George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 163 of 194)
Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 163 of 194)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

best work, given at tlie Conservatoire, 1844;
' Les Nonnes de Eobert-le-Diable,' 1S45, and a
number of vocal and instrumental compositions
large and small, including his ' Livres-Partitions,'
half music, half treatises. Besides the numerous
works enumerated below, Kastner was a volu-
minous contributor to the ' Gazette Musicale,'
the ' Menestrel,' and the ' Eevue ^trangfere,' as
well as to the German periodicals, ' Iris,' ' AUg.
musikalische Zeitung,' ' Xeue Zeitschrift,' ' Ce-
cilia,' and many others. Every spare moment
was directed to the preparation of a vast ' En-
cyclopcedia of Music,' which remained unfinished
at his death. Such learned industry obtained its
deserved reward, Kastner was made an Associate
of the French Academy, and was also decorated
by a very large number of institutions outside of

For the details of his honourable and useful
life we must refer to the exhaustive biography
by Hermann Ludwig, Breitkopf & Hiirtel, 3 vols.
1S86, with complete Lists, Indexes, etc., a monu-
ment raised to Kastner's memory by the devotion
of his widow. His library has been acquired by
his native city.

List of Kastner s Works.

Stbassbubo, 1826— 1835. 5 Operas; 3 Symphonies; 5 Overtures;
TF. Concerto ; Marches ; Choruses ; Waltzes ; 10 Serenades for Wind

Paeis. Operas :—■ Beatrice ' (1839); 'La Maschera' (1841); 'Le
dernier Boi deJuda'(1844) ; 'LesXonnes de Roben-le-Diable'(1846).
Hymns, Cantatas :— ' La insurrection ' (1S3.5) ; ' Sardanapale ' (1852) ;
Oantate Alsacienne (1858). Scenes for Voices and PF.. Songs, etc. :—
' Les demiers moments d'un Artiste,' ' Le veteran,' ' Le nfegre.' * Glen-
allau,' 'Judas Iscariote." etc., 41 in all. Part-songs, chiefly for
men's voices :—' Biblioth^que chorale.' 72 nos. ; 'Heures d'amour."
C nos. ; 'Les chants de l'arm>-e Frangais," 23 nos. ; ' Les chants de la
vie,' 28 nos. ; ' Les orpheous,' etc., etc., 26 more in all. Piano :—
• Valses et Galops de Strasbourg,' 3 sets ; Waltzes. Polkas, Marches,
etc., 21 more in all. Orchestra:— 2 'Ouvertures de Festival," in Eb,
and C ; ■ Drame-symphonie ' ; 2 pieces for Saxophone and PF.

Treatises:—!. "Traite gen. d'Instrumentation ' (1836). 2, '0
d'instr. consid^r^ sous les rapports po^tiques,' etc. (183!!). 3. "Gl
maire musicale' (1837). 4. 'Thciorie abrSgfe du contrepoint e
fugue' (1839). 5. "M^thode ^l^mentaire d harmonic.' 6. 80]
ments to nos. 1 and 2. The above were approved by the Init
and nos. 1. 2, and 6 adopted by the Conservatoire, 7, 'ViXb
Element, de chant, piano, violon, flQte, flageolet, comet i p,'0
8. ' De la composition,' etc., MS. (1841). 9. 'Cours d'harm
moderne.' MS. (1S42). 10. 'M^thodes el^m. deviolonceUe. hMK
clarinette, cor, ophicleide. trombone ' (1844). 11. 'M^thode..
Saxophone ' (184S). 12. 'M(5thode . . . de timbales ' (1845). 13. 'Ml
. . . de musique militaire ' (1847). 14. ' Traits de I'orthogrt
musicale,; MS. (1S49). 15. 'Les danses des morts' (1852). IS.
harpe d'Eole et la musique cosmique' (1855). 17. 'Les Chanl
r.\rmee, Fransaise, avec un Essai historique sur le Chants milM
des Franeais ' (1855). IS. 'Les voix de Paris' (1837). 19.'Lessiii,
20. Paremiologie mus. de la langue francaise (1866). Xos. 15, It
19, and 20 contain large compositions orchestral and vocaL

