George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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responding parts of all three of Byrd's Masses,
1:. those for five, four, and three voices. It is
isible that they were published in this form.
e part-books are in admirably fresh condition,
i have every appearance of being in the same
te as when they were first published, but on
! other hand the paper on which the masses
i printed is different from that of the rest of the
ifk, and the register signatures show that they
, not originally intended to form pai-t of the

rhe account of the Mass for five voices in vol.
p. 230 should be corrected by the article on
,rd in this volume, p. 573 b. In Father Mor-
8 ' Life of Father William Weston ' (' The
rubles of our Catholic Forefathers,' second
les, 1875, pp. 142-5) will be found some fresh
ormation about Byrd, though Dr. Eimbault's

mistakes are again repeated there. Fatlier
•rris has found several allusions to Byrd as a
nsant in various lists preserved in the State
pers (Domestic Series, Elizabeth, cxlvi. 137.

11, clxvii. 47, cxcii. 48), and in the follow'-

interesting passage in Father Weston's

tobiography, describing his reception at a

ise which is identified as being that of a cer-

1 Mr. Bold : ' We met there also jVIr. Byrd,

most celebrated musician and organist of the
2[lish nation, who bad been formerly in the
Jen's Chapel, and held in the highest estima-
i; but for his religion he sacrificed every-
ig, both his office and the Court and all those
es which are nurtured by such persons as
tend to similar places in the dwellings of
ices, as steps towards the increasing of thefr
unes.' This was written in the summer of
6. The recently published Sessions Eolls of

County of Midrllesex show that true bills

■ not going to church, chapel, or any usual
•■e of common prayer' were found against
liana Birde wife of William Byrde ' of°Har-
ton on June 28, 1581 ; Jan. 19, April 2,
2; Jan. 18, April 15, Dec. 4, 15S3 ; March
May 4, Oct. 5, 1584; March 31, July 2,
5; and Oct. 7, 1586. A servant of Byrd's,
John Reason, was included in all these in-
ments, and Byrd himself was included in

■ of Oct. 7, 1586, and without his wife or his
ant a true bUl was found against him on
f h^^9^' ^^ which date he is still described
'f Harlington. It is very curious that if, as
ner Weston was informed, he had sacrificed
mice at Court, there should be no mention of
t the Chapel Royal Cheque Book; but his
equent dealings at Stondon with Mrs. Shelley
' that he must have been protected by some



powerful Influence. To this lie seems to allude
m the dedication of the Gradualia to the Earl of
Northampton. FW.B.S.l

MASSART, L. J, Add day of birth, July 19.
MASSlfi, Felix Marie, known under the
name of Victor. Add that he died in Paris,
July 5. 1884, after a long and painful illness,
which had confined him to the house and ren-
dered him totally incapable of active work. In
1876 he was obliged to give up his professorship
of advanced composition at the Conservatoire, and
was succeeded by Guiraud. During seven years
of suffering his only consolation lay in composi-
tion, and in this way his opera, 'La Mort de
Cl^opatre,' intended for the Ope'ra, was written.
After his death a representation of the work took
place at the Ope'ra Comique in the composer's
honour (April 25, 1885), though the reception
of 'Paul et Virginie' did not hold out much
hope of success for a work evidently written in
the same style and aiming too high. Although
the composer's death was sufficiently recent to
secure a favourable reception for this misnamed
'grand opera,' yet the composition was an evi-
dent failure, consisting as it did of misplaced
pretension, and an ambitious imitation of Gou-
nod's methods, in which Mass^ had lost what
little remained to him of his original grace and
charm. In spite of this change in his style,
and though he must rank as a musician of the
second order, there is at times in some of his
songs a personal charm, a sober gaiety, and a,
gentle emotion. It was when he composed a
song without having in view any particular in-
terpretation, and when nothing more was re-
quired of him, that he could write most freely
and could give the exact relation between the
music and the words, a quality in which he
originally excelled, and in which he resembled
the school of Gr^try. His ideal, which was on
the whole a just one, did not exceed the limits
of an exact feeling for prosody, and it is by those
compositions of his in which the laws of metre are
most faithfully observed that he is most likely
to be for a short time remembered. [A.J,]

