 1
been published in German. He has also compi
a PF. tutor (Enoch), and has edited Beethove
Sonatas 1-12 for C. Boosey. He has transla :;
Richter's treatises on Harmony, Counterpoi ~
and Canon and Fugue (Cramer & Co.) ; and
ranged Sullivan's Tempest music for four hx
on its production. With all his gifts as a pla
it is probably as a teacher that his reputal
will live. His attention to his pupils is ui
mitting, and his power of imparting tone, toi
and execution to them, remarkable. Gifted v
a fine musical organisation himself, he eve
the intelligence of his pupils, and succeedi
making them musicians as well as mere
technical performers. |

TECHNIQUE (Germ. Techmk). A Frt
term which has been adopted in England,
which expresses the mechanical part of play
A player may be perfect in technique, and
have neither soul nor intelligence.

TEDESCA, ALLA (Italian), 'in the G
style.' ' Tedesca ' and ' Deutsch' are both d(
from an ancient term which appears in mi
Latin as Theotisca. Beethoven employs it t
in his published works — in the first movemei
op. 79, the Sonatina in G, —

Presto alia tedesca.



^




1



TEDESCA.

again in the fifth movement of the Eb
rtet (op. 130) —
Alia danza Udetca. Allegro atsai.



TE DEUM.



67



^



Z&L



i3c:
— i — I



-^



a a Bagatelle, No. 3 of op. irg, he uses the
'1 in French — ' A I'allemande,' but in this case
I piece has more affinity to the presto of the
^,tina than to the slower movement of the
;e. All three are in G. The term ' tedesca,'
Billow, has reference to waltz rhythm, and
■.es changes of time. — [See Teutsche.] [G.]
E DEUM LAUDAMUS (Eng. We praise

God). A well-known Hymn, called the
)rosian Hymn, from the fact that the poetry
scribed by tradition to S. Ambrose and S.
ustine. The English * version, one of the

magnificent to be found even in the Book
ommon Prayer, appears in the first of the

sh Prayer-books in the place which it now
pies. The custom of singing TeDeum on great
ssiastical Festivals, and occasions of special
ksgiving, has for many centuries been uni-
.1 in the Western Church ; and still pre-

both in Catholic and Protestant countries.



And this circumstance, even more than the sub-
limity of the Poetry, has led to the connection of
the Hymn with music of almost every known
School,

The antient Melody — popularly known as
the ' Ambrosian Te Deum' — is a very beautiful
one, and undoubtedly of great antiquity ;
though it cannot possibly be so old as the Hymn
itself, nor can it lay any claim whatever to the
title by which it is popularly designated, since
it is written in the Mixed Phrygian Mode — i, e.
in Modes HI and IV combined ; an extended
Scale of very much later date than that used by
S. Ambrose. Numerous versions of this vener-
able Melody are extant, all bearing more or less
clear traces of derivation from a conamon original
which appears to be hopelessly lost. Whether
or not this original was in the pure Mode IDE it
is impossible to say with certainty; but the
older versions furnish internal evidence enough
to lead to a strong conviction that this was the
case, though we possess none that can be referred
to the age of S. Ambrose, or within two centuries
of it. This will be best explained by the sub-
joined comparative view of the opening phrases
of some of the earliest known versions.









From the Dodecachordon of Glareanus (Basilise


1547)-


'"^^ ~ 7:^^:




^ 1^1


— C-! C-! : ^^


43, ...d^ ... c ^, i^ '^ ^


-S^


Te De - -


mn laa - da - mus, Te Do - ml - num con - S - te


mur.






















SB - ter - Dtim


Pa - trem om - nla ter - ra ve - ne - ra - - - - tur.

The traditional Roman Version, from the Supplement to the Ratishon Gradual.
















■-^^-tl








Te De - ran


lau -da - - • - mus : Te Do - ml - num coa - fl - te


mur.



























s - ter - nam Fa



Ye - ne - ra -



Early Anglican Version, from Marfceeke's 'Booke of Common Praier noted ' (London, ijjc).




all these cases, the music to the verse ' Te
Patrem ' (' All the earth doth worship
) is adapted, with very little change, to the
iding verses, as far as ' Te ergo quaesumus '
therefore pray Thee'), which verse, in Ca-

je Terse cly does this grand paraphrase omit a character-
reaston In the original— that which refers to the White Jloba
Artyn;

• Te Vartymm caftdidatus laudat eiercitus."
'The noble army of Martjrs praise Thee.'
oftbe tnuulatOT Is not kuoTrn.



tholic countries, is sung kneeling. The only
exception to this is the phrase adapted to the
word 'Sanctus' ('Holy'), which, in every in-
stance, differs from all the rest of the Melody.'^
As far, then, as the verse ' Te ergo quaesumus '
inclusive, we find nothing to prevent us from
believing that the Music is as old as the text ;
for it nowhere deviates from the pure Third
Mode, as sung by S. Ambrose. But, at the next

2 Marbecke, however, males another marked change at 'Thou arce
the E;Dg of Ulorye.'

F 2



68



TE DEUM.



