George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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schule in Eom genannt die Sixtinische Kapelle,' by
Eduard Schelle, 1872. SlENA. E. Morrocchi's 'La
Musica in Siena,' 1881-6. VENICE. A. F. Doni's 'Dia-
loghi della Musica,' 1544 ; F. Caffi's ' Storia della Musica
sacra della Capella di San Marco,' 1S54; Emil Nau-
mann's ' Das goldene Zeitalter der Tonkunst in Venedig,'
1S66. VeeuNA. Aless. Sala's 'I Musicisti Yeronesi,'

7. Netherlands.

Besides being rich in native musical writera and his-
torians of General Music, such as Gi^try, F6tis, Cousse-
maker, etc., the Netherlands can boast of more good
works devoted exclusively to its own musical history than
perhaps any other country. The best are : — J.P.N. Laud's
' Musique et Musiciens au XVIIe Sifecle,' 1882 • E. vander
Straeten's 'Histoire de la Musique aux Pays Bas,' 5 vols.
1.S67-S0, and ' Les Musiciens N^erlandais e'n Italie,' 1882 ;
E. G. J. Gregoir's 'Essai historique sur la Musique et
les iNIusiciens dans les Pays Bas,' 1861 ; ' Biographie des
Artistes-Musiciens N6erlandais des 18e et lOe Si^cles,'
1864 ; ' Historique de la Facture et des Facteurs d'Orgue,'
etc., 1865; and 'L'Art Musical en Belgique sous . . .
Leopold I et II.' 1879; A. Samuel's 'L'Histoire de la
Musique et des Musiciens Beiges depuis 1830,' 1881.

8. Poetugal.

The only work we know on this subject is J. de Vas-
concellos' ' Os Musicos Portuguezes,' 2 vols. 1870.

9. Eussia and the Slavonic Nations.

Prince N. Toussoupoffs 'Histoire de la Musique en
Eussie,' 1862; D. Eazumovsky's 'History of Eussian
Church Music,' 1867-9 ; Cesar Cui's ' La Musique en
Eussie,' 1880 ; W. E. S. Ealston's ' Songs of the Eussian
People,' 1872; A. Chodzko's 'Les Chants historiques de
I'Ukraine,' 1879; V. Morkova's 'Historical Sketch of
the Eussian Opera,' 1862 ; ' Volkslieder der Serben histo-
risch eingeleilet von " Talvj," ' 1853 ; J. L. Haupt and J.
E. Schmaler's 'Volkslieder der Wertdev,' in 2 parts, 1841,
1843 ; A. Voigt's ' Von dem Alterthume und Gebiauche
des Kirchengesanges in Bohmfn,' Prag, 1775; Christian
Eitter d'Elvert's ' Geschichte der Musik in Miihren,' etc.,
1873 ; G. M. Dreves' * ' Cantiones Bohemicse,' in Part I of
' Analecta Hymnica,' Leipzig, 1886.

10. Scandinavia.

Very little has been written on this subject. In the
last century Abraham HUlphers wrote •'Historisk Ab-
handling om Musik,' Westeras, 1773. Bauck and Man-
kell, though writing in the Swedish language, do not
confine themselves to the music of their own country.
The best modern work is M. Cristal's 'L'Art Scandi-
nave,' 1874.



11. Spain.

For the Visigothic notation Don P. Pabian y Fuero s
'Missa Gothica,' 1770, and Don Geronimo Eomero's
•' Breviarium Gothicum,' Macbid, 177o,maybe consulted
■with advantage ; also P. Ewald and G. Ldwe's ' Exempla
Scripturie Vi'sigothicse," 18S3. Francisque Michel lias
written 'Le Pays Basque . . sa Musique.' etc., 1S57. M.
Horiano-Fuertes' ' Historia de la Musica Espaiiola,' 4 vols.
1855-9, is the best general history. Other works are:—
Don M. Menendez y Pelayo's 'Historia de las Ideas
est^ticas en Espana,^ 3 vols. 1883; J. F. Riano's 'Notes
on Early Spanish Music,' 1887. For the history of
the opera we have F. Asenjo-Barbieri's 'Cronica de la
Opera Italiana en Madrid,' 1878; A. Peua Goni'a 'La
Opera Espafiola en el Siglo XIX,' ISSl.

