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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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March, 1869 ; incidental music to 'Antony anc
Cleopatra,' 1873 ; music to the dramas ' King
Scots,' 'Amy Robsart,' 'Lady of the Lake,
'Rebecca,' and 'Esmeralda,' and to several panto
mimes ; ' Robin Hood,' cantata for boys' voices
Saraband for piano on a motif written by Henr
VIII. ; several drawing-room pieces and man'
songs, one of which, 'Esmeralda,' originall;
sung by the late Miss Furtado at the Adelphi ii
the drama of that name, and in the concert-roon
by Mme. Bodda-Pyne, obtained considerablt
popularity. [A.C

LEVI, Hermann, born Nov. 7, 1839, atGies
sen, studied with Vincenz Lachner from 1852 t(
1855, aiid for three years from that time at the
Leipzig Conservatorium. His first engagememi
as a conductor was at Saarbrficken in 1859; ii
1861 he became director of the German Opera at
Rotterdam, in 1S64 Hofkapellmeister at Carls-
ruhe, and finally in 1872 was appointed to his
present post at the Court Theatre of Munich. He
attained to a prominent place among Wagnerian
conductors, and to him fell the honour of direct-
ing the first performance of Parsifal at Bayreuth.
on July 28, 1882. [M.]

LEWIS, Thomas C, originally an architect,
commenced business as an organ-builder in Lon-

I Athenaeum, Dec. 16, 1S71.




n about the year 1861. He built the organs
the Protestant and Catholic Cathedrals, New-
itle-on-T^'ne, and in London those of St.
iter's, Eaton Square, and Holy Trinity, Pad-
agton. But his largest work is the organ of
. Andrew's Hall, Glasgow. The firm is now
;wis & Co., Limited. [V. de P.]

LICENZA. Used by Mozart for the first
)vement of a vocal piece (no. 70), and last
ivement of another ditto (no. 36). (B. & H.'s
jt of new editions.) [G.]

LICHNOWSKY. P. 132 1, 1. 7 from end of
cicle, ^or Stammer read Stummer. (Corrected
late editions.)

;rman song, commencing ' Freut euch des
bens,' the author of which is Martin Usteri of
rich; first published in the ' Gottinger Musen-
nanach' for 1796 without the author's name.
le music was written in 1793 by Hans Georg
igeli. It is used as subject for the elaborate
nations which form the last movement of
oelfl's celebrated sonata called ' Non plus
tra.' [E.M.]

LI]\IPUS, R. In reference at end of article,
'd in Appendix.

LIXCKE, Joseph. In the musical example,
e sign 'B- should be over the third bar of the

LIZSTCOLN", Henkt Cephas, bom 1789 and
id 1864, was an organ-builder in London. He
ilt the organ in the Pavilion, Brighton, which
now in Buckingham Palace. [V. de P.]

LIND, Jenxt. p. 140 6, 1. 25, for she
tained a hearing read she was to have appeared,
ne 16 from bottom, for Dec. 6 read Dec. 4,
1416, after the cadences, add See a cadence
hers in the Musical Union Record, 1849, p. 8.
id that from Easter 1883 to Easter 1SS6 she
IS professor of singing at the Royal College of
usic, and that she died at Wynd's Point, Mal-
rn, on Nov. 2, 1887.

LINDBLAD, A. F. Line 7 of article, /or in
ugust read Aug. 23.

LINDPAINTNER, P. J. von. Add that in
54 he conducted several of the New Philhar-
-inic Concerts.

LINLEY, Fbancts. Add date of purchase
Bland's business, 1796; and for day of death,
ad Sept. 15.

LINLEY, George, bom 1798, wrote a large
imber of songs, ballads, and otker pieces, very
■pular in their day. He also wrote and com-
<sed music for an operetta, ' The Toymaker,' pro-
iced at Co vent Garden, Nov. 20, 1861. He died
Kensington, Sept. 10, 1865. [W.H.H.]