MASSENET, Jules Frederic £mile. Add
that the composer, though now in the prime of
life, has produced nothing, during the last ten
years, but works which are practically repeti-
tions of his former productions — 'Marie Mag-

deleine,' ' Les Erinnyes,' ' Le Roi de Lahore '

all of which are far superior to anything he has
since composed. On May 22, 18S0, he conducted
his oratorio, 'La Vierge,' at the first historical
concert at the Opera, an unsuccessful scheme of
Vaucorbeil's. He produced at Brussels his reli-
gious opera 'H^rodiade,' Dec. 19, 1881, which
succeeded for one season only in that city, and
failed in Paris, where it was represented at the
Opera Italien (Jan. 30, 1884), after being partly
rewritten by the composer. On Jan. 19, 1884,
the opera ' Manon ' was produced at the Op&a
Comique, and on Nov, 30, 18S5, ' Le Cid ' at
the Opera, neither of which have left a very
permanent mark behind them. In the former



the composer tried the experiment of connecting
the numbers of an op^ra comique by a slightly
orchestiated accompaniment to the dialogue,
which was not sung, as in the ease of recitativo
secco, but spoken as usual. The idea was very
ingenious, and deserves to be matured. In ' Le
Cid' the heroic element has been ignored en-
tirely, and the result is a work of somewhat
effeminate character, wholly destitute of any
connection with CorneiUe's tragedy. To the
number of his works are to be added three new
Orchestral Suites, nos. 5-7, Scenes Napoli-
taines, Scbnes Alsaciennes, and Scenes de
Feerie (Concerts du Chatelet, iSSo, 1882,
1883) ; incidental music to Sardou's 'Theodora'
and ' Le Crocodile ' (Porte St. Martin, 18S4 and
1886) ; a short work for voice and orchestra,
* Biblis ' ; various ' Pofemes ' for voice and piano,
and an opera, ' Pertinax,' intended for the Opera
Comique. In Oct. 1878, Massenet replaced Bazin
as professor of advanced composition at the Con-
servatoire. In 1876 he was decorated with the
Legion d'Honneur, and in 1878 was elected a
member of the Academic des Beaux-Arts in
place of Bazin, and to the exclusion of Saint-
Saens, who was generally expected to be the new
member, as he was introduced in the first rank
by the musical section. This was one of the
rare occasions on which the entire Academie has
not observed the order of presentation established
by the section to which the new member is to
belong. Massenet was only 36 at the time, and
was the youngest member ever elected to the
Academie des Beaux-Arts, for Halevy, who
was the most remarkable previous example of
what may be called 'Academic precocity,' was
37 when he entered the Institut in 1836. Mas-
senet, who has recently (Jan. '88) been made an
officer of the Legion d'Honneur, has been through-
out a spoiled child of fortune ; but the only
music that can endure is that in which are dis-
played strong convictions and a firm resolution
not to yield to public caprice ; while Massenet's
works, especially his later compositions, which are
written without any fixed ideal, and in view of im-
mediate success, scarcely survive the day of their
birth, nor do they deserve to survive it. [A,J.]
MASSOL, Jean £tienne Augcste, born
1802 at Lodfeve, H^rault, was taught singing at
the Paris Conservatoire from 1823-25, and gained
a first prize there. He made his dt^but at the
Opera as Licinius ('Vestale'), Nov. 17, 1825,
and remained there until Oct. 8, 1845. He first
played second tenor parts in several new operas —
Eodolphe (' Tell ') ; Herald (' Robert ') ; Kalaf
(in Cherubini's ' Ali Baba ') ; Tavannes (' Hugue-
nots ') ; Quasimodo (in Louise Bertin's ' Esme-
ralda ') ; Forte Braccio (in Halevy's ' Guido et
GineATa ') ; Mocenigo (' Reine de Chypre ') ;
and the baritone parts of Tell and Jolicceur
(' Philtre '), etc. He played for a time in Brus-
sels, London, etc., and returned as principal
baritone to the Opera in 1850, where he re-
mained until his farewell benefit Jan. 14, 1858.
The Emperor was present on that occasion, im-
mediately after the attempt made on his life


by Orsini on his arrival at the theatre. K
best new parts were Reuben (Auber's ' E
fant Prodigue'), Dec. 6, 1850, and Ahasu
rus (Halevy's ' Juif Errant'), April 23, i8j
He was a good singer, admirably suited for hen
drama, having the proper figure and height, ai
a splendid voice. ' In secondary characters
one was JMassol's superior, aad when he play
the principal parts he did so with the happie
results. Thus he made the success of the Ji
Errant. . . . His Quasimodo did him the great*
honour. . . .' (Jules Janin in the ' D^bats.') I
became for a time Director of the Royal Theati
at Brussels ; he subsequently went into businei
and, retiring, resided at Versailles, and finally
Paris, where he died Oct, 30, 1887.