TE DEUM.



verse, 'yEterna fac' ('Make them to be num-
bered'), the Melody passes iuto the Fourth Mode,



with a marked allusion to the Fourth Gregai j^
Tone, of which S. Ambrose knew nothing.




This phrase, therefore, conclusively proves,
either that the latter portion of the Melody is a
comparatively modern addition to the original
form ; or, that the whole is of much later date
than has been generally supposed. We are
strongly in favour of the first supposition ; but
the question is open to discussion on both sides.

The beauty of the old Melody has led to its
frequent adoption as a Canto fermo for Poly-
phonic Masses ; as in the case of the fifth and
sixth Masses — 'In Te, Domine, speravi,' for 5
voices, and 'Te Deum laudamus,' for 6 — in
Palestrina's Ninth Book. But the number of
Polyphonic settings is less than that of many
other Hymns of far inferior interest. The reason
of this must be sought for in the immense popu-
larity of the Plain Chaunt Melody in Italy, and
especially in the Roman States. Every peasant
knows it by heart ; and, from time immemorial,
it has been sung, in the crowded Roman Churches,
at every solemn Thanksgiving Service, by the
people of the city, and the wild inhabitants of
the Campagna, with a fervour which would have
set Polyphony at defiance.' There are, however,
some very beautiful examples; especially, one
by Felice Anerio, printed by Proske, in vol. iv. of
' Musica Divina,' from a MS. in the Codex
Altaemps. Othobon., based on the antient Me-
lody, and treating the alternate verses only of
the text — an arrangement which would allow
the people to take a fair share in the singing.
The 'Tertius Tomus Musioi opens' of Jakob
Hand! contains another very fine example, in
which all the verses are set for two Choirs, which,
however, only sing alternately, like the Decani
and Cantoris sides in an English Cathedral.

Our own Polyphonic Composers have treated
the English paraphrase, in many instances, very
finely indeed : witness the settings in Tallis's
and Byrd's Services in the Dorian Mode, in
Farrant's in G- minor, in Orlando Gibbons's in
F (Ionian Mode transposed), and many others
too well known to need specification. That these
fine compositions should have given place to
others, pertaining to a School worthily repre-
sented by ' Jackson in F,' is matter for very
deep regret. We may hope that that School
is at last extinct : but, even now, the ' Te
Deum' of Tallis is far less frequently heard,
in most Cathedrals, than the immeasurably in-
ferior ' Boyce in A ' — one of the most popular
settings in existence. The number of settings,
for Cathedral and Parochial use, by modern Com-
posers, past and present, is so great that it is
difficult even to count them.^

1 All exceedingly corrupt excerpt from tlie Eoman version— the
verse • Te ajternum Patrem '—has long been popular here, as the
■ liomaa Chant.' In all probability It owes its introduction to this
country to the zeal of some traveller, who ' picked it up by ear.'

- A second setting in the Dorian mode, and a third in F, by Tallis,
both Cor 5 voices, are uofortunately Incomplete. tSee p. 51.]