LINLEY, Thomas. The correct date of birth
probably 1732, since he was said at the time
his death to be 63 years old.
LISZT, Feanz or Ferencz. P. 146 a, to his
ipearances at the Philharmonic add June 14,
•41 (Hummel's Septet). Add the following
pplementary notice : —

The last concert given by Franz Liszt for his
own benefit was that atElisabethgrad towards the
end of 1847,^ since when his artistic activity was
exclusively devoted to the benefit of others. No
more striking evidence of the nobility of Liszt's
purpose and of the gracious manner in which he
fulfilled it could be wished for than that con-
tained in the recently published correspondence
between Liszt and Wagner.- The two volumes
cover the Weimar period, but by no means re-
present the extent of the friendship between
these two great men, which was only interrupted
by death. Liszt's character as here revealed
calls for nothing less than reverence. His soli-
citude is so tender, so fatherly, so untainted
with selfishness, and, above all, so wise ! The
letters tell the story of a struggle and of a vic-
tory for his friend, but they are silent upon
the incidents of his own life. On being asked
one day the reason of his abstention from crea-
tive work, Liszt replied by another question,
' Can you not guess ? ' To Wagner himself, who
urged him to compose a German opera on his
(Wagner's) tragedy of 'Wieland der Schmidt,'
Liszt answered that he felt no vocation for such
a task ; he thought it more likely tiiat he might
give his first dramatic work a trial in Paris or in
London. So he continued a life of self-abnega-
tion, and died faithful to the last to the claims of
friendship and of genius, many young composers
besides the titanic Wagner owing their first suc-
cesses in life to his generous sympathy and pene-
trating judgment. He made Weimar, during the
twelve years of his residence, the centre of musical
life in Germany. ' I had dreamed for Weimar
a new Art period,' wrote Liszt in i860, ' similar
to that of Karl August, in which Wagner and I
would have been the leaders as formerly Goethe
and Schiller, but unfavourable circumstances
brought these dreams to nothing.' Though Liszt
did not accomplish all he wished for Weimar,
the little city still ranks high among German
art-centres, and in some degree carries on the
work of advancement so firmly established be-
tween the years 1844 and 1861.

The resignation of the Weimar Kapellmeister-
ship in 1 86 1 was followed by what Liszt called
his vie trifarquee, divided between Budapest,
Weimar, and Rome. The Hungarian Govern-
ment, in order to ensure Liszt's presence in
Budapest during part of the year, invented for
him (1870) the post of president of an institution
which at the moment did not exist, but which
soon afterwards rose as the Academy of Music.
Impressive scenes occurred when the Magyars
publicly feted their compatriot,^ and hero-worship
was at its height on such occasions as the jubilee
of the master's career in 1873, when ' Clnristus'
was performed at the Hungarian capital.

The aspect of Liszt's every-day life at Weimar
has become known through the accounts of some
of the host of aspiring pianists and music lovers
who gathered around him there. Liszt's teaching

1 Eamann's ' F. Liszt als Kanstler und Mensch," vol. li. EreitkopC
& HSrtel.

2 ' Briefwechsel zwischen Wagner und Liszt.' Breitkopf 4 HSrtel.
s Janlia Wohl's ' Transois Liszt."



had already borne fruit in the wonderful achieve-
ments of hia most distinguished pupils — Von
Billow, Geza Zichy, D' Albert, the lamented
Tausig, and others, and no wonder that the music
room which the generous artist had thrown open
to all comers was thronged by a number of more
or less gifted young people in search of inspira-
tion — no other word so well describes the ideal
character of the instruction they were privileged
to receive.

Liszt held his classes in the afternoon, during
which several of the pupils would play their
piece in the presence of the rest — some dozen or
more, perhaps — all being expected to attend the
stance. At times the master would seat himself
at the piano and play, but this supreme pleasure
could never be counted upon. It was noticeable
that this most unselfish of geniuses was never
more strict or more terrible than when a Bee-
thoven sonata was brought to him, whereas he
would listen to the execution of his own com-
positions with indulgent patience — a charac-
teristic trait. Yet Liszt's thoughts often dwelt
upon his great choral worlcs, and he was heard
to declare that sacred music had become to him
the only thing worth living for.