12. Switzerland.

Pater Anselm Schubiger's ' Die Sangerschiile St. Gal-
lens vom 8ten bis 12ten ,1 ahrhundert,' 1858; G. Becker's
' La Musique en Suisse,' 1874.

13. Turkey.

J. A. Guer's ' Moeurs et Usages des Turcs ' contains a
good account of tlieir music at that time (1746).

III. Musical Instruments.

(a) GENERAL HISTORIES.-A manuscript in the
British Museum (Tiberius, c. vi) contains 'Descriptiones
et Deliueationes Instrumentorum Musicorum ' of the
11th century. Other works are :— Sebastian Virdvmg's
'Musica getutscht und auszgezogen durch S. V.'lSll ; J.
Charlierde Gerson's •' Beschreibung Musikalischer In-
struments,' Basle 1518 (Amsterdam, 170Gi ; J. W. von
"Wasielewski's 'Geschichte der Instrumentalmusik in
XVI Jahrhundert ' 1878 ; M. Prfetorius' ' Syntagma
Musioes,' 1014-18; Girolamo Desideri's •' Discordo della
Musica,' Bologna, 1071 ; Fil. Bonanni's ' Gabinetto Ar-
monico,' 17-22— reprinted in 180C as 'Descrizioni degl'
Istromenti armonici,' '2 vols; F. Bianchini's (the Elder)
'De Instrumentis Musicae Veterum,' li42; H. W. von
Gontershausen's ' Magazin Blusikalischer Tonwerk-
zeuge,' 1855; Carl Engel's 'Musical Instruments,' etc.,
1874; H. Lavoix' 'Histoire de Tlnstrumentation,'
1878; Dr. J. Stainer's 'Music of the Bible, with an
Account of the Development of Modern Musical Instru-
ments from Ancient Types,' 1879; Leon Pillaut's ' In-
etruments et Musiciens,' 1880. A. J. HipUins' ' Musical
Instruments, historic, rare, and unique,' 1883,


1. Organ.— The history of this instrument has been
written by musical historians of moH of the northern
races. As instances we may cit'^ :— J. G. Mittag's *'Hi3-
torische Abhandlung von . . . Orgeln,' Liineburg, 1750 ;
J U. Sponsel's 't)rgelhistorie,' 1771; Joseph Antony's
' Die Orgel,' 1832 ; E. J. Hopkins's ' Tlie Orctan, its History
and Construction,' and E. F. Rimbault's 'History of
the Organ,' 1855-70 ; X. van Elewyck's • ' Geschichte der
Orgel ' ; C. L. Lindberg's 'Handbok om Orgverket,' 1801 ;
Otto Wangeniann's 'Geschichte der Orgel und Orgel-
baukunst,' 1879-80; Dudley Buck's Lecture on 'The
Influence of the Oraan in History,' 1882; M. Belter's
'Die Orgel Unserer Zeit,' ISSO, and 'An Explanation of
the Organ Stops,' by Carl Locher (translated by Agnes
Schauenburg, 18SS).

2. Pianoforte, etc.— J. Fischhof's 'Versuch einer
Geschichte des Clavierbaues,' 1853; H. W. von Gonters-
hausen's 'Der Elligel,' 1850; E. F. Rimbault's 'The
Pianoforte, its Origin, Progress, and Construction,'
1860; Chevalier L6on de Burbnre's ' Recherches sur les
Facteurs de Clavecins,' etc., 1803; C. F. Weitzmann's
'Geschichte des Claverapiels und der Clavierliteratur,'
1863; E. Briusmead's 'History of the Pianoforte,' 180)3-
77 ; Oscar Paul's ' Geschichte de< Claviers,' 1808 ; Cesare
Ponsicchi's 'II Pianoforte,' 1870; Ridley Prentice's
'History of Pianoforte Music,' 1885.