Kastner's son Geok(j Feiedkich Eugen, b<
at Strassburg Aug. lo, 1852, devoted himseU
phj'sical science, especially to the law of vib:
tions. He was the inventor of the ' Pyrophor
an instrument for the employment of 'sin^
flames.' He brought the subject before 1
Academic des Sciences, March 17, 1873; a
issued a book, ' Le Pyrophone. Flammes chai
antes,' which reached its 4th edition in 18'
(See also 'Journal of Society of Arts,' Feb. ;
1S75.) Shortly after this he was seized w
serious illness, and expired April 6, 18S2. I
memoir occupies the concluding chapters of
father's life by H. Ludwig (B. & H. 1886.) [(

KEAENS, William Hexet. A promint
figure in London musical life in the middle p:
of the century. He was born at Dublin in I7(
and came to London in 181 7, where he plaj
the violin at Covent Garden Theatre. He 80
however became the musical adviser to Am<
and Hawes, and 'Der Freischiitz,' 'A^or a
Zemira,' ' Eobert the DevU,' and many otl:
foreign operas were brought out under his din
tinn at Covent Garden. Mr. Kearns -wrote t
additional wind accompaniments to the ' Mi
siah ' and ' Israel in Egypt,' for the Festival
Westminster Abbey in 1834, ^^ "'^1^ ^ ^
Handel's choruses at provincial festivals.
1845 he assisted Gauntlett in editing the 'Coi
prehensive Tune-book.' He died in Prino
Place, Kennington, Dec. 28, 1846. [C

KEELEY, Mes. (Maet Anjte Gowaed), w
born at Ipswich Nov. 22, 1805. Being endoW'
with a pure soprano voice of remarkable coi
pas.-J, she was apprenticed for seven )'ears to t
well-known teacher of music, Mrs. Smart
sister-in-law of Sir George Smart), under who
she made her first appearance on the stage
Dublin in 1S24. On July 2, 1825, she appeart
in London at the Lyceum, then under the m
nagement of Sir. ArnoW. The performan
consisted of ' The Beggar's Opera ' (with Thorn
Miss Stephens, and Miss Kelly), Shield's ' R
sina,' and 'The Spoiled Child,' in which lasttv
pieces Miss Goward played. The event is thi
chronicled in the ' Times ' (July 4) : — ' Mi
Goward, the debutante, appeared as Eosina
the opera of that title. She is young, of a slei




figure, and with intelligent features. Her

;e is prett}', and after she had overcome the

it embarrassments of her entrance, she went

tough the part very successfully. She sang

* 5ongs in a simple manner, which deserved the

use she received. It is dangerous to pro-

at first appearances, but we may, never-

-s, venture to say that this young lady

ises to make a very fine actress. . . . Miss

( vard played Little Pickle in the " Spoiled

( id " very well indeed.* In the same season

iing Annetta in 'Der Ereischiitz' withBra-

jud Miss Paton. In 1826, on the produc-

f Weber's ' Oberon' at Covent Garden, she

.took the small but important part of the

iaid, the music of which had been pre-

>.- tried by Miss Love and Miss Hammers-

th of whom declined to sing it owing to

ifficulty of hearing the delicate orchestral

; ipaniments at the back of the vast stage

:- : the Mermaid has to appear. Miss Goward,

ver, overcame this obstacle, as ilr. Planche

-^ ''Recollections and Eeflections,' vol. i.) ;

e -xas even then artist enough to be entrusted

I h anything,' and her singing of the Mermaid's

I sic earned for her the personal thanks of the

( iposer. For the next few years Miss Goward

' tinued to sing in English opera, but after her

-iage with the well-known comedian, Mr.

-.ey (which took place on June 26, 1829),

: ; devoted her talents entirely to comedy, in

' icli she is one of the greatest artists of the

- glish stage. In the present work it would be

' ; of place to trace her dramatic career : it

~* suflSce to state that since breaking a small

1-vessel, from the effects of which she suf-

for two or three j'ears, she has not taken

n^'agement at any theatre. Mrs. Keeley

i ever formally left the stage, but still takes

a: interest in theatrical afiairs, and is justly

ed and respected as the doyenne oi the pro-

sion. [W.B.S.]

KEISER, Eeinhaed. Add day of death,

ot. 12.