itj

(01



It remains to notice a third method of tn .
ment by which the text of the ' Te Deum ' ^
been illustrated, in modern times, with e» ,[
ordinary success. The custom of singing
Hymn on occasions of national Thanksgi^t]
naturally led to the composition of great wot j
with Orchestral Accompaniments, and exten
movements, both for Solo Voices and Chq
Some of these works are written on a
sufficiently grand to place them on a level 1
the finest Oratorios ; while others are rem< i,,
able for special effects connected with the j i
ticular occasion for which they were produ ij
Among these last must be classed the Con
sitions for many Choirs, with Organ and Orq
tral Accompaniments, by Benevoli, and tf
Italian Masters of the 1 7th century, which ^
composed for special Festivals, and never i^ ^
wards permitted to see the light. Sarti vi^
a ' Te Deura ' to Russian text, by commani ||
the Empress Catherine II, in celebratio^
Prince Potemkin's victory at Otchakous, in w
he introduced fireworks and cannon. Not?
standing this extreme measure, the work
fine one ; but far inferior to that compoaa
Graun, in 1756, by command of Frederick
Great, in commemoration of the Battle of Pia
and first performed at Charlottenburg, in I
at the close of the Seven Years' War. Tb
unquestionably the most celebrated ' Te De
ever composed on the Continent ; and also
of the finest. Among modem Continental
tings, the most remarkable is that by Ba
for two Choirs, with Orchestra and OrgtQ T.
Hi gat 0, of which he says that the Finale, j j
'Judex crederis,' is 'without doubt his gnj
production.' Of this work (op. 22) nothing I
known in England ; but it was performed at
deaux, Dec. 14, 1883. Cherubini, in early yi
wrote a Te Deum, the MS. of which is lost; ^ ,,
strangely enough, his official duties at the R [^
Court never led him to reset the Hymn.

But the grandest Festal settings of the
Deum' have been composed in England,
earliest of these was that written by Pi
for S. Cecilia's Day, 1694; a work which
at least rank as one of the greatest triumi
the School of the Restoration, if it be
indeed, the very finest production of that
liant period. As this work has already
described in our account of that School,'
unnecessary again to analyse it here. It IB,
ever, remarkable, not only as the first El
'Te Deum' with Orchestral Accompanim H'
but also as having stimulated other English '?*
posers to the production of similar works **
1695, Dr. Blow wrote a ' Te Deum,' with At r*
paniments for 2 Violins, 2 Trumpets, and B

3 See vol. iii. pp. 284—285.



H



TE DEUM.

xact Orchestra employed by Purcell ; and, not
afterwards, Dr. Croft produced another work
le same kind, and for the same Instruments.
16 next advance was a very important one.
first Sacred Music which Handel com-
1 to English words was the ' Utrecht Te
n,' the MS. of which is dated Jan. 14, 1 71 2.*
io this time, Purcell's Te Deum had been
ally performed, at S. Paul's, for the benefit
le ' Sons of the Clergy.' To assert that
lei's Te Deum in any way resembles it
i be absurd : but both manifest too close an
ty with the English School to admit the possi-
of their reference to any other ; and, both
•ally fall into the same general form, which
Handel must necessarily have learned in this
ry, and most probably really did learn from
jU, whose English Te Deum was then the
in existence. The points in which the
vorks show their kinship, are, the massive
ty of their construction; the grave de-
lal spirit which pervades them, from be-
ig to end ; and the freedom of their Subjects,
ich the sombre gravity of true Ecclesiastical
Lly is treated with the artless simplicity of a
[.lied. The third — the truly national char-
Istic, and the common property of all our
[English Composers — was, in Purcell's case,
levitable result of an intimate acquaintance
:he rich vein of National Melody of which
•e all so justly proud ; while, in Handel's,
n only explain it as the consequence of a
of assimilation which not only enabled
make common cause with the School of
loption, but to make himself one with it.
oints in which the two compositions most
nently diflfer are, the more gigantic scale
later work, and the fuller development of its
:ts. In contrapuntal resources, the Utrecht
;um is even richer than that with which
3l celebrated the Battle of Dettingen,
June 27, 1743; though the magnificent
re of Trumpets and Drums which intro-
the opening Chorus of the latter, surpasses
ng ever written to express the Thanks-
of a whole Nation for a glorious victory.^
Dettingen Te Demn represents the cui-
ng point of the festal treatment to which
mbrosian Hymn has hitherto been sub-
A fine modern English setting is Sul-
, for Solos, Chorus, and Orchestra, com-
to celebrate the recovery of the Prince of
, and performed at the Crystal Palace. A
ecent one is Macfarren's (1 884). [W.S.E.]
1.EMANN, Georg Philipp, German com-
son of a clergyman, born at Magdeburg
14, 168 1, and educated there and at
iheim. He received no regular musical
ig, but by diligently studying the scores
great masters — he mentions in particular
and Campra — made himself master of
"ience of music. In 1700 he went to the

D tyle; representing Jan. U, 1713, according to our present
B -eclconing.

'< n arcount of the curious work which, of late years, has heen
i' titly quoted in connection with the Dettingen Te Deum, we
• r the reader to the article on Uaio, Don Feancesco.



TELEMANN.



