George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 172 of 194)
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include works by Marcello (2 Intermezzi and a
Serenata, autograph, a treatise (1707) two can-
tatas, an aria and two operas) ; S. Albero ; D.
Scarlatti (a Serenata a 4, and 13 vols, of Sonatas,
1752-1757); Perez (8 operas, 1752-1735);
Cafara ; T. Traetta ; L. Vinci ; Sarti ; Graun ;
Perotti ; Haydn ; Mysliweczek (' Demofoonte,'
played at Venice in 1769); Bonno ; Galuppi ;
Guglielmi ('II Re Pastore,' 1767); Naumann;
Leardini ; C. Grossi ; Veiiier (Procurator of St.
Mark's, 1732-45); Stradella; Mattheis ; Brusa;
Giaii (Tlieatre Airs, 1738); G. Porta; Porpoia
(Theatre Airs, 1727); D. Terradellas ; Hasse
(five operas, 1730-58), and two oratorios ; A.
Scarlatti (opera, 'L'Eurillo,' and the following
twenty-seven operas by Cavalli : — Gli Amori
d'ApoUo e di Dafne, Alcibiade, L' Artemisia, La
Calisto, II Giro, La Didone, La Doriclea, L'Egista
Elena, L'Eliogabalo, Ercole atnante, L'Erismena
(two settings), L'Eritrea, II Giasone, L'Hiper-
mestra, Muzio Scevola, Le Nozze di Teti e Peleo,
L'Orimonte, L'Orione, L'Oristeo, L'Ormindo,
Pompeo Magno, La Rosinda, Scipione Africano,
La Statira, La Virtti degli Strali d' Amore, Xerse.

There are also many detached cantatas and
songs. The Contarini collection, which is ex-
tremely rich in operas (some autograph) of the
early Venetian school, has recently been admirably
catalogued byDr.T. Wiel,whohas identified many
works previously considered as anonymous,

h. The Museo Correr has a considerable col-
lection of music, chiefly MS. compositions of the
later Venetian schools. There are many auto-
graphs of B. Furlanetto, and church music,
operas, intermezzos, etc., by Morlacchi, Ber-
nasconi, Perotti, Salari, Pergolese, Jominelli,
Mayer, Lotti, Burzolla, Bertoni, and many others.
In 1881 the collection of Count Leopardo Martin-
engo, consisting chiefly of detached vocal and in-
Btrumental pieces, was added to the collection.

Sweden.
TJPSALA. The Royal library of the Academy
contains 191 printed musical works of the i6th
century, 198 of the 17th, and 120 of the i8th
century. Among the earlier books are many of
great rarity. [W.B.S.]



MUSICAL PERIODICALS.

MUSICAL PERIODICALS. At end of fi

paragraph, ybr 1828 read 1829. Add to not
of The Musical World that in 1886 it was pi
lished by Messrs. Mallett, of Wardour Strt
Mr. F. Hueffer becoming editor. In I
locale was changed to 12 Catherine Street, ajj
in August of that year it was bought by Iti;
E. F. Jacques. P. 427 h, 1. 30 from bottoi
for 1843 read 1842. Line 25 from bottom, »'
date of beginning of The Musical Examiik.
Nov. 1842. P. 428a, par. i.addthatontheretii
ment in 1887 of Mr. Lunn, the editorship of
Musical Times was assumed by Mr. W.A.Barre
P. 428 a, par. 2, add that The Tonic Sol
Ueporter has a department of 'Musical questic
and their answers.' P. 428 b, par. i , add that
proprietorship was transferred to Mr. Harry I
vender. Mr.Turpin edited TheMusical Standa
from 1880 to 1886, Mr. Broadhouse succeedi
him for two years ; finally Mr. Ernest Berghc
B. A., became editor in 18S8. P. 428 6, par.
add that in 1882 The Orchestra appeared
in a folio size. Par. 3, add that The Choir came
an end in 1878. P. 4286, par. 4, add that in li
Mr.W. A. Barrett left the editorial chair. Amc
recent contributions to The Monthly Musical J
cord, Mr. Pauer's ' Chronological Tables and til
materials,' and articles by Dr. Carl Reinecke, I
S. Stratton, and Mr. Verey may be mentione

At end of article add as follows : —

The Musical Review, a weekly musical jc
nal (Novello & Co.), lasted for a few mor
from the beginning of 1883.

