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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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nen' and 'Aufenthalt' (Schubert) for PP.;
' Weihelied ' to Leo XIII ; ' Der evvige Jude,'
for PF. with declaimed poem (Schubart).

The discovery of a concerto entitled ' Male-
diction,' and of a choral work, ' The Creation,'
has been reported.^ [L.M.M.]

LITOLFF, H. C. Add that his opera ' Les
Templiers ' was produced at Brussels in January,


festival has been held since 1874. Add that Sir
Julius Benedict was succeeded as conductor ol
the Liverpool Philharmonic Society in 1880 by
Herr Max Bruch, since whose retirement in i88a
the post has been filled by Mr. Charles Halle.

LLOYD, Charles Harfoed, born Oct. 16,
1849, ^*' Thornbury, Gloucestershire, son of
Edmund Lloyd, a solicitor, was educated at
Thornbury Grammar School and Rossall School.
From the latter he went to Magdalen Hall (now
Hertford College), Oxford, in Oct. 1868 as the
holder of an oj^en classical scholarship. He gra-
duated Mus.B. 1 871, B.A. 1872. M. A. 1875, taking
a second class in the Final Theological School.
While an undergraduate he was instrumental in
establishing the Oxford University Musical Club,
and was elected its iirst president. This society
(see vol. iv. p. 206) has done a great deal for the
advancement of classical music in the Univer-
sity. It still flourishes, and up to June 1887
over 380 performances of chamber music had
been given. Mr. Lloyd was appointed organist
of Gloucester Cathedral in June 1876 as suc-
cessor to Dr. S. S. Wesley. In this capacity he
conducted the Festivals of the Three Choirs in
1877 and 1880. In Sept. 1882 he succeeded
Dr. C. J. Corfe as organist of Christ Church
Cathedral, Oxford, and in the same year became
conductor of the Choral Society in succession to
Mr. Parratt. His works, though few in num-
ber, have obtained well-deserved success. His
themes ape original and beautiful, and their
treatment shows much experience and know-
ledge of effect. His part-writing is excellent,
and in the structure of his compositions he
displays a moderation and self-restraint which

' All posthumous MSS. were handed over to the Allg. DeutschS
Musikverein by the Princess Hohenlohe. the daughter of Liszt's
faithful fiiend and testatrix, the Princess Wittgenstein, who died In







"cnot be too highly commended. His pub-
1 ed works are as follows : —

Dtatas.— ' Hero and Leander,' for soli, chorus and orchestra rWor-
e T Festival, I**) : ■ Song of Balder, ' for soprano solo and chorus
f eford Festival, ISXo) : 'Andromeda.' for soli, chorus and orchestra
(( icester Festival, 1886) : ' The Longbeards' Saga," male chortis and
I icct., 1887.

oruses and incidental music to Alcestis (see Greek Plats in
jl^ndix). for male chorus, flutes, clarinets and harp, 1887. "The
tner's Harvest' for female chorus.

•rices in Eb>(full Cathedral), in F and G (Parochial). Magnificat
- N'unc Dimittis in F, soli, chorus and orchestra (Gloucester
Ml. 1880). ■

seras.— "Art thou weary?' 8 voices unaccompanied. 'Blessed

.' with full orchestral accompaniment (Gloucester Festival,
i ' Fear not. land,' and ' Give the Lord the honour.'

concertante for clarinet and piano.

ran. — Sonata in D minor, and two other pieces.

drigal. 5 parts. ' When at Corinna's eyes.' Part-songs, among
Tih 'Allen-a-dale' and 'The Kosy Dawn' (8 parts) are accom-
p ?d. and several songs. FT^I 1

jLOYD, Edwaed. Line lo of article, for
Tnity read King's.

.OBE, JoHANN Christian. Add date of
t th, July 27, 1 88 1.

'jBGE.SANG. L. 8 of article, /or third rend

nd. Add Mendelssohn was engaged during

> and '39 on a symphony in Bb, which he

u mentions in his letters, and at last speaks

> IS nearly complete. No trace of it has how-

f T been found. Is it possible that he can have

(iverted it into the orchestral movements of

■ Lobgesang, the first of which is also in Bb ?

'.'■it line but one of article, /or 2nd read 8th.

LOBKO WITZ. P. 155 a note 2, for Eitz read
-:zli. (Corrected in late editions.)