A lively description of Liszt's professorial life
has been given by an American lady who visited
Weimar in 1873.-'^ Again, the unique qualities
of Liszt's genius and his regal position among all
sorts and conditions of men were recognized
as unimpaired ten years later by Mr. Francis
Hueffer,^ who had the opportunity of forming
a judgment upon these things when visiting
Bayreuth in 18S4, thus affording another linlt
in the chain of historical criticism.

In Rome again Liszt found himself the
centre of an artistic circle of which Herr von Keu-
dell and Sgambati were the moving spirits. The
significance, however, of his residence in the
Eternal City lies rather in the view he took of
it as his annies de recueillement, which ulti-
mately led to his binding himself as closely as he
could to the Church of Rome. He who in his
youth, with the thirst for knowledge upon him,
had enjoyed the writings of freethinkers and
atheists (without being convinced by them), was
now content with his breviary and book of
hours; the impetuous artist who had felt the
fascination of St. Simonianism^ before he had
thoroughly understood its raison d'etre, who had
been carried away by the currents of the revolu-
tion, and had even in 1841 joined the Freemasons,*
became in 1856 or 58 a tertiary of St. Francis
of Assisi. In 1879 be was permitted to receive
tlie tonsure and the four minor orders (door-
keeper, reader, exorcist, and acolyth), and an
honorary canonry. The Abb^ Liszt, who as a
boy had wished to enter the priesthood, but was
dissuaded therefrom by his parents and his confes-
sor, now rejoiced in the public avowal of his creed

• 'Music study in Germany," Amy Fay.

2 In the Fortnightly Keview for September 18S6.

' ■ I neither officially nor unofficially belonged to the St. Simo-
nians.' See Ramann, vol. i. Heine is inaccurate on this and
some other points.

* At Frankfort-on-the-Maine, during the period of Ms sojourn at
KoDuennerth with the Countess d'Agoult.


as conveyed by his priestly garb, although h«
was indeed no priest, could neither say mass noi
hear a confession, and was at liberty to discard
his cassock, and even to marry if he chose, with-
out causing scandal. Thus, in the struggle with
the world which the youth of sixteen had sc
much dreaded, his religious fervour was destined
to carry the day. Extracts from Liszt's private
papers throwing further light on his inmost
thoughts have been published,^ but can be onlj
referred to in this place.

Liszt's former triumphs in England were des-
tined to be eclipsed by the enthusiasm of the
reception which awaited him when he was pre-
vailed upon to return in i886. In 1824 George
TV. had given the sign to the aristocracy ol
homage to the child-prodigy; and his visits in
the following year and in 1827 were successfu)
enough. In 1840-41* the Queen's favour was
accorded to him, and he shared with Thalberg
a reputation as a skilful pianist in fashionable
circles. But it was not until 1886 that the vast
popularity which had hitherto been withheld
from him, owing to the conditions of musica]
life in our country, was meted out to him in fuV
measure. 'There is no doubt,' says a musica'
critic,^ ' that much of this enthusiasm proceedec
from genuine admiration of his music, mixec
with a feeling that that music, for a number
years, had been shamefully neglected in thif
country, and that now, at last, the time had
come to make amends to a great and famoui
man, fortunately still living. It is equally cer-
tain that a great many people who were carriec
away by the current of enthusiasm — including
the very cabmen in the streets, who gave thret
cheers for the "Habby Li.szt" — had never hearc
a note of his music, or would have appreciated i
much if they had. The spell to which they sub
mitted was a purely personal one ; it was tb
same fascination which Liszt exercised ove
almost every man and woman who came inti
contact with him.'

Liszt paused awhile in Paris on his way, an(
received much attention, liis musical friends am 1
followers gathering to meet him at the concert
of Colonne, Lamoureux, and Pasdeloup. A
length on April 3, the Abb^ Liszt reached ou
si) ores, and on the same evening three or fou
hundred people met at Mr. Littleton's hous
at Sydenham to do honour to the great artist
and a programme consisting entirely of his com
positions was gone through by INIr. Walter Bach
and others. The gracious and venerable ap
pearance of the distinguished guest, and hi
kindly interest in all that went forward, won th
hearts of those who witnessed the scene ; al
recognized the presence in their midst of a mai
vellous personality such as is rarely met witl
On the following day Liszt played part of hi
E b Concerto before a few friends. On the Moc
day he attended the rehearsal of his oratori
'St. Elisabeth' in St. James's Hall; and in tb

5 Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung, May 13, 18S7.

s His project of conducting German opera in Londqn in 1813 (W

to nothing.
' Fortnightly Eeview, September 1886.


