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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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ft this exuberance is at least a sign of an ar-
tic temperament, and of a composer who has
nething to say and tries to give it a fitting
pression. This virtue is rare enough amongst
;n, but is exceptional in women, and is there-
■6 worthy of the highest praise. [A. J.]

HOLMES, HE>rKT. P. 744 a, add that for
ne years he has given an interesting series of
amber concerts, under the title of ' Musical
•enings,' and that he has held the post of
Dfessor of the violin at the Eoyal College of
asic since its foundation. A symphony, entitled
'oscastle,' was given at one of the London
mphony Concerts in the spring of 18S7.
HOLMES, W. H. Add date of death, April
, 1885.

HOLSTEIN, EnAXZ vox, the son of an officer
high position, bom at Brunswick Feb. 16,
26. He was himself obliged to adopt the
litary profession, but eagerly embraced every
Iportunity of improving his musical knowledge.
3 studied with such success under Griepenkerl
at in 1845, while he was working for an ex-
lination, he found time to finish an opera in
o acts, ' Zwei Nachte in Venedig,' which was
ivately performed. He went through the
hleswig-Holstein campaign, and on his return
Brunswick set to work upon an opera on the
bject of ' Waverley.' This more ambitious
>rk in five acts was finished in 1852, and was
ewn to Hauptmann, who was so pleased with
that he persuaded Holstein to leave the army
d devote himself to art. rromi853 to 1856
erefore, with a considerable interval occasioned
ill-health, he studied at Leipzig, and pioduced
?eral very promising works, among them a
acert overture, ' Loreley.' He went to Rome
the winter of 1S56-7, and continued his stu-
;s there, and subsequently at Berlin and Paris.
1869 a new opera, ' Die Haideschacht,' was
Dduced with success at Dresden, and was heard
all the principal stages of Germany. A comic
era, ' Die Erbe von Morley,' was produced in
72 at Leipzig, and in 1876 yet another, ' Die
jchlander,' was given at Mannheim. In the
|ht of May 21-22, 1878, the composer died at
tipzig. Besides the dramatic works we have
?ntioned, the following are important : a post-
mous overture, ' Frau Aventiure,' a solo from
hiller'a * Braut von Messina,' ' Beatrice,' a
;na for soprano with orchej;tra, and many
ags and instrumental compositions. [M!.]

HOLYOKE, Samuel. See vol. i. p. 753.



HOME, SWEET HOME. Add that the
fact of its introduction into ' Anna Bolena ' has
given rise to an idea, among certain continental
authorities, tbat Donizetti wrote it; but that
opera was not written till 1S31, while ' Clari '
was produced in 1823. Mr. Charles Mackay
stated in the 'Daily Telegraph' of March 19,
1887, ^^^^ Bishop, in an action for piracy and
breach of copyright, made oath to the fact of his
having composed the tune. The words are by
Howard Payne.

HOMILIUS, G. A. Line 26 of article, /or
homophone read homophonic.

HOMOPHONE. For this word read HoMO-
PHONT. The reference in the last line of article
should be Poltphonia.

HOPKINS, J. L. H. Page 747 a, 1. 4, for
in 1820 read iSTov. 25, 1819.

HOPKINSON. Line 7 of article, for 1842
read 1835. Line 10, add that in 1882 the busi-
ness was removed to 95 New Bond Street. At
end, add that Messrs. John and James Hopkin-
son, sons of the member of the firm last men-
tioned, are the present heads of the house.

HORN. Page 749 a, 1. 4, for raised read
lowered. Page 750 b, third paragraph, omit
the sentence beginning This solo, though pre-
served, etc.

HORNPIPE. The last four quavers in the
last bar of the second line of the first musical
illustration should be C, B, A, G, i. e. a third
higher than the notes given. On Miss Catley's
hornpipe see vol. i. p. 3266, 7636, and vol. ii.
161 6.

HORSLEY, Chaeles Edwakd. Page 754 a.
Add day of birth, Dec. 16 (1822 is the correct
date), and in line 3 from end of article, for
March 2 read Feb. 28.