6!)



university of Leipzig, and while carrying on his
studies in languages and science, became organist
of the Neukirche, and founded a society among
the students, called 'Collegium musicum.' In
1704 he became Capellmeister to a Prince Prom-
nitz at Sorau, in 1 708 Concertmeister, and then
Capellmeister, at Eisenach, and, still retaining
this post, became Musikdirector of the Church
of St. Catherine, and of a society called ' Frau-
enstein' at Frankfort in 171 1, and also Capell-
meister to the Prince of Bayreuth. In 1721 he
was appointed Cantor of the Johanneum, and
Musikdirector of the principal church at Ham-
burg, posts which he retained till his death. He
made good musical use of repeated tours to
Berlin, and other places of musical repute, and
his style was permanently affected by a visit of
some length to Paris in 1737, when he became
strongly imbued with French ideas and taste.
He died June 25, 1767.

Telemann, like his contemporaries Matheson
and Keiser, is a prominent representative of the
Hamburg school in its prime during the first
half of the 18th century. In his own day he was
placed with Hasse and Graun as a composer of
the first rank, but the verdict of posterity has
been less favourable. With all his undoubted
ability he originated nothing, but was content
to follow the tracks laid down by the old con-
trapuntal school of organists, whose ideas and
forms he adopted without change. His fertility
was so marvellous that he could not even reckon
up his own compositions; indeed it is doubtful
whether he was ever equalled in this respect.
He was a highly-skilled contrapuntist, and had,
as might be expected from his great productive-
ness, a technical mastery of all the received forms
of composition. Handel, who knew him well,
said that he could write a motet in 8 parts
as easily as any one else could write a letter,
and Schumann quotes an expression of his to
the effect that 'a proper composer should be
able to set a placard to ^music': but these
advantages were neutralised by his lack of any
earnest ideal, and by a fatal facility naturally
inclined to superficiality. He was over-addicted,
even for his own day, to realism; this, though
occasionally effective, especially in recitatives,
concentrates the attention on mere externals,
and is opposed to all depth of expression, and
consequently to true art. His shortcomings are
most patent in his church works, which are of
greater historical importance than his operas and
other music. The shallowness of the church-
music of the latter half of the i8th century is
distinctly traceable to Telemann's influence, al-
though that was the very branch of composition
in which he seemed to have everything in his
favour — position, authority, and industry. But
the mixture of conventional counterpoint with
Italian opera air, which constituted his style,
was not calculated to conceal the absence of any
true and dignified ideal of church music. And
yet he composed 12 complete sets of services

3 ' fiesammelte Schriften." ii. 2S5. Compare Kameau's ■ Qu'on me
doime la Gazette de HoUaode.'



ro



TELEMANN.



TEMPERAMENT.



I



for the j'ear, 44 Passions, many oratorios, in-
numerable cantatas and psalms, 32 services for
the installation of Hamburg clergy, 33 pieces
called 'Capitans-musik,' 20 ordination atid anni-
versary services, 12 funeral, and 14 wedding ser-
vices — all consisting of many numbers each. Of
his grand oratorios several were widely known
and performed, even after his death, especially a
' Passion' to the well-known words of Brockes of
Hamburg (1716) ; another, in 3 parts and 9
scenes, to words selected by himself from the
Gospels (his best-known work) ; ' Der Tag des
Gerichts ' ; ' Die Tageszeiten ' (from Zechaviah) ;
and the 'Tod Jesu' and the ' Auferstehung
ChristI,' both by Ramler (1730 and 1757). To
these must be added 40 operas for Hamburg,
Eisenach, and Bayreuth, and an enormous mass
of vocal and instrumental music of all kinds,
including no less than 600 overtures in the
French style. Many of his compositions were
published, and he even found time to engrave
several himself; Gerber ('Lexicon,' ii. 631) gives
a catalogue. He also wrote an autobiograph}-,
pi-inted in Matheson's ' Ehrenpforte ' and ' Gen-
eralbass-schule ' (1731, p. 16S). A fine chorus
for 2 choirs is given in Rochlitz's Sammlung, and
Hullah's Vocal Scores. Others will be found in
Winterfeld, and in a collection — 'Beitrag zur
Kirchenmusik' — published by Breitkopf. Organ
fugues have been printed in Korner's ' Orgel
Virtuos.' Very valuable examinations of his
Church-Cantatas, and comparisons between them
and those of Bach, will be found in Spitta's
' Bach ' (Transl. i. 490 etc.) [A.M.]

TELLEFSEN, Thomas Dyke Acland, a
Norwegian musician, born at Dronthjem Nov. 26,
1823, and probably named after the well-known



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