The Maga-.iii'} of Music (Coates), a mont!
was established in 1884. It is profusely 11
trated, and contains a musical supplement.

Musical Opinion and Music Trade £ei
(Fitzsimmons, monthly), has flourished s
1877. ■'•'' '^^^ illustrations, musical exam]
original articles, etc.

The Academic Gazette of Trinity Colleg
owned by a company, but worked as the ofi
organ of the College, and published monthl;
Hammond & Co. Dr. Bonavia Hunt was ec
of Musical Education, as it was then ca
from 1880 to 18S4. From 1884 Mr. Turpin^
edited the Academic Gazette.

The Lute (Patey & Willis) has been
lished as a monthly journal since 1883, and
edited for some time by Mr. Joseph Ben
It is now altered in style and has six pag
musical matter to four of letterpress, with
Lewis Thomas as editor.

The Quarterly Musical Beview (Heywi
edited by Dr. Hiles, dates from February if

Musical Society (Morley), first app(
(monthly) in March 1886. It contains art
by Mr. Hamilton Clarke and others, and a i if
cal supplement.

The British Bandsman and Orchestral T "j
circulates among bandmasters and meaibeOf
military, orchestral, and brass bands. It
established in September 1887, under the
editorship of Mr. W.iterson and Mr. Cope
latter of whom is also proprietor and publ
It appears monthly, with a musical supplen I



MUSICAL PERIODICALS.

Tie Meister, the organ of the Wagner Society,
le its first appearance on Feb. 1 3, 18S8. It is
ed quarterly by Eedvvay, under the honorary
orship of Mr. Ashton Ellis and Mr. E. F. Jac-
3. Messrs. Dowdeswell, Shecllock, Glasenapp
Barry are among the contributors. [L.M.M.]
[USICAL UNION. Add that the associ-
a ceased to exist in 1 880, and that its founder,
John Ella, died Oct. 2, 18SS.
[USIC-PRINTING. P. 433, note i, for

read a copy of which is. The book re-
id to was one of the most interesting ex-
ts in the Loan Collection of the Inventions
ibition of 18S5. P. 435 b, 1. 28 from bottom,
Bct statement as to ' The Musical Miscellany,'
hat was printed not from types, but from
•aved blocks.

enry Fougt's Patent, mentioned in vol. ii. p.
b, of which the specification may be read in
Patent OflBce (No. 888, year 1767) states that
)ld ' choral ' type consisted of the whole figure
e note with its tail and the five lines ; but
in his system every note with its five lines
vided into five separate types. The modern
im is therefore very similar to this.

new process for printing music is that
d ' Gravure Chimique,' examples of which
I been occasionally seen in the French
■aro.' The music is first punched on a pewter
5 in the ordinary way, from which a }iaper
f is taken and transferred to a zinc plate.



NAPOLEON.



727



Nitric acid is then applied, which dissolves the
zinc where it is not protected by the ink, and
leaves the notes in relief. This stereotype plate
is then used to print from in the ordinary typo-
graphic press. Mr. Lefman, 57 Eue d'Haute-
ville, Paris, who kindly explained the process to
the writer, also informed him that these cliches, of
the ordinary music size, can be made for 50 francs
(£2)each. [See also Scheukmann, vol. iii.p. 248.]

Mr. Augener, of Newgate Street, London, has
produced some beautiful specimens of music-
printing. The music is first punfched on pewter
plates in the usual way, and is then transferred
to a stone, from which it is printed. The orna-
mental title-pages are equal to the finest copper-
plate engravings. [V. de P.]

MUSIC SCHOOL, OXFORD. Add that the
portraits, of which a list is given, have been
lately moved to the New Schools. They were
exhibited at the Inventions Exhibition in 1885,
when Salomon's portrait was identified. See Add.
MS. 23071, fol. 65, for a list of them in 1 733-4.