HOSANNA. Page 754^, line 2, for [Osanna]
read [Mass].

HOTHBY, John (see p. 754). It should be
mentioned that the treatise beginning ' Quid
Proportio,' of which there are copies at the
British Museum and Lambeth Palace, is not
identical with the ' Regulae super proportionem '
of the Paris, Venice, and Bologna libraries. In
the national library at Florence is a MS. con-
taining several works by Hothby; namely,
(i) Ars musica ; (2) a dialogue on the same
subject, in which the author quotes, among
others, Dunstable, Dufaj-, and even Okeghem ;
(3) a letter in Italian, refuting the censures of
Osmense, a Spaniard ; (4) ' Calliopea legale,' a
musical treatise, of which there is another copy
at Venice. This last work is interesting as
cdving an account of the transition from neumes
to square notes. Another important MS. of
Hothby's was formerly' at Fe.rarn, but has been
lost: besides a 'Kyrie,' a ' Magnificat,' and other
musical compositions, it contained the following
short treatises, of which there are copies in the
Liceo Commimale at Bologna: — (i) the above-
mentioned ' Regula3 super proportionem'; (2)
, ' De Cantu figurato ' ; (3) ' ReguliE super Contra-




punctum ' ; (4) ' Manus per genus diatonicum
declarata ' ; (5) ' Eegulse de Monochordo ma-
nuali.' Among other minor works are a 'Trac-
tatus quarundum regularum artis rausices' at
Florence, and a second treatise on Counterpoint,
beginning ' Consonantia interpretatur sonus cum
alio sonans,' in the Paris MS. Little is known
of the life of John Hothby, Ottobi or Octobi,
as he is still called in Italy. The Paris MS.
styles him a Doctor of Music ; but whether he
took his degree at an English or foreign Univer-
sity does not appear. After leaving the monas-
tery at Ferrara he is supposed to have taken up
his residence at Florence, where he was held in
great honour in 1471. The British Museum
MS. of 'Quid est proportio' is dated 1500, and
it is probable that Hothby died soon after this at
an advanced age. [A.H.-H.]

HOWELL. Add dates of death of James,
Aug. 5, 1879, ^^^ of Arthur, April 16, 18S5.

HUBER, Hans, bom June 28, 1852, at
Schijnewerd in Switzerland, studied from 1870
to 1S74 at the Leipzig Conservatorium, and
subsequently, after two years' experience as a
teacher in Alsace, took up his residence at Basle.
His compositions, most of which are for the
piano, either in combination with other instru-
ments or alone, show the strong influence of
Brahms, but not to the exclusion of the more
romantic style of Liszt. A fairy opera ' Flores-
tan,' concertos for piano and for violin, a trio, a
pastoral sonata for piano and violoncello, ' Car-
neval,' 'Landliche S3'mphonie,' and 'Eomischer
Carneval,' for orchestra, as well as piano pieces
and songs, may be mentioned. [M.]

HUBERT. After Poepokino add in Ap-

de S. Amand; Hugbald de S. Amand). Our
knowledge of the condition of Music during
the early Middle Ages is derived chiefly from
the information furnished by three learned
writers, of whom the earliest was a Monk,
named Hucbald, of S. Amand sur I'Elnon, in
Flanders, who is frequently mentioned under
the title of Monachus Elnonensis. He was born
about the year 840, and flourished, therefore, a full
century before Guido d'Arezzo, and a century
and a half before Magister Franco — the only two
writers whose musical treatises po.^sess an in-
terest conipnrable with his own. Of the details of
his life we know but very little more than that he
was a disciple of S. Remi of Auxerre, and the
intimate friend of S. Odo of Cluny ; that he was
a Poet, as well as a Musician ; ^ and, that he died,
at a very advanced age, in the year 930. But
of his life-work we know all that need be desired.