I vening of the game day he astonished his host and
I circle of friends by an improvisation on some
f f the themes. The 6th April was the date of
[ he concert, and when the composer walked into
he hall he received such ovations as had probably
.lever been offered to an artist in England before.
;<]ven before be entered his arrival was announced
iiy the shouts of the crowd outside, who hailed
•tim as if he were a king returning to his king-
lom. During the afternoon Liszt had been en-
ertained at the Royal Academy of Music, where
he Liszt Scholarship, raised with so much zeal
.)y Mr. "Walter Bache, was presented by him to
he master. A short programme was performed,
tfessrs. Shakespeare and Mackenzie conducting,
,nd when Liszt rose from his seat and moved
owards the piano, the excitement of the students
knd of the rest of the audience knew no bounds.
1 visit to Windsor, where he played to Her
Ifajesty a reminiscence of the Rose Miracle
icene from 'St. Elisabeth,' filled up most of the
bllowing day (April 8), on the evening of which
VIr. Walter Bache's Grosvenor GaUery Recep-
;ion took place. The brilliant scene of Saturday
was here repeated, with the very important addi-
donal feature of a solo from Liszt himself. [See
Bache, vol. iv. p. 529.] The events which fol-
lowed in the course of the great man's visit in-
3luded a performance of 'St. Elisabeth' at the
Crystal Palace on the 17th. On the 22nd, a week
later than he intended, Liszt left England, pleased
with his reception, and promising to repeat his
visit. No wonder that his death was felt by
English people as the loss of a personal friend.
The last music he wrote was a bar or two of
Mackenzie's ' Troubadour,' upon which he had
intended to write a fantasia.

The remaining incidents in the life of Liszt may
only be briefly touched upon. Paris gave him a
peifurmance of ' St. Elisabeth ' at the Trocadero.
The master left Paris in May, and visited in turn
Antwerp, Jena, and Sondershausen. He attended
the summer festival here while suffering from
weakness and cold. * On m'a mis les bottes pour
le grand voyage,' he said, excusing himself to a
friend for remaining seated. His last appear-
ance upon a concert platform was on July 19,
when, accompanied by M. and Mme. Munk^csy,
he attended a concert of the Musical Society of
Luxemburg. At the end of the concert he was
prevailed upon to seat himself at the piano. He
played a fantasia, and a 'Soiree de Vienne.' It
need not be said that the audience, touched and
delighted by the unlooked-for favour, applauded
the master with frenzy. In the pages of Janka
Wohl's * Franfois Liszt ' there is an account of
a scene during Liszt's stay at the Munkacsys'
house, according to the writer a record of the last
time the greatest master of the pianoforte touched
his instrument. A flying visit had been paid to
Bayreuth on the marriage of Daniela von Btilow
— Liszt's granddaughter — with Herr von Thode
on July 4. Liszt returned again for the perform-
atice of ' Parsifal ' on the 23rd. He was suffering
from a bronchial attack, but the cough for a day
or two became less troublesome, and he ven-



tured to attend another play, an exceptionally
fine performance of ' Tristan,' during which the
face of Liszt shone full of life and happiness,
though his weakness was so great that he had
been almost carried to and from the carriage
and Mme. Wagner's box. This memorable per-
formance of ' Tristan,' in which the singers
(Sucher, Vogl, etc.) and players surpassed them-
selves, lingered in Liszt's mind until his death.
Wlien he returned home he was prostrate, and
those surrounding him feared the worst. The
patient was confined to his bed and kept per-
fectly quiet. The case was from the first hope-
less, the immediate cause of death being general
weakness rather than the severe cold and inflam-
mation of the lungs which supervened on July 31.
His death that night was absolutely painless.