LOCK, Matthew. Line 1 7 of article, add that
1 married Alice, daughter of Edmund Smyth,
-:|., of Armables, Herts, on March 8, 1663-4,
il that he is stated in the register to be thirty

rs old at the time. The date of his birth is

re approximately ascertained as 1632 or 3.

157 «, 1. 19 from bottom, add that there is a
' >v of 'Modern Church Music,' etc., in the
;zwilliam Museum at Cambridge. Some of

ck's autographs are in the library of King's
' liege, Cambridge. Line 8 from bottom of same

umn,/or 1670 read 1667. P. 157 6, 1. 2, for
o6 read 1708.

LOCO, 'in (the usual) place.' A term of
lich the use is explained under All' Ottava,
1. i. p. 56 ; where, however, the word is stated
be Italian, instead of Latin. [M.]

LODER, E. J. P. 159 a, 1. 25,/oj- 1851 read

LOESCHHOEN, Albeet, was bom June 2 7,

19, in Berlin, where he still resides. He was

pupil of Ludwig Berger, and subsequently

jdied at the Eoyal Institute for Church Music

Berlin, where since 1851 he has been teacher

the pianoforte. The title of Royal Professor

IS conferred upon him in 1868. For many

ars he carried on concerts of chamber music

Berlin with eminent success. He has done

•eat service for the advancement of classical

usic, and by his conscientious and thorough

scipline as a teacher many of his pupils have

so distinguished themselves. He is most widely

lown through his numerous studies for the

pianoforte, although he has published a long list
of other worthy compositions. [C.E.]

LOEWE, Johanna Sophie. Correct date of
birth to March 24, 1816.

LOGROSCINO, NicoLO. See vol. ii. p. 514 a.

LOHENGRIN. Line 4 of article, for Sept.
read Aug. 28.

LONDON. For additions to article on vol.
ii. p. 1630, see Degeees in Appendix.

This society was formed in 1878 by Mr. Heath-
cote Long and other prominent amateurs. Its
objects are stated in its second rule — a canon un-
impeachable in spirit, if not in grammar — to be
'the practice and performance of the works of
composers which are not generally known to the
musical public' Mr. Barnby was appointed
musical director, and Mr. Long and Mr. A.
Littleton honorary secretaries. An efficient
choir was formed, and the first concert was given
on June 27, 1879, in St. James's Hall, although,
strictly speaking, the occasion was a private
one. Goetz's Psalm c.xxxvii. was introduced to
London at that concert, the solos being sung, as on
many subsequent occasions, by efficient ama-
teurs. From 1884 until the last season of the
society's existence, Mr. Heathcote Long was
alone in the honorary secretaryship. After the
season of 1886, Mr. Barnby was succeeded as
conductor by Mr. A. C. Mackenzie, who con-
ducted the final concert on May 24, 18S7. In
the course of that year the society was dis-
banded, and a sum of £100 was handed over
from its funds to the Royal College of Music.
During the nine years of its existence the insti-
tution performed the following works for the
first time in England, besides others which had
been heard before, though not frequently. Mr.
Stanford's ' Three Holy Children,' for instance,
was given for the first time in London, though
not for the first time in England, by the London
Musical Society : —


Beethoven. Cantata on the death of the Emperor Joseph the

Brahms. Vier Gesange, op, 17.

DvorAk. ' Stabat Mater.'

Goetz. Psalm cxxsvii. and *Noenia.*

Gounod. Troisieme jMesse (selections).

Grieg. ' Klosterthor.'

Hiller. ' O weep for those.'

Hofmann, Heinrich. 'Cinderella.*

Jensen. "Feast of Adonis.'

Eheinberger. ' Christoforus.'

Silas, E. Magnificat.

Schumann. 'The lung's Son," ' The Minstrel's Curse,* and 'Spanische


Bach. Toccata in F, arranged.

David. Ferd. Violin Concerto in E minor (Miss Shinner).

Dvorak. Legenden.

Schubert. Overture, ' Des Teufel's Lustschloss." TJJ "I

LOOSEMORE, Henrt. Line 6 of article, /or
anthems read an anthem. Line lo, for in 1667
read after Michaelmas 1670. Concerning the
Exeter organ, built by his son, see vol. ii.
p. 592.