KELER BELA. Add date of death, Nov.
, 1S82.
KEMBLE, Adelaide. Add date of death,

'?• 4> 1879-

KENNEDY. See London Violin-makers,

1. ii. p. 165 a.

KENNEDY, David, Scottish vocalist, born

Perth, April 15, 1825 ; died Oct. 13, 1SS6. He

■eived his first lessons in music from bis father,

enthusiastic musician, and at the age of
;hteen assisted him as precentor of the North
aited Secession Church, Perth. At the age

twenty he succeeded his imcle as precentor
South Street Church in the same city. At an
rly age he was apprenticed to a house painter
Perth. During this time, while working at a
use ten or twelve miles distant, he resolved
hear Templeton, who was singing at the Perth
leatre. He started after leaving off work, run-
ng all the way, and clearing the distance in two
'urs. Having no money to pay for admission,

he stood throughout the whole performance, in
the pelting rain, with ear to key-hole, and
then took to the road again to be ready for worlc
at six in the morning. He afterwards worked
as a journeyman in Edinburgh and London, but
returned to Perth to commence business on his
own account. He had, however, the never-
ceasing desire to become a public singer, and
made frequent visits to Edinburgh to receive
singing lessons from Mr. Edmund Edmunds.
Having secured an appointment as precentor in
Nicholson Street United Presbyterian Church,
Edinburgh, he struggled hard to support himself
and family by occasional concert giving, teaching,
etc, in Edinburgh and neighbourhood. In Jan.
'59 he received his first important engagement,
for the Bums centenary at St. George's Hall,
Liverpool. In the autumn he gave twelve con-
certs in Buccleuch Street Hall, Edinburgh. Every
programme being different, he tested about 150
songs. Professor Ayton and Robert and William
Chambers were in the habit of attending ; they
became his personal friends, and gave him many
friendly hints, and great encouragement at the
outset of his career. In i860 he made short
tours in Scotland, and in 1S61 went as far as
the Orkneys. In the summer of 1862 he made
his first appearance in London, at the Hanover
Square Rooms. Four concerts were given, and
the programmes contained selections from 'The
Gentle Shepherd,' 'Noctes Ambrosianse,' etc., etc.
The veteran, John Templeton, was present upon
each occasion, and was one of the first to offer
his warm congratulations. In December of the
same year Kennedy commenced a series of con-
certs in the Egyptian Hall, which extended to
100 nights, ending in May 1863. After tours in
the south of England and in Scotland he returned
to London in the winter of 1864-65, to give a
series of concerts in Store Street Hall, with fresh
programmes, which included selections from
' Waverley,' and an entertainment called 'The
Farmer's Ingle.' His eldest daughter, Helen,
scarcely in her- teens, had now become his ac-
companist. At one time or another his eleven
sons and daughters all assisted in the entertain-
ments. In the summer of 1866 he visited Canada
and the United States, and sang in every city
of importance North and South. For the next
twenty years he toured at home and abroad,
travelling through Australia, New Zealand, South
Africa, and India, and revisiting Canada several
times. One of his first acts, when at Quebec in
1867, was to visit the grave of Wilson, who
died there in 1849. H® ^^^ photographs taken
of the tombstone, and arranged that the grave
should be tended and cared for in perpetuity.
Mr. Kennedy's last appearance in public was at
a ' Burns Night,' in Sarnia, Oct. 4, 1886. The last
concert given by the ' Kennedy Family' was at
Stratford, Ontario, on the following evening. Mr.
Kennedy being too ill to appear, his daughters
carried out the programme, the Mayor of Strat-
ford taking the chair. He probably hastened his
end by resolving to revisit the grave of Wilson
with the shadow of death almost upon him. He



went out of his way to do so, and in a few days
breathed his last, at Stratford. The body wns
embalmed and brought to his native land by his
widow; a ]iublic funeral took place from his own
house in Edinburgh, to the Grange Cenieterj-.
An interesting sketch of his life by his daughter
Marjory, has recently been published. It contains
nlso a condensation of three books, previously
published, entitled 'Kennedy's Colonial Tour,'
' Kennedy in India,' and ' Kennedy at the Cape.'
Much sympathy was felt for him and his family
in 1881 when one son and two daughters perished
at the burning of the Theatre des Italiens at Nice.
His eldest son, David, died at Natal in 18S4. Only
a few years before his death Kennedy was at
Milan receiving valuable hints from Lamperti ;
a true lover of his art, he ever felt the necessity
for constant application and study. Mr. Kennedy
leaves a successor in his son Eobert, who is now
successfully giving Scottish entertainments in
Australia. A movement is on foot to raise a
public monument in Edinburgh to Scotland's
three gi-eat vocalists, Wilson, Temi^leton, and
Kennedy. [TV.H.]