Of Hucbald's ' Enchiridion ' or tract, ' De
Harmonica Institutione' — the only work by
him that has been preserved to us — the two
most perfect copies known are those in the Paris
Library, and in that of S. Benet's (now Corpus
Christi) College, Cambridge. The title of the

1 He dedicated to the Emperor, Charles the Bald, a poem in praise
of baldness, beginning 'Carmina Clarisonae. Calvis. Cautate Ca-
moen»' ; in which every word began with the letter C.


Paris MS. is ' Enchiridion Musicse.' - The Can
bridge MS. forms part of a volume ^ entitle
' LIusica Hogeri, sive Excerptiones Hogeri Al
batis ex Autoribus ]Musicje Artis,' and contaii
ing, besides the 'Enchiridion' of Hucbald,
less perfect copy of another ' Enchiridion ' t
his friend, S. Odo of Cluny, which, thoug
written in Dialogue, resembles it, in many ri
spects, so closely, that copies of the one Ml
have sometimes been mistaken for the other.*
In this tract, Hucbald describes, under tl
name of Symphonia, the primitive form of Par
writing called, by Guido d'Arezzo, Diaphoni
or Organum, and, by Magister Franco, Discan
Of this Symphonia he mentions three kind
which he calls Diatessaron Symphonia, Diapen
Symphonia, and Diapason S3-mphonia ; in otb
words. Harmony in the Fourth, the Fifth, ar
the Octave. Examples of these rude attemp
at Harmony have already been given, in vol. :
p. 469, and vol. iii. p. 427 b. But, in additic
to the rules for the construction of these, he tel
us, in his Eighteenth Chapter, that so long t
one voice continues to sing the same note, tl
others may proceed at will ; of which methc
he gives the following example : —

These examples are written in a peculiar fon
of Notation, invented by himself, which hi
already been described, and illustrated by h:
own examples, in the articles above referred fa
He did not, however, confine himself entirely 1
this ingenious device, but supplemented it b
the invention of fifteen arbitrary signs, for repn
senting the notes of the Gamut, from r, to at
together with four more signs, of like characte:
for the four Authentic Modes —

/? Primus qui et gravissimus Grace Prott
dicitur rel Archos.

/? Secundiis Deuteros fono distans a Proto.

^ Tertins Tritos semito7io distans a Beutefi

jtr Quartus Tetardos tono distans a Trito.

The number of examples given in iUustratio
of these principles, and others deduced froi
them, is very great; and the tract concludj
with an account of the descent of Orpheus int
Hades, in search of Eurydice. [W.S.R.

HUEFFER, Fbancis, Ph.D., author an
musical critic, was born in 1845. - ^fter studyin
modern philology and music in London, Parii
Berlin, and Leipzig, he fixed his residence i
London and de%'oted himself to literary wori
His first articles appeared in the late ' Nort
British Review,' in the 'Fortnightly Review
(when under Mr. John Morley's editorship), an

2 No. 7202. 3 No. cell.

i Hucbald and S.Odo were both disciples of S. Keml of Auxetl
S. Odo was bam a. d. CT8, and died in 912.


! the 'Academy/ of which he became a^ssistant
ilitor. At a time when England hesitated to
-knowledge the genius of Wagner, Mr. HuefFer
.-ought home to amateurs the meaning of the
iodem developments of dramatic and lyrical
Imposition by the publication, in 1874, of his
(ilichard Wagner and the Music of the Future.'
r. Hueffer was in 1878 appointed musical
jitic of 'The Times,' and consistently followed
) his advocacy of the modern in art by sup-
•rting the claims of living English musicians,
e has also written librettos for several of our
;ing composers. Thus ' Colomba ' and ' The
•oubadour,' were written for Mr. Mackenzie,
j.d 'The Sleeping Beauty ' for Mr. Cowen. He
s lately undertaken the English version of
)ito's 'Otello,' where his task has been to
mslate the adaptation of Shakespeare's play

made by the young Italian poet and com-
8er for Verdi's opeia.