LORTZING, G. A. P. 167 a, 1. 11, for 1845
read 1846. Correct date of death to 1851. Line
15 from end of article, /or April 17 read April 15.



LOVER, Samuel, born at Dublin in 1797,
began his career as an artist and miniature
painter, was elected a member of the Royal
Hibernian Society of Arts in 18 28, and after-
wards became its secretary. He wrote a num-
ber of successful novels, dramas, and poems, and
composed both words and music of many songs
and ballads. He also appeared as a singer in a
musical entertainment, ' The Irishman's Carpet
Bag.' His compositions include the music and
songs to his dramas and burlettas produced at
the London theatres and rendered popular by
Mme. Vestris, Tyrone Power, and others, viz.
' Rory O'More,' AJelphi, Sept. 29, 1837 ;
' White Horse of the Peppers,' Haymarket,
1838; 'Happy Man,' Haymarket, May 20,
1839; 'Greek Boy,' Covent Garden, Sept. 26,
1 840 ; ' II Paddy Whack in Italia,' English
Opera House (Lyceum), April, 1841; ' Mac-
(.'arthy More,' Lyceum, April i, 1861, and many
detached songs, principally Irish, both humor-
ous and pathetic. Many of these were very
efiective, as, for instance, his ' Wliat will you do,
love?' 'Angel's Whisper,' 'Molly Bawn,' and
' The low-backed Car.' An evening entertain-
ment which he attempted met with some success
in England and America. He died July 6,
1S68. [A.C.]

LUCAS, Chaeles. Add that in 1840-3 he
occasionally conducted at the Ancient Concerts.

LUCCA, Pauline. Add date of birth, April
26, 1841, and that her parents were Italian.
P. 171 a, 1. 22, fov In July read On July 22.
Add that in the Italian seasons of 1882-4, at
Covent Garden, Mme. Lucca appeared in the
parts of Selica, Cherubino, Carmen, etc., and was
announced to appear in 'Colomlja,' but that
opera was not produced. In the last line of the


article,yorRahder read Rahden. (Correcte d
late editions.)

LUISA MILLER. Line 4 of article,
December read Dec. 8.

LUMEYE, H. C. Correct date of birtl
May 2, 1810.

4 of article, for in May read March 9. (Corre(
in late editions.)

LUTE. P. 176 a, 1. 8 from bottom, omit
clause between the commas, as the lute is
furnished with a soundpost. P. 176 h, 1.
the single-necked lute had, about a.D. 16
open strings or diapasons as well as the th<
bo, but always in pairs of strings. For '1
t&rb^,' or ' liuto attiurbato ' see Theoebo, vol
p. 100 h. P. 177 a, 11. 40, 54, 59, for the mode ^
izing of the Laux Maler lute figured on p. 1 jt(
the use made of old lutes to repair other
struments, the attribution of the surm
Luther, the true date for Maler, and the
dote told by Mace concerning King Cha:
and Goothiere (Gaultier), see Theoebo, vol
p. 1006. [A.J.J

LUTENIST. The date given on p. 178 a, IJD
is corrected in the article Shore, vol. lii. 48!
where the death of Shore is given as 1 750. I ;
is probably the correct date.

LUTHERAN CHAPEL. The last sentei }
of the article should run: — The organists sii
1784 have been Augustus Friedrich Karl K(
mann, died Easter Day, 1829, etc.

LWOFF, Alexis. Add date of birth, May 'f

LYCEUM THEATRE. P. 181 a, 1. 20, j "
July 22 read July 23. Line II from end
article, ybr 71 read 41.








MAAS, Joseph, born Jan. 30, 1847, at
Dartford ; began his career as a chor-
ister at Rochester Cathedral, and was
taught singing by J. L. Hopkins, the organist,
and later by Mme. Bodcla-Pyne. He was for
some time a clerk in Chatham dockyard, but
went to Milan in 1869, and studied under San
Giovanni. He made his d^but at one of Leslie's
concerts, Feb. 26, 1871, and sang 'Annabell
Lee ' in the place of Sims Reeves, with great
.success, ' inasmuch as he was not only compelled
by unanimous desire to repeat it, but there was a
strong attempt to induce him to sing it a third
time, which, however, he had the good sense to
resist.' He played the hero in ' Babil and
Bijou' at Covent Garden, Aug. 29, 1872; he
then went to America, and played in Miss Kel-
logg's English Opera Company. He reappeared
in England at the Adelphi under Carl Rosa, as
Gontrau on the production of Briill's ' Golden
Cross,' March 2, 1878, and was engaged by