3. Glas-Harmonica.— C. F. Pohl's 'Geschichte der
Glas-Harmonica,' 1862.


1. Bells.— X. van Elewyck's ' Matthias van den
Gheyn,' etc., 1862; Angelo Eocca's 'De Campanis Com-
mentarius,' 1012; Alexis Viersfadt's •' Dissertatio His-
torica de Campanis,' etc.; J. B. Thiers' 'Traits des
Cloches,' 1702-21; Rev. A. Gatty's 'Tlie Bell,' 1848:
T. Ellacombe's 'Church Bells of Devon, Somerset, etc.,'
1872-81; B. Loraax's 'Bells and Bell-ringers,' 1879.

2. Cymbals.— F. A. Lampe's 'De Cymbalis Vete-
rum,' 170:i-4.

3. TAMiioilRiNE.— F. Vidal's 'Lou Tambom-in' (in
rrovengal), 1804.



1. Cithara.— J. G.Drechssler audC.Felmerius"D( 1
Cithara Davidiea,' 1070.

2. L YRE.— G. B.Doni's ' Lyra Barberina,' with historj "a
of the Lyre, etc. (reprinted in 1702). j

3. Guitar.— Egmont Schroen's 'Die Guitarre uni i
ihre Geschichte,' 1879. '

4. Harp.— Aptommas's 'History of the Harp,' 1859. jE

5. Lute.— B. G. Baron's ' Untersuchung des Instru .|
ments der Laiiten,' Nhrnberg, 1727.

6. Violins, etc.— The violin has been a favouribj
subject with musical writers of the 19th century, s(
that we can give the titles of a considerable numbe
of writings on it and its congeners :— George Du
bourg's ' The Violin . . . and its Composers,' 1831-51
T. J. M. Forster's ' Epistolarium ' contain numerous his
torical notices of the violin (2 vols. 1845) ; F. J. Eiitis

' A. Stradivari, preceded by historical and critical re
researches into the history of stringed instruments,
1856; W. Sandys and F. A, Forster's 'History of thi
Violin,' 1804; H. Abele's ' Die Violiue,' 1864-74 ; J. W,
von Wasielewski's 'Die Violine und ihre Meister.l
1809-83, and 'Die Violine im XVII Jahrhundert,' 1874
P. Davidson's 'The Violin, its Construction,' etc. (Illus
trated), 1871, 1881; E. Folegati's ' Storia del Violino
dell' Archetto,' 1873; Edmirnd Schebek's 'Der Geigen

struments a Archet,' 3 vols. 1876-8; H. Bitter's ' Di
Geschichte der Viola Alta,' 1S77 ; E. H. Allen's 'Th'
Ancestry of the Violin,' 1882; J.RUhlmann's 'Geschichtl
der Bogeninstrumente,' 1882; Carl Engel's ' Researche
into the Early History of the Violin Family,' 1883'
James M. Fleming's 'Old Violins and their Makers
1883^; G. de Piccolellis' ' Liutai antichi e moderni,' I""'


1. Flute.— C.B.Thom and Caspar Bartholinus"D I
Tibiis Veterum,' 1677-9 ; "W. N. James' ' A word or two oi
the Flute,' 1820; Cornelius "Ward's 'The Flute explained
1844 ; Chr. "Welch's ' History of the Boehm Flute,' 1883. i

2. Trumpet.- H. Eichborn's 'Die Trompete,' 1881.

IV. Special Subjects. !

(a,) Clmrch Music— In the subjoined list it has nc !
been thought necessary to include the innumerabl :
treatises on Plain-Song. The following works hav i|
been selected as throwing most light on the subject:- J
Michael Prtetorius' ' Syntagma Musices ' (on Psalmodj "
etc.t 1014-18 ; Cardinal Giov. Bona's ' De Divina Psa 1
modia,' 105:5-1747; G. G. Nivers' 'Dissertation sur Ij
Chant Gregorien,' 1683; G. E. Scheibel's 'Geschichtl
der Kircheiiniusik,' 1738 ; Abbe J. Lebceufs 'Traits hi! J
torique et practique sur le Chant Eccl^siastique,' etij
1741; Gius. Santarelli's "Delia Musica del Santuano*
Rome, 1764; M. Gerbert's 'De Cantu et Musica Sacra*
2 vols. 1774 ; J. A. Latrobe's ' Music of the Church .