While a member of the Brussels Company
made his d^but at Drury Lane in 1846, as J
Nevers July 17, as Jolicceur Aug. 10, etc. I
sang at concerts in 184S, and appeared once
Covent Garden as Alphonso XI. July 4. Rog.
in his ' Garnet d'un tenor,' has recorded tL
Massol did not understand Italian, and utter
the most horrible jargon. He sang his first ;
too low, but otherwise obtained a success, wbi
was partly due to the way in which he had pr
court to the journalists and other influential p'
sons, and to his knowledge of artistic cnoke
He played there in 1849-50 Pietro (' Ma.
niello'), De Nevers, Kilian ('Freischvitz'), et'
at Her Majesty's in 1S51, Reuben, on the p
duction of ' L'Enfant Prodigue,' June 12; t
Baron de Beaumanoir (Balfe's ' Quatre I
d'Aymon'), Aug. 11, etc. According to (
' Athenaeum,' June 14, his Reuben had a pa'
archal dignity and pathos, and he sang better
that opera than in any other. [A.

MASSON, Elizabeth, bom 1806, was tauj
singing by Mrs. Henry Smart, sen., and in It;
by Mme. Pasta. She made her first appearance
public at Ella's second subscription concert, in ■
Argyll Rooms, March 11, 1831, and sang afi
wards at the Antient Concerts, March 16, 18
and at the Philharmonic, March 11, 1833; 1
sang frequently at those Societies' concerts dur
a public career of about twelve years, and revi'
there forgotten airs of Handel, Purcell, Pergol
Gluck, ]\Iozart, etc. She was in great request 1
private concerts, since she possessed, apart ft
her musical attainments, great talents and aca (i
plishments, and was an excellent linguist,
sang occasionally in oratorio, viz. at the festi ;
in Westminster Abbey, 1834, and at the Sac
Harmonic, where she took the parts of Solom
Nov. 22, 1839, ^"*1 Storge on the revival of Je 1
tha, April 7, 1841, She afterwards devoted t
self to teach ing and composition. She wrote mi
songs to the words of Scott, Byron, Adela
Procter, etc., and edited a series of 'Origi
Jacobite songs' (Lonsdale, 1839), and 'So
for the Classical Vocalist ' (Leader & Cc
1st series of twelve songs, 1845; a 2nd se: " ijf
i860), which enjoyed a well-deserved popular '■. j
She founded the Royal Society of Female J '
sicians in 1839, and was its hon. treasurer u
her death, Jan. 9, 1S65. On its amalgamat


th the Eoyal Society of Musicians in 1866,
3 late Mr. F. J. Masson, her brother, gave a
nation of 200 guineas to the latter society in
nembrance of her. 'As a singer this lady was
vet rated as high as she deserved to be, be-
ase her voice, which was a mezzo-soprano, had
remarkable power nor charm. But it had
en thoroughly trained under the example and
luence of Madame Pasta, and its owner's
iding of music, intelligence, expression, and
ish, were thoroughly appreciated by all those
ect connoisseurs who valued style and under-
nding beyond g^reater natural powers than
ra turned to poor account. As a professor
iss Masson was widely and deservedly in re-
est. Apart from her profession, she was at
ce conscientious, energetic, and refined, and
i withal that racy originality of character
lich will make her long remembered and
ssed. In brief, she was a good artist, in part
:ause she was a good woman and a gentle-
man,' ^ [A.C.]

MATERNA, Amalie. Add date of birth,
47> and that she sang the part of Kundrj' at
J first performance of ' Parsifal,' July 28, 1882.

MATHESON, Johaxn. The name should
spelt Mattheson throu<jhout, and the day of
ith added, April 17. In list of works add
'ritica Musica' (1722).

the production of the work in Paris, read
57, and for that of the first performance in
ndon, read July 3, 1823. It took place at
3 King's Theatre.