Rosa for three years as his principal tenor bo ■'
at Her Majesty's and in the provinces, if
principal parts were Rienzi on its productijt
at Her Majesty's, Jan. 27, 1879; Raoul, Ft 1
12, 1879; Willielm Meister on the producti !
in English of ' Mignon,' Jan. 12, 1880 ; Radair ,1
on the production in English of ' Aida,' Feb. I ;j
1880; also Faust, Thaddeus, Don C^sar, et (
He played at Her Majesty's in Italian in 188
and at Covent Garden (as Lohengrin) in 1883. 1
played under Rosa at Drury Lane in 1883-8
his new parts being Edgar of Ravenswoo
April 19, 1884, and the Chevalier des Griei
on production in London of 'Manon,' May
1885. He was very popular on the stage, mo:
on account of his very fine voice, which was sa
to resemble Giuglini's in character, rather ths
for his dramatic gift, since he was a vei
indifferent actor. He was equally popular:
the concert-room, where he a]jpeared first at tl
Sacred Harmonic, in the ' Messiah' April 4, 187!


nd at the Philharmonic, May 2 1, 1 879, He sang

t all the principal concerts, and at the various

[andel and provincial festivals. He sang also

1 Paris at Pasdeloup's concerts, April 6, 1884,

nd at Brussels at the Bach and Handel Festival

f 1885. His last important engagement was at

be Birmingham Festival of 1885, where he sang

1 Dvorak's 'Spectre's Bride, ' Aug. 27, and

tanford's 'Three Holy Children,' Aug. 28, on

he production of those works. At the Norwich

"estival of the previous year he had introduced

Apollo's Invocation,' a scena vrritten for him

y Massenet. He died Jan. 16, 1886, from a

omplication of disorders, rheumatic fever, bron-

hitis, congestion of the lungs, brought on from

cold taken while fishing. Maas's 'greatest

riumphs were gained in the concert room rather

ban on the stage. For several years he has

tood in the very first rank of tenor singers,

ot only by reason of his magnificent voice, but

f his thoroughly finished and artistic style. . . .

5y his amiable personal character the deceased

rtist won the esteem and affection of all who

lad the privilege of his friendship.' ^ [A.C.]


)ER TOONKUNST. See vol. iv. p. 255.

MACBETH. Line 7 of article, read March 1 7.

MACBETH, Allan, born in Greenock, March

3, 1856, and received his musical education

hiefly in Germany. In 1880 he was appointed

onductor to the Glasgow Choral Union, but

esigned the post in 1S87. He is organist of

)t. George's-in-the-Fields Established Church.

tir. Macbeth, in spite of much occupation of his

ime in teaching (pianoforte and singing), has

bund leisure for composition, for which he has

decided gift. He has written a number of

leasing pianoforte pieces, besides two or three

irchestral movements played at the Choral

Jnion Concerts, and since transcribed for piano.

i.s a song writer Mr. Macbeth has generally

)een very successful, and he has besides ably

■rranged for voices several Scotch melodies, as

veil as written some original part-songs. He has

n operetta in MS., 'The Duke's Doctor.' [W.He.]

MACFARPElSr, Sm G. A. Add that his

•ratorio ' King David ' was produced at the

Lieeds Festival, 1883, and that in the same year

le received the honour of knighthood. He died

)ct. 31, 1887, his last published work being an

Andante and Hondo in E for violin and organ,

ontained in the ' Organist's Quarterly Journal '

'or Oct. 1887. A cantata for female voices

Around the Hearth,' was published posthu-

Qously. As Principal of the Royal Academy of

Music, Sir G. A. Macfarren was succeeded in

1 by Dr. A. C. Mackenzie, and as Professor

)f Music at Cambridge, by Dr. C. Villiers Stan-

brd. [M.]