As early as 1869 Mr. Hueffer had published
critical edition of the works of Guillem de
.bestanh, which gained him the degree of
1. D. from the University of Gottingen, and
1 to his election to the ' Felibrige ' or Society
modern Troubadours, of which Mistral (the
thor of ' Mireijo '), Theodore Aubanel, and
ler distinguished poets are the leading spirits.
he Troubadours,' a history of Proven9al life
d literature of the middle ages, appeared in
78 ; and a series of lectures on the same sub-
:t was delivered at the Eoyal Institution in
So. A collection of ' Musical Studies ' from
3 'Times,' etc., was published in 1880, and
>n appeared in various translations ; 'The Life

Wagner,' the first of the ' Great Musicians '
•ies, in 18S1 ; 'Italian and other Studies,' in
33. The ' Correspondence of Wagner and
3Zt,' a translation, followed soon after the
jblication of the ' Briefwechsel,' by Breitkopf
Hartel in 1888. No more than a brief refer-
ee can be made to Mr. Hueffer's occasional
itributions to the Quarterly and other reviews,
i to some songs composed by him from time
time. [L.M.M.]

aUNTEX, Fkaxz. Line 3 from end of arti-
, for date of death read Feb. 22.

HUTTENBRENNER, Heinrich. P. 755 i,
I that he wrote the words for at least two
Schubert's pieces — ' Der Jiingling auf dem
igel,' op. 8, and the part-song ' Wehmuth '
•. 80, no. i).

3ULLAH, John. Line 6 of article,/o)- 1832
^ 1833. P. 756 a, 1. 10, for 1840 read 1839 !
o, far Feb. 20 read Feb. 10. Add date of
.th, Feb. 21, 1884.

lUMPREY, Pelham. P. 757 a, line 3
<n bottom, for produced read printed. (It
I been performed in 1667.)
lUMOROUS MUSIC. The element of
nour in music is far from common, and
ugh easy to recognize when encountered, is
<aer diflacult to define. Nor is this difficulty
^;ened by calling to mind a number of ex-
llples and endeavouring to generalize there-



from. Such a course shows us only that our
title is either too comprehensive or too limited
for the name of one particular kind of music,
embracing on the one hand all scherzos, all
comic-opera and dance-music, and on the other
hand including only serious music in which a
sudden and momentary change of mood appears.
It is evident, however, that the title is in-
applicable to merely light, gay or frolicsome
music. On the other hand, to pronounce Bee-
thoven the sole exponent of musical humour is
to do away with the necessity for making a
' class,' How then shall we limit our definition ?
Will it be of any use to remember that there are
various kinds of humour, such as high and low,
comedy and farce? We fear not. Schumann
indeed, writing on this subject, says : ^ — ' The
less educated minds are usually disposed to
perceive in music without words only the feel-
ings of sorrow or joy, but are not capable of
discerning the subtler shades of these sentiments,
such as anger or remorse on the one hand and
kindliness or contentment on the other ; a fact
which renders it difficult for them to compre-
hend such masters as Beethoven and Franz
Schubert, every condition of whose minds is to
be found in their music. I fancy that I can
perceive behind some of the Moments musicals
of Schubert certain tailors' bills which he was
not able to pay, such a PJiilistine annoyance do
they express.' The poetic temperament may be
permitted to indulge itself in fantasies like
these, for which there may or may not be any
actual foundation, but Schumann's words must
not be taken literally. Tlie scientific musician
in his calmer moments is forced to admit that
the expression in music of any emotion or senti-
ment whatever — beyond the elementary sensa-
tions of gloom and gaiety — is purely a matter
of convention, depending for its effect upon the
auditor's previous musical experiences. A China-
man would not be thrilled by the strains of the
JNIarseillaise, and a European finds nothing
pleasing in the Javanese Gamelan. The National
Anthem of one country is seldom rated highly
by a foreigner, but let an Englishman hear
' Home, sweet home ! ' a Scotchman hear the
skirl of his native instrument, or a Swiss be
reminded of the Itanz des Vaches, and each will
be moved to the very soul. Gaiety and gloom in
music are discernible by all human beings alike ;
for this reason — joy is usually accompanied by
an inclination to dance ; therefore, by a natural
association of ideas, music which has short brisk
dance-rhythms excites lively emotions, while slow
long drawn sounds connect themselves with tran-
quillity, repose and gTavity of spirit. The Intro-
duction and Vivace of Beethoven's A major
Symphony afford an excellent illustration of our
meaning ; the broad slow phrases of the opening
would impress the veriest savage, while the
frisky rhythm of the main movement must
gladden every heart that hears it.