Clement's 'Histoire G(5ndrale de la Musique Religieuse;
1801-77 ; R. Schlecht's ' Geschichte der Kirch^nmusik i
1871; J. Belcher's 'Lectures on the History of Ecch ;
siastical Music,' 1872; A. Goovaerts' ' De kerkmuziek;
with French version ' La Musique de 1 'figlise,' 1876 ; "5
von Arnold's ' Die alten Kirchenmodi,' 1879 ; P6i '
Joseph Pothier's ' Los Melodies Gregoriennes,' ISi '
(German edition 1881 1 ; Rev. E. Hicks's ' Church Music
with Illustrations, 1881 ; Thierys ' Etude sur le chai i
gregorien,' 1883. '

(b) Dance Music.— John Playford's ' English Dancin -
Master,' 1650, is not a regular History. J. Weaver wro( ■
an 'Essay towards the History of Dancing,' 1713. Tr ,
best histories, however, of Dance Music are by i renc! (

. . /-.c J.1 1 .. T. ,1... noK.ioort'o ' T.o Tlnnc*'

latest works on this subject have been written by Ge
mans, F. L. Schubert and 0. Unigewitter having bee
the authors (in 1807 and 1808 respectively) of worl
bearing the title ' Die Tanzmusik.'

(c) Gipsy Music— The only work of importance on th
subject is Abbe Liszt's, alluded to above under Hungar;
a French edition was published in 1859, and a Hungaru
in 1861.


';) MiUlary Music has been treated of by very few
ihors; we need only instance J. (i. Kastner'a 'Les
mts de I'Armee fran^aise, avec un Essai historiqxie

les Chants JSIilitaires des Fran(;ais,' 1855, Albert
rill's 'Military Studies, Military Bands,' etc. 1S63.
) National Music. — 'Works on this subject have been
jitioned under the countries to which they specially
jte; other general works are:— C. Engel's 'Intro-
jtion to the Study of National Music,' 1866, and
[lerature of National Music,' 1879 ; H. F. Chorley's
j tional Music of the World,' published in 1880-2
ir the author's death.

) Nolation.—A. J. H. Vincent's 'De la Notation Mu-
le attribute a Boece,' etc. 1855 ; Hucbald's ' Enchi-
on MusicEe' (see Gerbert's ' Scriptores,' vol. i.) ; ir.
jbsthal's ' Die Menstxralnotenschrift dea XII uud
I Jahrhunderts,' 1871 ; J. Bellermann's ' Die Men-
ilnoten und Taktzeichen des XV and XVI Jahr-
derts,' 1858 ; P6re L. Dambillotte's ' L'Unit^ dans les
nts liiturgiques,' 1851 ; Abbe F. Eaillard's ' Espli-
jn des Neumes,' 18-55 (?; ; A. Baumgartner's ' (je-
chte der Musikalischen Notation.' 1856 ; Hugo
nann's ' Studien zur Geschichte der Notenschrift,'
, and 'Die Entwickelung unserer Notenschrift,'
, etc.; E. David and M. Lussy's 'Histoire de la
ition Musicale,' 1882 ; Abb6 Tardife's ♦' Plain Chant,'
■ers, 1883.

) 02>era and Musical Drama.— Among the numerous
ings on this branch ot music we select the following ':

B. Doni's 'Trattato della Musica Scenica' (see the

edition of his works) ; Claude F. Menestrier's ' Des
rtsentations en Musique anciennes et modernes,'

; J. Mattbeson's 'Die Neueste Untersuchuns der
jspiele,' 1744 ; Gabriel Gilbert's 'Histoire de I'Opera,'

parts, 175.; •■ Lyric Music revived in Europe, a
cal display of Opera in all its Bevolutions,' London,
; Ant. Planelli's 'Dell' Opera in Musica,' 1772; A.
tfarx's 'Gluck und die Oper,' 18C2; G. W. Eink's
■sen und Geschichte der Oper,' 1838 ; Geo. Hogarth's
moirs of the Musical Drama,' 2 vols. 1838, and 'Me-
•s of the Opera' (in French, German, and English),
; H. Sutherland Edwards's ' History of the Opera,'
13.1862; F. Clement and P. Darousse s 'JDictionnaire
que, ou Histoire des Operas,' 186'>-S0; E. Schure's