McGUCKIN, Barton, bom July 28, 1852,

it Dublin, began his career as a chorister at

Armagh Cathedral. He received instruction

torn the late R. Turle, then organist there, in

tinging, organ, violin, and pianoforte. He be-

1 AtheniBum, Jan. 23, 1881.



came first tenor at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin,
in 1 871, and was for a time a pupil of Joseph
Robinson. He sang at one of the Philliarraonic
concerts in Dublin in 1874, and in the following
year made his d^but at the Crystal Palace Con-
certs July 5, 1875, after which he went to Milan
and studied under Trevulsi. He reappeared with
success at the same concerts Oct. 28, 1876, where
he also made his d^but as an oratorio singer in
the ' Lobgesang,' Nov. 3, 1877. He made his
debut on the stage as Thaddeus under Carl Rosa
at Birmingham Sept. 10, 1880; at Dublin as
Wilhelm Meister May 9, 1881 ; in the same
part at Her Majesty's Jan. 20, 1882, and as
Moro on the production in England of ' The
Painter of Antwerp,' an English version of
Balfe's Italian opera ' Pittore e Duca,' Jan. 28,
1882. He remained in Rosa's company both in
London and the provinces until the summer of
1887, and has become a great favourite both
as a singer and actor. His most important parts
are Lohengrin, Faust, and Don Jos^ ; in new
operas he has created at Drury Lane the parts of
Phoebus (' Esmeralda'), March 26, 1883; Orso
('Colomba'), April 9, 1883; Waldemar ('Na-
deshda'), April 16, 1885 : Guillem de Cabestanh
('Troubadour'), June 8,1886; Oscar ('Nordisa'),
May 4, 18S7 ; at Edinburgh, Renzo on the pro-
duction in English of Ponchielli's 'Promessi
Sposi,' and at Liverpool, Des Grieux (' Manon '),
Jan. 17, 1885. Ml-. McGuckin is extremely
popular in the concert-room, and has sung at the
Philharmonic, the Popular and Oratorio Concerts,
and at the Handel and provincial festivals. His
last important engagement was at the Norwich
Festival of 1887, where he sang the tenor music
in Mancinelli's ' Isaias.' He went to America
as the principal tenor of the National Opera Com-
pany, and has lately returned. [A.C.]

MACKENZIE, A. C. To list of works add
the following: — Operas. 'Colomba,' op. 28
(Drury Lane, April 5, 1883); 'The Trouba-
dour' (ibid. June 8, 18S6), the words of both by
Francis Hueffer. Oratorio: 'The Rose of Sha-
ron' (Norwich Festival, 1884), words by Joseph
Bennett, Cantatas : ' Jason ' (Bristol Festival,
1882), and 'The Bride'; 'The Story of Sayid'
(Leeds Festival, 1886). Orchestral: 'La Belle
Dame sans Merei,' op. 29 ; two Scotch Rhapso-
dies, op. 21 and 24 ; overture, 'Twelfth Night,'
op. 40 ; concerto for violin and orchestra, op. 32,
played by Senor Sarasate at the Birmingham
Festival, 1885. Piano, ops. 15, 20, and 23, six
pieces for violin and piano, op. 37, besides songs,
part-songs, and three organ pieces. His most
important recent compositions are his ' Jubilee
Ode,' words by Joseph Bennett (Crystal Palace,
June 22, 1887, and Norwich Festival of same
year), and an ode, 'The New Covenant,' com-
posed for the opening of the Glasgow Exhibition
of 1888. The composer received the honorary-
degree of Mus.D. from the University of St.
Andrew's in 1886. He was elected principal of
the Royal Academy of Music in Feb. 1888. [M.]

MADRIGAL SOCIETY. P 1936, 1. 30,
add that since 1882 the meetings have been held



in Willis's Eooms. Line 12 from bottom, for
1752 read 1757. P. 194 «, 1. 25, for it is now
vacant read in 1S7S the Right Hon. Earl Beau-
champ was appointed. Line 33, add that in
1887 Dr. Stainer was succeeded as director of
the music by Dr. J. F. Bridge and Mr. Eaton
Eaning. Since 1 881 two prizes of £10 and £5
respectively, have been awarded annually for the
two best madrigals. From the list of present
members all names except those of Drs. Stainer
and Bridge, and Mr. Otto Goldschmidt, are to
be omitted.

the Cologne Choral Union gave a set of ten
concerts in St. James's Hall in June, 1883.