We have, however, wandered from our point,
which is not what kinds of humour can be

1 Schumann, Ges. Schrift. b. 1 : Das Komiache in der Mtmh.



expressed in music, but, admitting that humor-
ous music does exist, in what does its humour
consist ? The answer is, that in music, as in
literature, humour is chiefly to be sought in (i)
sudden and unexpected contrasts of thought or
language, (2) grotesque exaggeration, and (3)
burlesque. To all three of these forms of
humour Beethoven was equally addicted, and
added besides a farcical fun all his own, some-
times exhibited in allotting a passage to an
instrument unsuited to it, and upon which it
sounds absurd. The bassoon is the usual victim
on such occasions. To class i belong such
passages as the middle of the 1st movement of
the Symphony no. 8 —

the imitations of birds in the slow movement of
the ' Pastoral,' and the tipsy bassoon in the
scherzo of the same, the wrong entry of the hora
in the Eroica and its indignant suppression by
tlie rest of the oix-hestra [quoted in vol. i. p. 73],
which may be compared with the somewhat simi-
lar joke at the opening of the Choral Symphony
scherzo, the charming effect of the long pedal
bass on the di-ums in the last movemei.i} of the
E b Piano Concerto, and many other jJassages too
numerous to mention. Under class 2 are to be
ranked those especially ' Beethovenish' passages
in which a jihrase is insisted upon and repeated
with a daring boldness, yet perfect artistic
propriety, entirely beyond the conception of le<s
gifted musicians, and indeed only imitated by
one othei' — Anton Dvorak. Two conspicuous ex-
amples may be given from Beethoven's Piano-
forte Sonatas ; one in the last movement of the
G major, op. 31. Here in the coda the simple
first plirase of the principal subject is tossed
about, fast, slow, in the treble, in the bass, until
it finally dies of exhaustion. The passage is
too long to quote, as is the
equally delightful instance in the
E minor Sonata op. 90 ( 1st move-
ment), at the return to the ist
subject, where a mere transient
.semiquaver passage (a) meta-
morphoses itself into the actual subject : —


Tliis whimsical exaggeration of a trifling phrase
into momentary importance is a favourite device
of Beethoven's. The instance in the slow move-
of the C minor Symphony is familiar to every

The long dominant passages with which he
returns to the subject in the 4th Symphony (ist
movement), in the ' Waldstein ' Sonata (ist
movement), in the 7th Symphony (last move-


ment), and many others, are all imbued with t
same kind of humour. In his most serio
moods, as in the passage from the C minor la
quoted, and again at the end of the same mo\
ment, he does not fear, as a less consunima
artist might, to weaken the impression of 1
most earnest and poetic thoughts by this momei
ary intrusion of the grotesque ; he is cousciu
of holding the reins of our emotions so firm
that he can compel our smiles or tears at a:

The third kind of humour in which BeetL v.
indulges is the burlesque vein so conspicuous
the finales of Symphonies No. 7 and 8 and \]
concluding pages of the C minor. It is a suit
scoff at musical commonplaces, and coiisi-
indeed, like the previous class, in comical cxa
geration, but so evidently intended as a satir;- ■
the inferior composers of the day as to j asti
us in classing it apart. To this class btlu.
also such eminently droll passages as the hun
scurry of the double-basses in the Trio of t
C minor, and in the finale of No. 4, the s'.iu;
ing low notes for horn in the Trio of N".
etc. But after all, Beethoven's infinite variety
moods cannot be summed up so shortly as th:
the quaint suggestion of •tuning-up' iu :
following passage (A major Symphony, ist muv
ment) —





the comical introduction to the finale of No. i-



so suggestive of an animal let out of a cag
trying first cautiously one step, then anothe:
then bolting off at full speed — these and
hundred other examples partake of the charai
teristics of more than one of our suggeste
' classes ' and must be left to speak for then