Since the funeral in the Bayreuth cemetery on
Aug. 3, Liszt's ashes have not been disturbed,
although Weimar and Budapest each asserted a
claim to the body of the illustrious dead. Car-
dinal Haynauld and the Princess Wittgenstein
(heiress and executrix under his will) gave way
before the wishes of Liszt's sole surviving daugh-
ter, Cosima Wagner, supported as they were by
public opinion and the known views of Liszt
himself, who had not looked with favour on the
removal of the remains of Beethoven and Schu-
bert, and had expressed a hope that it might not
also be his fate to ' herumfahren.' These towns,
as well as others, have therefore raised a monu-
ment to the genius who was associated with
them. The memory of Liszt has been honoured
in a practical way in many places. Liszt socie-
ties existed during the master's lifetime, and
they have now been multiplied. Immediately
after the funeral a meeting of the leading musi-
cians was held at Bayreuth, at which Richter
made a speech and urged that all the living
forces of the artistic world should unite to pre-
serve the memory of the master by perfect ren-
derings of his own and other modern works.
The Grand Duke of Weimar, Liszt's friend and
protector, sent the intendant of the theatre to
Bayreuth to confer with Richter upon the best
means of perpetuating Liszt's intentions. He pro-
posed a Liszt foundation after the manner of the
Mozarteum at Salzburg. A Liszt museum was
to be established in the house where he lived at
Weimar, and scholarships were to be offered to
promising young musicians, and on similar lines
scholarships have been instituted elsewhere.

An outcome of this project is the Fondation-
Liszt, instituted by his firm friend the Duke of
Weimar after his death, to continue instruc-
tion on the basis he had laid.

The first competition for the Liszt Royal
Academy scholarship took place in April iSS?.*-
The scholarship is open for competition by
male and female candidates, natives of any
country, between 14 and 20 years of age, and may
be awarded to the one who may be judged to
evince the greatest merit in pianoforte playing
or in composition. All candidates have to pass

1 For this England Is indebted to the exertions of the lata Mr.
Walter Bache (who raised upwards ot llOOi. lor the purpose).



an examination in general education before enter-
ing the musical contest. The holder is entitled to
three years' free instruction in the Academy, and
after that to a yearly sum for continental study.

Among portraits of the master, the bust ex-
ecuted by Boehm, and exhibited at the Grosvenor
Gallery in i8S6, will have great interest for
English people, as Liszt sat for it during his
visit to Sydenham in the same year. Plaster
casts of this bust have since been issued by No-
vellos. The head of Liszt upon his death-bed has
been successfully represented in a plaster cast
by Messrs. Weissbrod & Schnappauf of Bn,y-
reuth. On pp. 149 and 219 of Janka Wohl's
volume a detailed account and list of portraits
and paintings may be found.

The task of collecting Liszt's posthumous
works has not been an easy one, the composer
having distributed his MSS. amongst his friends
and pupils. There have already been published
during the last ten years, by T^borszky & Parsch,
Budapest : —

' Ungarisohes KOnigslled,' for male voices or mixed chorus with
orciiestral accompaniment ; tlie same in PF, score, and in arrange-
ments for baritone solo, and lor 4 hands and 2 hands on the FF.

■ Ungarn's Gott," for baritone solo and ad lib. chorus of male
voices. Also for PF., 2 hands ; also for PF., left baud ; also lor
organ or harmonium; also for cjmbal,

Os&rdis for PF., 2 hands.

Csirdds obstin6. Do.

Dem Andenken Petijfi's for PF., 2 and 4 hands.

16th Hungarian Khapsody (Munkdcsy), 2 hands ; also 4 hands.
17th do. (Aus dem Figaro Album). ISth do. (Fiir das Album der
Budapester AusstelluugJ. 19th do. (aach C. Abranyi's 'Csirdis
nobles ').

Published by Kahnt's Nachfolger :—

' Christus,' PF. arrangements. 2 and 4 hands.

Antiphon for St. Cecilia's Day, contralto solo and 5-part mixed
choir, and orchestral accompaniment. Also PF. or vocal score.

' Le Crucitii,* for contralto solo, with harmonium or PF. accom-

Mis>apro Organo.