Drame Musical,' 2 vols. 1875; A. Eeissmann's 'Die
V 1885; H. Sutherland Edwards's 'Lyrical Drama

Essays on Modern Opera,' 1881 ; L. Nohl's ' Das
erne Musikdrama,' 1884 ; Hugo Kiemann's ' Opem-
idbuch,' 1887.

) Oratorio.— Yerj few works on the Oratorio have
;ared. The following may be recommended :—C. H.
er's ' Beitriige zur Geschichte des Oratoriums,' 1872 ;

■Wangemann's ' Geschichte des Oratoriums,' 1882.

Part Music. — P. Mortimer's ' Der Choral-Gesang
;eit der Reformation,' 1821 ; Thomas Oliphant's ' La
a Madrigalesca ' (A Short Account of Madrigals),
; E.F. Bimbault's 'BibliothecaMadrigaliana,'1847;
Jellermann's 'Ueber die Entwicklung der Mehr-
migen Musik,' 1867.

Song.—F. C. Diez's 'Leben und "Werke der Trou-
mrs,' 1820; A. B. Marx's 'Die Kunst des Gesanses,'
; K. G. Kiesewetter's ' Schicksal . . . des weltlichen
inges,' 1841 ; H. F. Mannstein's ' Geschichte ... des
mges,' 1845; K. E. Scheider's 'Das musikalische
,' 3 vols. 186.5 ; G. Fantoni's ' Storia universale del

o,' 2 vols. 1873; T. Lemaire and H. Lavoix's 'Le
It, ses Principes, et son Histoire,' 1881.

or further information see the articles on

TioxAEiES, Opeea, Oratorio, Song, Violin,

in this work, and similar articles in Mendel

Reissmann's Musical Lexicon. J. N. Forkel's

ilgemeine Literatur der Musik ' may also be

Imlted with advantage for early works on

history of music. [A.H.-H.]

OBBS, J. W. Add that ' PhilHs is my only

is by him.

OCHSCHULE (Berlin). SeeMusiK, konig-

E HOCHSCHULE FUR, vol. ii. p. 437.

ODGES, Edward, Mus. D. The following
tions are to be made to the existing article : —
he age of 15 he developed remarkable inven-
faculties, and some of his projects have since

I See also under separate countries,
)Ii. IV. PT. 6.