MATINS. P. 238 h, 1. T9, after Invitato-
JM add in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 685 b.
MATTEI, Abbate. P. 239 a, 1. 9,/or May 17
lid May 12.

MAUREL, Victor, bom at Marseilles, re-
eved instruction at the Paris Conservatoire in
iging from Vauthrot, and in opera from Du-
'•noy, and gained the first prizes in both sub-
jts, co-equal with Gailhard, in 1S67. He
tde his d^but at the Op^ra as De Nevers
6i Conte di Luna in or about 1869. He was
Kt in Italy, where he played the Cacique on
b- production of Gomes 's ' Guarany ' at MUan,
hrch 19, 1870. He made bis de'but at the
Jyal Italian Opera as Renato, April 21, 1873,
ide a great success, and was engaged there
wy year until 1879 inclusive. His parts com-
fsed Don Giovanni, Tell, Almaviva, Hoel, Peter
t Great, Valentine, Hamlet, the Cacique ; in
eras new to England, Telramund, May 8,
i'5 ; Wolfram, May 6, 1876 ; the Flying Dutch-
Dn, June 16, 1877, and Domingo in Masse's
'lul and Virginia,' June i, 1878. He re-
a>eared at the French Ope'ra as Hamlet, Nov.
2 1879, ^Q<i a-lso played Amonasro on the pro-
dtion there of ' Aida,' March 22, 18S0. He
ulertook the management with Corti of the
Ilian Opera at the Theatre des Nations with
Oistrous financial results, in spite of a company

I Athenaeum, Jan. 14,1865.



including Mesdames Marimon, Adler-D^vrifes,
Nevada, and Tremelli, Gayarr^, the brothers De
Reszke, and himself, and the successful produc-
tion of Massenet's 'Hdrodiade,' Feb. i, 1884. He
played at the Op^ra Comique, Peter, Oct. 6,
1885, and Zampa, Jan. 19, 1S86, with great,
success. He played again at Covent Garden in
18S6, and at Drury Lane for the first time in
18S7 in favoiirite parts. Between these engage-
ments he created, with the greatest success, lago
in Verdi's ' Otello,' Feb. 5, 1887, and showed
himself the best acting baritone on the Italian
stage since Faure. [A.C.]

MAURER, L. W. Line 2 of article, for
Aug. read Feb.

MAY, Edwaed Collett. Add date of death,
Jan. 2, 1887.

MAY QUEEN. Add that it was first per-
formed June 24, 1845, at Bennett's own concert.

MAYER, Charles. Add that a Mazurka
by him in Fj major was for some time consi-
dered to be by Chopin, and as such was included
in the first issue of Klindworth's edition. It has
been removed from later issues.

MAYER, JoHANN Simon. Line 11 of article,
for Graubiindten read the Grisons. (Corrected
in late editions.) P. 241 a, 1. 10 from end of
article, for 1795 read 1800; and a line below,
for 1812 read 1813.

]MAZAS, J. F, Addday of birth, Sept. 23.

MAZZINGHI, Joseph (vol. ii. p. 242 a). To
have made clear the incongruity in the manner
of the original performance of the duet ' When
a little farm we keep,' it should have been men-
tioned that the duet was accompanied on the
pianoforte by one of the singers of it, upon the

MEARS, Richard, son of Richard Meares, a
maker of lutes, viols, etc., who in 1677 and for
many years afterwards carried on business in
Bishopsgate Street, 'near to Sir Paul Finder's,'
was bred to his father's business, but abandoned
it for that of a publisher of music. He esta-
blished himself in St. Paul's Churchyard, and
published, among other things, two collections
of Harpsichord Lessons by Mattheson, Handel's
first of ' Suites de Pifeces pour le Clavecin,' and
his opera, ' Radamisto ' ; Ariosti's opera ' Coriola-
nus,' and Corelli's Sonatas and Concertos. The
greater part of his publications were engraved on
copper, but some of the later ones were stamped
on pewter. He was unable to make head against
Walsh, and his business gradually declined.
He removed first to Birchin Lane and thence
to London House Yard, where he died about
1743. [W.H.H.]