Sacred Choruses. No. X, Anima Christl ; No. XI, Tu es Petrus;
Ko. XII, Dominus conservet eum.

' Salve Eegina' (liregorian). for harmonium or organ.

Songs : ' Verlassen,' ' Ich verlor die Kralt."

Duet : ' O Meer ira Abendstrahl.'

' Sonnenhymnus.' Baritone solo, male voice chorus, organ and
orchestra. Also vocal score.

' Stanislaus,' oratorio. Full score. Vocal score. Single numbers.

' Salve Polonia," luterludium. Full score. Also arrangement
for PF.

• De Profundis,' Ps. cxxix. bass or alto solo, with PF. or organ.

• Le barde aveugle,' ballade for PF.
Collected Songs.

By Various Publishers : —

■ Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe,' symphonic poem, after a dwwlng
by Michael Zichy.

Varianten und ZusStze to 'FestklSnge.'

' Le triomphe fun^bre de Tasse." epilogue to ' Tasso.*

Two new Mephisto-Walzer, orch. and FF., 2 or 4 hands (Fiirstner).

' Crux,' Hymne des Marins, chorus and accompaniment ad lib,

' Pax Vobiscum,' motet. 4 male voices.

• Natus est Christus.' 4 male voices.

• Qui Mariam absolvisti.' baritone solo and chorus.

' O heilige Nacht,' tenor solo and 3-part female chorus (Fiirstner).

• Nun danket Alle Gott,' chorus, organ, trumpets, trombones, and

Antiphon for St. Cecilia's Day, contralto solo and 5-part female

Original, for Pianoforte :—

Ann<5es de PeWrinage. Troisifeme Ann^e: No.l. Angelus (also for
string quartet). No. 2. Aui Cyprus de la Villa d'Este. No. 3. Do.
No. 4, Les Jeux d'Eaux ^ la Villa d'Este. No. 5. ' Sunt lacrymae
rerum' en mode hongrols. No. 6. Marche fun^bre. No. 7. ' Sursum
corda'(also for solo voices. Schott), ' Abschied.' russisches Volks-
Ijed. 'Die Trauer-Gondel', (Fritzsch). 3 Valses oubli(5es ; Valse
Eltgiaque (Bote & Bock) ; Etude in ; Andante maestoso (Kosa-
vOlgy). ' ■Welhnachtsbaum.' 12 pieces, 2 or 4 hands (Fiirstner).
Grosses Concert-Fantasia ilber Spanische Weisen (Licht). Twelve
books of Technical Studies, with mure to follow (Schuberth).
Transcriptions :—

Processional March from 'Parsifal' (Schott). Other Wagner
transcriptions (Schott, and B. & H,) Berlioz's ' Harold ' Symphony


(Leuckart). Verdi's ' Aida ' and ' Eequiem,' Lassen's ' Hagen uni ,
Kriemhilde," 'Faust,' and Intermezzo from "Ueber alien Zauben
Liebe ' (Bote & Bock). Liebesscene and Fortuna's Kugel from Gold :
Schmidt's 'Die sielien Todsunden.' JJubinstein's 'Gelb roUt' am
'Der Asra' (Kistner). Schumann's ' Provencalisches Minnelled
(Fiirstner). Forty-two Lieder by Beethoven, Franz, Schumann, am ,
Mendelssohn (B. & H.). Paraphrase of themes from Handel''.
' Almira.' Paraphrase of themes from modern Russian works \
Wilhorsky's 'Eomance.' Arrangements of Fest-Cantata for ■
hands ; nocturne. 4 hands. Schubert's Marches, 4 hands. Bee ,
thoveu's Concertos, 2 PFs. '■

Liszt had completed, or is said to have partlj ,
written: — New symphonic poem for organ, or
lines by Herder, ' The Organ ' ; ' Lo sposalizio
(org.) ; Romance oubliee (violin) ; Mephistc
Polka ; new edition ' Soirt^es de Vienna ' ;
score of Zarembski's duets; 'Die Macht dei
Musik,' song ; Fantasia for orch. and PF. or
Schubert's ' Der Wanderer ' ; ' Die Nebenson

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 166 of 194)