been adopted in different branches of mechanical
science. Connected with music were improve-
ments in organ bellows, etc., and, more important
than all, the introduction of the C compass into
England is claimed for him. His appointments
to the churches of St. James and St. Nicholas,
Bristol, took place in 1S19 and 1821 respectively.
The new organ in the former church, remodelled
under his direction* and opened 1824, contained
the first CC manual, and CCC pedal made in
England. In 1838 he was appointed organist
of the cathedral of Toronto, and in the following
year became director of the music of Trinity
Parish, New York, taking the duty at St. John's
while the new Trinity Church was being built.
Illness obliged him to give up duty in 1850, and
in 1S63 he returned to England. Besides the
contributions to mu.sical literature mentioned in
the article, he wrote many pamphlets, etc. on
musical and other subjects. He was an excellent
contrapuntist, and possessed a remarkable gift
of improvisation, and especially of extempore
fugue-playing. His church compositions are
numerous and elaborate. They comprise a
Morning and Evening Service in C, with two
anthems, a full service in F, and another in E,
Psalm cxxii, etc. (all published by Novello),
besides many MS. compositions, and occasional
anthems for various roj-al funerals, etc. [M..]
HOFMANN, Heinrich Karl Johann-, bom
Jan. 13, 1842, in Berlin, was a chorister in the
Domchor at nine years old, and at fifteen entered
Kullak's academy, studying the piano with that
master, and composition under Dehn and Wuerst.
For some years after leaving this institution he
played in public and gave lessons. His earliest
compositions were pianoforte pieces, but he first
came before the public as a composer with his
comic opera, ' Cartouche,' op. 7, produced 1869,
and performed successfully in several places. In
1873 the production of his 'Hungarian Suite,'
op. 16, for orchestra, obtained such renown that
he determined to devote himself thenceforth to
composition alone. In the next year his ' Frithiof '
symphony, op. 22, was brought out with extra-
ordinary success at one of Bilse's concerts in
Berlin, and rapidly became known all over
Germany; in 1875 his cantata, 'Die schone
]\Ielusine ' op. 30, gained a similar success, and
since then he has held a position equalled, in
respect of immediate popularity, by scarcely any
living composer. Whether his fame will ulti-
mately prove enduring, is not to be predicted ;
but it is certain that most of his productions
have in them a superficiality of style which
makes their duration exceedingly problematical.
In 18S2 he was made a member of the Berlin
Academy. Beside the works we have mentioned,
the following are the most important of his pro-
ductions : — ' Nomengesang,' for solos, female
chorus, and orchestra, op. 2 1 ; two orchestral
suites, op. 16 and 68 ; string sextet, op. 25;
violoncello concerto, op. 31 ; trio, op. 18;
quartet, for piano and strings ; and lastly, the
operas ' Armin ' (produced at Dresden 1877),
' Aennchen von Tharau,' ' Wilhelm von Oranien '




(3 nets, op. 56), the words of the two first by
i''elix Dahn, and 'Donna Diana' (op. 75, Ber-
lin, Nov. 13, 1 886). Among his most recent
compositions are a Liederspiel (op. 84) for solo
quartet with PF. accompaniment, entitled ' Lenz
und Liebe,' a set of songs for baritone and
orchestra, ' Die Lieder des Troubadours Kaoul '
(op. 89), and 'Harald's Brautfahrt ' for baritone
solo, male chorus, and orchestra (op. 90). An
orchestral suite, ' Im Sclilosshof,' was lately
given at Breslau. Many concerted vocal works,
songs, duets, and pianoforte pieces have also
been published. [M.]

HOGARTH, Geokge, writer on musical and
other subjects, was born in 1783. He studied
law i% Edinburgh, associating witii the literary
characters of the day and taking part in tlie
musical life of the city as joint secretary to the
Edinburgh Musical Festival of 1815, etc. He
came to London in 1S30, when he contributed
articles to the ' Harmonicon,' and was engaged
on the staff of the ' Morning Chronicle.' On the
establishment in 1S46 of the 'Daily News,' under
the editorship of his son-in-law, Charles Dickens,
Hogarth was at once appointed musical critic,
an office which he held until his failing health
obliged him to resign in 1866. Besides filling a
similar post for the ' Illustrated London News,'
editing for their short period of existence ' The
Evening Chronicle ' and ' The Musical Herald,'
assisting Dickens in the compilation of ' The
Household Narrative,' and contributing articles,
to several periodicals, Hogarth found time to
write some volumes on musical subjects, in which
his judgment on contemporary art-life appears to
have been sound and his mind open to the new
influences at work ; for his artistic instinct was
sure even where his knowledge was limited.
These works are 'Musical History,' etc., 1835 j
'Memoirs of the Musical Drama,' 1838 ; a .re-
vised edition of the same, called ' Memoirs of the
Opera,' 1851 ; ' The Birmingham Festival,' 1855 ;
and ' The Philharmonic Society, from its founda-
tion in 1 81 3 to its 50th year in 1862,' a history he
w-as well qualified to undertake, owing to his con-
nection with the Society as secretary from i8,tO to
I S64. His musical compositions comprise ballads,
glees, and editions of standard English songs.

Hogarth died on Feb. 12, 1870, in his 87th
year. [L.M.M.]