MEDIATION. P. 245 a. 1, 11, for Tones,
THE Gregorian, read Gregorian Tones in
Appendix, vol. iv. p. 655, etc.

MEFISTOFELE. Grand opera in a pro-
logue and five acts, words (after Goethe) and
music by Arrigo Boito. Produced at Milan,
March 5, 186S. Remodelled and brought out
again, in a condensed form (prologue and four



acts), at Bologna, Oct. 4, i875 ; »* Her Majesty's |
Theatre, July 6, iSSo. L^^^J

MEHLIG, Anna. Line 2 of article, /or June
read July.

MfiHUL. Line i, for Henki read Nicolas,
and correct date of birth to June 22. P. 247 a
1. 20, for fiddlestring read E-stnng (chanterelle).
(Corrected in late editions.)

MEINARDUS, Ludwig Siegfried, born
Sept 17, 1827, at Hooksiel (Oldenburg), was at
first educated at the Gymnasium at Jever, where
his father held an official post. He was intended
to study theology, but his musical inclinations
could not be resisted, and he was at length
allowed to devote himself to the art, his
parents imposing the curious condition that he
was to become a public performer on some in-
strument. To this end he took up the violon-
cello, learning what he could from the Stadt-
musikus of the place, who was a violinist. After
making himself ill with excessive practice, he
returned to school, and it was not till he had
finished his studies there that he finally deter-
mined, on the advice of Schumann, who had seen
some of his compositions, to embrace the profes-
sion of a composer. At Christmas, 1846, he en-
tered the Leipzig Couservatorium, but after half
a year, finding that private instruction from
Riccius would be more to his advantage, he ac-
cordingly remained with him for two years. In
1850 he went toBerlinin order to study with A.B.
Marx, but for some reason or other he fell under
the suspicions of the police, and was not allowed
to remain. He betook himself to Liszt at Wei-
mar, where he stayed some months, after which
he went to Erfurt as conductor of _ a small
theatrical company, and subsequently in a simi-
lar capacity to Nordhausen. At last he was
provided with better credentials, and succeeded
in remaining in Berlin. In 1853, having finished
his education with Marx, he was appointed con-
ductor of the Singakademie at Glogau, where he
remained until, in obedience to a call from
Julius Eietz, he went to the Dresden Couserva-
torium as a teacher in 1S65. In 1874 he set-
tled in Hamburg, where he has since been
continuously active as a composer and critic.
His most prominent compositions are the orato-
rios ' Simon Petrus,' ' Gideon,' ' Konig Salomo,'
' Luther in Worms,' ' Ordrun ' ; an opera, ' Bah-
nesa' (three acts, finished 1881); 4 ballads for
chorus, ' Roland's Schwanenlied,' ^ Frau Hitt,'
' Die Nonne,' ' Jung Baldurs Sieg ' ; two sym-
phonies, and many chamber compositions. A
memoir of Mattheson, an autobiographical sketch,
and collected criticisms, are his most important
contributions to literature. [M.]

DIE. Add that it was first given in England,
under Richter, at Drury Lane, May 30, 1882.

MEL, R. DEL. Correct the last sentence
by a reference to the Catalogue of the Motett
Society's publications [see additions below, under
AIoTETT Society], where an anthem adapted by
Dr. Aldvich to the words ' praise the Lord,'


from a work of Mel's, is found in vol. iii
p. 128.

INIELLON, Alfbed. Line i of article, /a
Birmingham read London.

MELODRAMA. See also Ballad in Ap
pendix, vol. iv. p. 530 a.

MELODY. P. 251a, musical example. Thi
last three notes in bar 2 should be a group o
quavers, not two quavers and a crotchet. P. 2 5 1 6
1. c), for first subject read second subject of thi
first movement.

MENDEL, Hermann. Last line but one
article, /or 8 read 11. (Corrected in late edi
tions.) Add that in 1883 the supplementar
volume appeared, edited by Dr. Reissmann.