KENT, James. Add that he was chorister of
the cathedral from 1711 to 1714, and was ap-
pointed organist of the same on Jan. 13, 1737.
He died in October, not May, 1776, if his monu-
ment at Winchester may be trusted.

KETTEEEE, Eugene, bom at Eouen in
1S31, entered the Paris Conservatoire, obtaining
a second prize for solfege in 1847, and a premier
accessit in 1852, under Marmontel. From that
time until his death, which took place during the
siege of Paris, Dec. 18, 1870, he appeared con-
stantly as a pianist, and wrote multitudes of
brilliant fantasias and drawing-room pieces,
which obtained an immense and ephemeral po-
jjularity. [M.]

KEY, KEYBOAED. P. 53 b, 1. 39, for the
oldest illustration of a chromatic keyboard see
Spinet, vol. iii. p. 653 a, footnote. Line 46,
for the oldest example of a keyboard to a harp-
sichord or spinet see Spinet, vol. iii. p. 652 a,
footnote ; but Mr. Donaldson's upright spinet
from the Correr collection, although undated, is
]>robably, from its structure and decoration, still
older. There is a spinet in the loan collection of
the Bologna Exhibition i;i888) made by Pasi, at
Modena, and said to be dated 1490. P. 54a, 1. 11,
omit the ivord ivory. P. 55 b, add at end of
article : — The last new keyboard (1887-8) is the
invention of Herr Paul von Janko of Totis, Hun-
gary. In this keyboard each note has three finger-
keys, one lower than the other, attached to a key
lever. Six parallel rows of whole tone intervals
are thus produced. In the first row the octave is
arranged c, d, e, fj, gj. ajf,e; in the second row
cj, dj, f, g, a, b, cjf. The third row repeats the
iirst, the fourth the second, etc. The sharps are
distinguished by black bands intended as a con-
cession to those familiar with the old sj-stem. The
keys are rounded on both sides and the whole
Iceyboard slants. The advantage Herr von Jank6
claims for his keyboard is a freer use of the fingers


than is possible with the accepted keyboard, ;
the player has the choice of three double rov
of keys. The longer fingers touch the high.
and the shorter the lower ke3's, an arrangeniei
of special importance for the thumb, which, ui
like the latest practice in piano technique, tak<
its natural position always. All scales, maj.
and minor, can be played with the same po-itioi
of the fingers ; it is only necessary to raise 1
lower the hand, in a manner analogous to tl
violinist's 'shifts.' The facilities with which tl
key of Db major favours the pianist are th'
equally at command for D or C major, ai
certain difficulties of transposition are also u
viated. But the octave being brought with
the stretch of the sixth of the ordinary ke
board, extensions become of easier grasp, ai
the use of the arpeggio for wide chords is 11
so often necessary. The imperfection of balan'
in the key levers of the old keyboard, which tl
player unconsciously dominates by scale pra
tice, appears in the new keyboard to be increas<
by the greater relative distances of finger attac
On account of the contracted measure of the ke;
board, the key levers are radiated, and present
fanlike appearance. Herr von Jankd's inveiitii
was introduced to the English public by Mr. .J. 1
Ames at the Portman Eooms on June 20, iSb
It has many adherents in Germany. His par
phlet ' Eine neue Claviatur,' Wetzler, Vienn
1 886, with numerous illustrations of fingering,
worthy of the attention of all students in plan
forte technique. [A.J.H

KEY-BUGLE. Line 4 of article, add vol.
to reference.

KEY-NOTE. After reference acid in A

KEYS. P. 56 CT, 1. S,for [Contbafagott
read [Double Bassoon].

KIEL, Ekiedeich. Add date of death, Soj
14, 18S5.

KINDEEMANN. See Eeicher-Kinde
MANN in Appendix.