Turning away from Beethoven we must n
mark, as we have done under Scherzo, ths
humour in music is rarely to be found elsewher*
Gaiety, liveliness, we find abundantly in Hayd
and Mozart, piquant gracefulness in Schuberi
Mendelssohn and composers of the French schoo
a certain grotesqueness occasionally in Schumani
Dvorak and Rubinstein ; but in vain do we see
for those sudden contrasts of mood and matte
wliich are the essence of humour. Not to be to
sweeping, let us admit that tiie Clowns' Marcl
and still more Pyramus's dead march in Men
delssohn's ' Midsunmier Night's Dream ' musi


i e higlily comic, that Schumann, in the 'Fas-
i - ing^schwank aus Wien ' hit upon a decidedly
i< ■oiorous idea when he made the rhj'thm of the

i'st movement suggest, first his favourite ' Gross-
; tertanz' and then the prohibited ' Marseillaise ' ;
,; us also admit that Gounod's Funeral March
a Marionette is comical music, even apart
)m- its ' programme,' still our collection of
morous specimens is not a large one. We
ast fall back upon that extensive class of music
which the humour is suggested — if not entirely
ilssessed — by the words or ideas allied thereto,
any early examples of this kind will be found
the article on Peogeamme Music. Such
, rases as
i . .




'-» it » « -« «

i not appear particularly droll by themselves,
t when we know that they are intended to
ipresent the mewing of a cat and the clucking

a heu we smile — perhaps. The humour of
mic opera consists either in the rapid articula-
»n of syllables on successive notes — known as
tatter ' — or in the deliberate setting of nonsense

serious music. The so-called comic cantatas

Bach might be sung to serious words without
[J incongruity being apparent, although his
■apriccio on the departure of a brother,' with its
cture of the lamentation of the friends who
11 the traveller of the dangers of his way, is
leof the best musical jokes, ancient or modern.
ozart afibrds us in his operas many specimens

music which is at least thoroughly in keeping
ith the humour of the words, if nut inherently
imorous. Decidedly bis best efforts of this
nd are to be found in ' Die Zauberfiote.' In
e operas-bouiFes of Offenbach a decided feel-
g for musical humour was sometimes exhi-
ted ; for instance when Barbe Bleue relates
iB death of his wife to a pathetic-sounding air
hich, as he quickly recovers from his grief, he
ttgs faster and faster till it becomes a merry
aadrille-tune. The snoring chorus in Orjjhee,
le tootliache song in 'La Princesse de Tre-
zonde,' and many others, are singularly char-
:teristic. Of the same class of humour as
lis might be mentioned an idea in Suietana's
ght opera ' The Two Widows,' which consists in
aking one of the characters stammer all the
me he sings. This is funny enough, but uiifor-
mately, in real life, the most inveterate stan;-
erer loses his affliction the moment he sings. lu
leconiicoperasofSir Arthur Sullivan, delightful

they are, the humour is quite inseparable from
le words. Change these and all is lost. Almost
le only instance of musical humour in opera.
here the humour emanates from the music in-
spendently of the words, are to be found, where
ley would scarcely be looked for, in two of the
,ter works of Wagner. In ' Siegfried ' the whole
f Mime's music is eminently characteristic, but
I Act II, Sc. 3, when the dwarf comes
heedlingly to Siegfried he has the following
spressive subject in the orchestra :

1 r r etc.

His murderous intentions having been revealed
by the forest-bird, the theme appropriated to the
latter is woven into Mime's music as if in
mockery :

Again, a little later, when Siegfiied deals the
dwarf his merited fate, the brother Alberich,
watching from a cleft in the rock, utters a peal
of laughter to the ' smith-motive '


Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 161 of 194)