MENDELSSOHN, P. 253 a, 1. 7 from botton
of text,/or ten read eleven ; the battle lasted froDi
the 1 6th to the 19th. P. 253 b, 1. 5 fro™ bottom
after villa add on Monte Pmcio. In note 3, 1- « I
for four read five. P. 254 a, 1. 54. Her practice |
sense of the value of money comes out in he
letters to E. David. (See Eckardt's 'David, 'iSSi
pp. 42, 45.) P. 255 a, 1. 29, read Ich J. Men
delssohn. Line 35, reac/L. v.g. G. Line45, ?-eai
wandernden (corrected in late editions). P. 258 a
1. 35, for un read une. P. 261 a, 1. 16 tror
bottom, /or Hans read Hanoverian. P. 261 I
1. 6, for cantata read lyric poem — 'lyrisch ,;
Dichtung.' P. 263, note 10, for four read fiv* t
P. 2646, note 6, add the MS. is headed 'Ar "•
Bach,' and the tradition of the Taylors is that i
depicts the actual stream, its waterfalls, broa
shallows, and other features, P. 26? a. Add t ■
note 2 : The quartet was dedicated to 'B[ettj
P[istor] ' ; but after her engagement to Rudor ■-
Mendelssohn requested David to alter the initial
('durch einen kleinenFederschwanz') to 'B. E
(See Eckardt's 'David,' p. 35-) In t^e sam
letter he calls it ' Quartet aus S.' P. 2700, 1. ;
for Meeresstille read Fitigal's Cave. Line 2;
for Feb. 6 read Feb. 8. P. 2706, 1. 26, f-
complaint in read accident to. P. 271 6, note i
should run The ' vocal piece ' of his contrac
with the society. It was first sung at the Pin
harmonic Concert by Mine. Caradori, May i'
1834, with violin obbligato by Henry Blagroy
The MS. is in the Philharmonic Library, (Sc
below, addition to p. 2S1 b.) P. 272 a, 1. i(
fur spring read opening. Line 49, add His fir
introduction to Schumann is said to have take
place at Wieck's house on Oct. 3, the day befoi
the Gewandhaus Concert at which Clara playe
Beethoven's Bb trio. (Moscheles, Life, i. 301
P, 2726, 1. 35, add He had played in Bach
Concerto in D minor for three pianos wit
Clara Wieck and Rakemann at the Gewandhai
on Nov. 9. P. 274 b, at bottom, add On Oct. I:
1837, ^e writes to thank the Gesellschaft d<
Musikfreunde of Vienna for diploma of men
bership. Theletter is in their archives. P. 275
1. 26, for 22 read 21. P. 281 b, 1. 37, add Ji
this time he rewrote ' Infelice,' the second pul
lished version of which is dated Leipzig, Jan. 1,
1843. P. 287 a, 1. 4 from bottom, read He _r
turned to Leipzig on Dec. 3, bringing Miss Lir


ith hira (Mr. Eockstro's information) ; anJ two
aes lower, for Miss Lind read her. P. 288 a.
dd as a foot-note : On this occasion he dis-
ivered the two redundant bars in the Trio of
eethoven's Symphony, which had remained un-
irrected, notwithstanding Beethoven's protest

the publishers in 1810. P. 288 5, 1. 40, add
8 a reminiscence it may be mentioned that the
>lding C's for the oboe in the recitative of the
outh, in no. 19, were put in at the end of the
•st rehearsal, on Mr. Grattan Cooke's complain-
g that Mendelssohn had given him no solos.
i note 19 add Mr. Bennett's Examination
iS reprinted and completed in the * Musical
imes ' from Oct. 1882 to April 1883 inclusive.
, 294 h, I. 5, add After a breakfast with him

B. Hawes's, Thackeray told Pichard Doj'le
?ho told the writer), 'His face is the most
lautiful face I ever saw, like what I imagine
ir Saviour's to have been.' Sir F. Pollock
leminisc. i. 215) ' was much struck by his fine
ee and figure, and the excellence of his conver-
tion.' Line 24, add They could also sparkle
ith rage like a tiger's (Moscbeles, Life, i.
!4). P. 295 a, 1. 34. After Schramm, add
ernet's was painted in return for an extempore
ntasia on ' Don Juan.' Vemet sent it to the
^endelssohns at Berlin. (See Eebecka's letter
, Eckardt's 'David,' p. 39.) P. 3006, after the
non, add A somewhat similar canon, written

the album of Mr. Parry in 1846, is printed

the 'Musical World' for Aug. 19, 1848.
notlier for two violas, ' Viola i, Sir G. Smart ;
iola 2, F. M. B. July 1831,' is given by Dr.

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 169 of 194)