KING, M. P. Line 6 from end of article, ai
date of ' One o'clock, or the Wood Demon,' iSi

KING'S THEATEE. P. 58 b, 1. 21, x

vol. i. to reference.

KINSKY, Prince. P. 59 a, 11. 15 and 4
add vol. i. to references.

from bottom, add references to English edition
Spitta's Bach, i. 40, 446, and ii. 348, etc. P.6c
1. 38, add vol. i. before p. 120. For continuati
of the list of cantatas see Bach-Gesellscha
in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 529. Since that arti<
was in type, the number of cantatas has? be
increased to 170, by the publication in 1887
the 33rd volume (due 1883), which contains t
following : —

161. KommdususseTodesstunae.'lM. Wo gehest du bin.

162. Ach, ich sehe. [167. Ihr llenschen, ruhmet.

163. Xur Jedem das Seine. 1 168. Thue Kechnung !

164. Ihr, die ihr euch. 1 169. Gott soil allein.
105. OheirgeGeist-u.'Wasserbacl.llTO. VernOgte Euh'.


CIRCHNEE, Theodob. Add day of birth,
. c. 10.

tCIRKMAN. P. 6i 6, line 1 1 from bottom, add

1 tthe piano was introduced in Ivirkman'swoik-

- in the time of Abraham Kirkman, as there

rd of a square piano inscribed Jacob and

am Elirchniann, which was dated 1775. The

: piano dated 1780 was also theirs. [A.J.H.]

vIETLAjSTD. See Jardine in Appendix.
vISTXER. Line 11 of article, ^or son read

vITTEL, J. C. Correct day of death to
.'- iS.

ERULF, Ha'LFDAX, was born at Chris-

iu 1815,' and became known as a com-

; n Xorway and the surrounding countries

_ the time of Norway's struggle for free-

'.id the consequent renascence of herintel-

1 and artistic spirit.

Ill 1S34 ^^ "S-s a graduate of the Christiania

liveisity, .and he had as a matter of course

■ •oted himself to the study of jurisprudence,

his father's high post under Government
'uLl have ensured for liim a good start in
icial life. There ensued the heartaches and
i stiiiggles of a born artist who cannot throw
nself into what he feels to be the ' wrong
ection for his energies.' His case was aggrn-
ted by the condition of ' tlie poor and cold
untiy of ^ Norway,' which possessed 'no hot-
use to foster the aits.' Nevertheless, the
jssom of Kjerulf's art was destined to raise
head in the chill desert. On the death
his father in 1S40, a decided step was at last
ken by Halfdan Kjerulf, and he began his
ofes.sional career at the age of 25. He settled
(Wn as a teacher of music, and published some
nple songs even before he had been intro-
ced to the theory of music by some resident
reigner. In rS^o or thereabouts Kjerulf had
;gun to attract public attention, the Govern-
j5nt awarded to him a grant by which he was
abled to study for a year at Leipzig imder
jichter. On his return to Christiania he did his
'St to establish classical subscription concerts
I that city, but with no lasting success. In
;l6o he was in active co-operation with Bjom-
n, who wrote for him many poems ; and it was
jiring these years — 1S60 to 1865 — that Kjerulf
d his best work, resigned to a contemplative
id lonely existence, and content to exercise
quiet influence upon those who sought him
it. Grieg amongst others was very glad of the
der master's moral support.
The portraits of Kjerulf represent him with a
ild and pensive face, with traces of pain in the
ipression. He had indeed suffered for long
om extreme delicacy in the chest, and death
ertook him when he had withdrawn to a re-
eat at Grefsen, near Christiania, in August
568. A wave of deep emotion and sympathy,

Mendel and other German authorities give wrong dates.

■ For a full account of Kjerulf as the representative of his
untry, and for extracts from liis letters and details vt his private
i, the reader may be referred to the articies * Ilalfdan Kjerulf,' by
inrilt Sundl, in the ' Musical World ' of October ], 8, and 15, 18s7.



the fervour of which would have astonished the
composer himself, passed over the country he
had loved and served so well.