MAGNIFICAT. Add to references at end
of article, Israel in Egypt, vol. ii. p. 25,
Oratorio, vol. ii, p. 546, and Handel, vol. iv.
p. 664.

MAHILLON, Charles & Co., wind-instru-
ment makers. This firm was founded at Brus-
sels by C. Mahillon (bom 1813, died 18S7), in
1S36. Three of his sons are now in the business,
Victor (see below), Joseph, who conducts the
Brussels business, and Fernand who manages
the London branch established in 1S84, "in
Leicester Square, and removed in 1S87 to Oxford

Mahillon, Victor, of the firm of wind-instru-
ment makers, above mentioned, a writer of
important works on acoustics and musical in-
.struments, and the honorary and zealous custo-
dian of the Museum of the Brussels Conserva-
toire, was born in that city, March 10, 1841.
After studying music under some of the best
professors there, he applied himself to the prac-
tical study of wind-instrument manufacture and
was taken into his father's business in 1865. He
started a musical journal ' L'ficho Musical ' in
1869 and continued it until 1886, when his
time became too much occupied to attend to
its direction. In 1S76 he became the honor-
ary curator of the museum of tlie Conserva-
toire, which, begun with Fe'tis's collection of
78 instruments, has been, through his special
knowledge and untiring energy increased (18S8)
to upwards of 1500! An important contribu-
tion to it, of Indian instruments, has been a
division of the fine collection of the Rajah Sir
Sourindro Mohun Tagore, between the Brussels
Conservatoire and the Royal College of Music,
London. _Mr. Victor Mahillon has published
two very important works, besides three synop-
tical tables of harmony, voices and instru-
ments. The first is 'Les ifile'ments d'Acoustique
musicale et instruuientale,' an octavo volume
published in 1S74, which gained for him at
Paris in 1878 the distinction of a silver medal.
The other is the catalogue of the Conservatoire,
•which has appeared in volumes annually from
1877, and is of the highest interest. As well as
these noteworthy works he has contributed to
the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
several historical and technical articles of great
value upon wind instruments, both wood and


brass. As soon as Mr. Victor Mahillon could intro
duce a workshop into the Conservatoire he did so
and he has there had reproductions made of manj
rare instruments which,. through their antiquity
or the neglect of former owners, had become toe
much deteriorated for purposes of study. Amonc
these reproductions the Roman Lituus anc
Buccina in the Music Loan Collection at Ken-
sington, in 1885, will be remembered as prominent
objects of interest in the fine selection contributed
under Mr. Mahillon's auspices by the Brussels
Conservatoire. He intends to reproduce from
authentic sources, if he has not already fulfilled
that intention, the complete families of wind-
instruments that were in use in the i6th and
17th centuries.

Mr. Victor Mahillon's services to the Inven-
tions Exhibition of 1 885, in the above-named
contribution of instruments to the Loan Collec-
tion, and the historical concerts under his direc-
tion performed by professors and students of the
Brussels Conservatoire, at which several rare
instruments were actually plaj'ed upon in con-
temporary compositions, were so highly appre-
ciated by the E.xecutive CouncU of that Exhibition
that a gold medal was awarded to him. [A.J.H.]

MALBROUGH. Last line but one of arti-
cle,/or Dec. 15 read Dec. 13.

MALLINGER, Mathilde, bom Feb. 17,
1847, at Agram, Croatia, was first taught sing-
ing there by her father, a professor of music, and
Professor Lichtenegger, later by Gordigiani and
Vogl at the Prague Conservatorium from 1863-
66, and finally by Richard Lewy at Vienna.
On the recommendation of Franz Lachner
she was engaged at IMunich, where she made
her d^but as Norma, Oct. 4, 1866. She was the
original Eva in the ' Meistersinger,' June 21,
1868. She made her debuts at Berlin as Elsa,
April 6, and Norma, April 9, 1869. She was
an excellent actress and a great favourite, mar-
ried the Baron Schimmelpfennig von der Oye at
Berlin, and remained there during her whole
musical career. On leave of absence she played
with success at Vienna, Munich, etc., and in
Italian opera at St. Petersburg and Moscow, but
with indifferent success. Her parts included
Donna Anna, Fidelio, Jessonda, Valentine,
Leonora (' Trovatore'), Iphigenia, Euryanthe,
Susanna, Zerlina, Mrs. Ford, etc. About 1871

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