HOLDEN, John, published an 'Essay
towards a Rational System of Music,' Glasgow,
1770 ; other editions appeared in Calcutta, 1799,
and Edinburgh 1 S07. He published a 'Collection
of Church Music, consisting of New Setts of the
Common Psalm Tunes, with some other Pieces ;
adapted to the several Metres in the Version
autliorised by the general assembly .... princi-
pally designed for the use of the University of
Glasgow,' 1766. By Fe'tis he is stated to be a
Professor in Glasgow University. This is an
error, arising not unnaturally from the ponder-
ous title quoted above. [W.He.]

HOLMES, Alfred. P. 744 a, for 1. 4 read
His last works were two Overtures, of which ' The


Cid ' was played at the Crystal Palace, Feb. 2
1S74, and ' The Muses' in London later.

HOLMES, Adgusta Mart Anne, bora]
Paris Dec. 16, 1847, of Irish parents, and natuM
ized in France in 1879, is, in fact, a composafi
French music, for, being a member of the t
vanced school of Franck, she only writes mn
to French words. Her parents were strongly ■
posed to her musical propensities, and she be^'
her career as a prodigy, playing the piano
concerts and in drawing-rooms, and singing ai
of her own composition signed with the no
de plume of Hermann Zenta. She studied hs
mony and counterpoint with H. Lambert, organi
of the cathedral at Versailles, where she w
tlien living, and received excellent advice as
in^trumentation from Klose, bandmaster of tl;
Artillerie de la Garde Imperiale, and profess i
of the clarinet in the Conservatoire. In realit
however. Mile. Holmes, whose character was
of great independence, worked alone both at h ,
musical and literary studies, for since her dA;
she has always written her own librettos ; b
in 1875 she became awai-e of the necessity i,
more serious studies under a master, and enroll s
herself as a pupil of Ce'sar Franck. With t !
exception of an opera, 'Hero et L^andre.'su'
mitted to the directors of the Opera Populah
and of the Psalm ' In exitu,' performed by t'
Soci^te Philharmonique in iSj2,i her compo
tions nearly all date from this time. After i\
years of serious study under Franck's directic
she produced at the Concerts du Chatelet (Ja
14, 1877) ^^ Andante Pastorale from a syi
phony on the subject of Orlando Furioso, and
the following year she gained a second pla
after Dubois and Godard (bracketed together,)
the musical competition instituted by the city
Paris. Her prize composition, a S3'mpliony entitl
' Lutfece,' was afterwards played at the concerts
Angers (Nov. 30, 1884). In 1880 Mile. Holiv;
again entered the second competition opened
the city of Paris, and though she only gain
an honourable mention she was fortunate enou
to attract the attention of Pasdeloup, who p<
formed the entire score of her work, ' 1
Argonautes,' at the Concerts Populaires (A[i
24, i88,[), and this unexpected test proved to
entirely to her credit, and to the discomfiture
Duvernoy, whose 'Tempete' had been preferr
to Mile. Holmes's work by eleven judges agaii
nine. On March 2, 1SS2, Mile. Holmes produc
at the Concerts Populaires a Poeme Symphoniq
entitled 'Irlande'; another symphony, 'Polugc
after its production at Angers, was played at t
same concerts on Dec. 9, 1883 ; and a sympho; |
ode for chorus and orchestra with recitative, f i
titled 'Ludus pro patria,' was given on March |
1888, at the Concerts of the Conservatoire. T 1
above, with a collection of songs called 'Les Sc 1
Ivresses,'are the works by which Mile. Holme ■
vigorous and far from effeminate talent may i
judged. We see the influence of Wagner, t 4
only in the general conception ; we do not lie 4
upon whole bars and passages copied litera .'■
from him, such as are found in the case of soi


mposers. Certain portions of iMlle. Holmes's
)rk, as the opening of 'Irlande,' her most com-
ete work, and the third part of 'Les Argonautes,'
'though they contain serious faults in prosody
Ld in the union between the words and the
usic, are nevertheless creations of great worth,
incing by turns a charming tenderness, ardent
ssion, and masculine spirit. It is true that the
'thor does not always measure her effects ; she
ires rather too much prominence to the brass
(5truments, and in seeking for originality and
landeur she is sometimes affected and pompous ;

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