The value of Kjerulf's stirring quartets and
choruses for men's voices, as reflecting the na-
tional sentiment in the way most acceptable to
his countrymen, has already been commented on.
As absolute music they are of slight interest, but
by their vigour and their straightforward sim-
plicity they may be said to possess all the virtue
which belongs to complete appropriateness to
the subject. His few pianoforte pieces fully
maintain the highly artistic standard to which
Kjerulf was always faithful.

Consideration of the purely musical side of
Kjerulf's songs shows the perfect genuineness
of their inspiration, and also the limits of that
inspiration in intellectual depth and power. The
stream of melody, generally written with due
effect for the voice, and with a varied and some-
times elaborate pianoforte accompaniment, in
fact, with considerable instinct of just propor-
tions, is saved from actual commonplace by the
fresh fragrance and the refinement which make
his music distinguished though not important. Its
sadness nevei" becomes morbid, but is stamped with
the resignation of a noble nature. Among the
Northern ballads and lyrics are to be found some
really characteristic and quaintly fascinating
ditties. Such are Bjornson's ' Synnove's Song,'
'Ingrid's Song,' 'Young Venevil,' 'Evening
Song,' and the Scotch ' Taylor's Song,' Munch's
'Night on the Fjord,' Theodor Kjerulf's 'Long-
ing.' Several songs that spring from Kjerulf's
sojourn at Leipzig most eloquently recall the
influence of Schumann, while his treatment of
some English poems is almost startling. The
polished verses of Moore are made the vehicle of
outpourings in which the gentle Kjerulf is seen
in his most impassioned mood — for instance,
' Love thee, dearest, love thee.' ' My heart and
lute,' on the other hand, has inspired the com-
poser with an intensity of dreamy melancholy.
Unfortunately a certain amount of license ha3
been taken in the settings, and where the poem
as a whole gains by the suggestiveness of the
music, the lines and words now and then suffer
from false accentuation. This is especially the
case with some familiar verses by the late Lord
Houghton. It would be impossible to enumerate
all that is worthy of note in the collection of
more than one hundred songs by Kjerulf; but
notice must be taken of the successful colouring
of some Spanish subjects, and of the pleasing
settings of Victor Hugo's Romances. Many of
the songs are familiar to English amateurs through
the compilation by T. Marzials, published by
Messrs. Stanley Lucas, Weber & Co. Kjerulf's
name has been included in Mr. Carl Armbruster's
lectures on ' Modern Composers of Classical Song.'
Further testimony to the value of tlie Norwegian
composer's work can be read in the 'Musikal-
isches Wochenblatt' of Jan. 24, 1879, ^° "''■" article
from the pen of Edward Grieg. [L.M.M.]

KLEINMICHEL, Richakd, born at Posen
Dec. 31, 1846, received his first instruction from



his father, and at an early age appeared in
public as a pianist. He afterwards completed
his studies at the Leipzig Conservatorium, and
settled at Hamburg, where he published many
works of some importance, mostly for his own
instrument. His second orchestral symphony
was given at the Gewandhaus at Leipzig with
success. In that town he held for some time
the position of Capellmeister at the Stadt-
theater, and subsequently held similar posts at
Danzig and Magdeburg, where he now resides.
His first opera, 'Manon,' was successfully pro-
duced at the last two places as well as at
Hamburg. He has lately completed another
opera, ' Der Pfeifer von Dusenbach.' He has also
made 'simplified' arrangements of the pianoforte
scores of Wagner's later works. [^f •]

KLEMM. Add that C. B. Klemm died
Jan. 3, jSSS, leaving the business to his two sons.
KLENGEL, A. A. Correct date of birth to
Jan. 27, 1783.

KLINDWORTH. P. 64 h, 1. 3, add they
were called the ' Musical Art-union.'

KLINGEMANN. Line iS of article add for
Mendelssohn's opera ' Die Hochzeit des Cama-
cho '; also.

KNECHT, J. H. P. 66 a, 1. 2, far Dec. 11
read Dec. i .

KNELLER HALL. P.66&, 1. 2 2. from bottom,,
after Forces add H. Schallehn was resident musi-
cal director till April 1859. Colonel Whitmore
was appointed Aug. 15, 1863. Hewas succeeded.
May I, iSSo, by Colonel Robert T. Thompson,
who still (Jan. I, 1888) holds the post of Com-
mandant ; Charles Cousins (appointed Nov. i,

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 163 of 194)