MUSIKALISCHES OFFER. To end of
article add references to English edition of
Spitta's Bach, iii. 191-7, 233, 292,294.

MUTE. Omit reference to Dolce Campana.

MYSLIWECZEK, Josef. Line 15, for Nov.
1772, read Oct. 1770.

MYSTERES D'ISIS. Line 4 of article, for
Aug. 26 read Aug. 23.



N.



ABUCCO. Line 3 of article, for in Lent
read March 9.

NACHBAUR, Feanz. Add that in
i he was a member of the German Opera
ipany at Drury Lane, and on June 3 sang the
of Walther in ' Die Meistersinger,' origin-
sung by him on the production of the work
lunich in 1868. He also appeared as Adolar
Euryanthe ' on June 1 3. [A.C.]

ACHRUF. The German word expresses
idea, not merel}' of farewell, but of fame
r death ; thus ' Elegy ' would be a more ac-
ite translation.

rADESCHDA. Romantic opera in four
; words by Julian Sturgis; music by A.
ing Thomas. Produced by the Carl Rosa
ipany at Drury Lane, April 16, 1885. [M.]

fAGELI, J. G. Mention should be made
the 'Lied vom Rhein,' given on p. 16 of
srer's collection.

'AENIA. Add that a setting of the same
ds for chorus and orchestra is op. 82 of the
lished works of Brahms.

APLES. P. 446 a, 1. I, for towards the
of 1584 read in the year 1583. See also
Ijical Libraries, vol. ii. p. 4256.



NAPOLEON, Abthur, son of Alexandre
Napoleon, an Italian, and Dona Joaquina dos
Santos, a Portuguese lady, was born at Oporto,
March 6, 1843. He began to learn the piano at
four years of age under the direction of his father,
who was a professor of music in that city. At
six years of age he played at the Philharmonic of
Oporto. His extraordinary precocity at once
excited attention in Portuguese musical circles.
In 1850, 1851, and 1852 he gave successful con-
certs at Lisbon and Oporto, and was invited to
the Coui-t, where he played several times before
the Queen, Dona Maria II. In 1852 he went
to London, and, under the patronage of the
Duchess of Somerset, gained the favourable
notice of the English aristocracy. In 1853 he
gave concerts in the Salle Herz, Paris, and
playeil before the Emperor and Empress. Re-
turning to London he played at the Mnsical
Union. In Jan. ]854 he was engaged for 12
concerts at the KroU Theatre, Berlin, and hav-
ing been presented by Meyerbeer, played at the
palace of Charlottenburg before the King of
Prussia. He studied with Mr. Hall^ at Man-
chester in the same year, and unMertook tours in
the United Kingdom and Ireland (where the
Lord Mayor of Dublin presented him, in public,
with a testimonial of silver plate worth £100).

3B2



723



NAPOLEON.



In 1S56 he played in Germany and Poland, and
made a tour in England in 1S57 with Sivori and
Piatti. In that year Arthur Napoleon went to
the Brazils ami was enthusiastically received by
his countrymen. In the first four concerts he
gave in Eio Janeiro he made a profit of over
±3000. Having travelled through South Ame-
rica he returned to Portugal in 1858. From
thence he went to the United States, making
several long tours, and to the West Indies in
1S60, wheie he played with Gottschalk in Ha-
vana, and residfed for some time during i860 and
1861 at Porto Rico. At this time the constant
travelling and excitement of continued public
playing proved prejudicial to that musical pro-
gress which was expected of one so gifted. His
re-appearance in London at St. James's Hall in
1862, when he gave a concert with the sisters
Marchisio, was not entirely satisfactory. He
now perceived that serious study of the classical
composers was essential to his artistic develop-
ment and to the ultimate attainment of the posi-
tion for which his natural talents fitted him. He,
however, while not neglecting this discipline, con-
tinued his tours, going again to the Brazils and
Portugal, where he was charged with the direction
of the opening fete at the Exhibition at Oporto in
1865. His last tour was made in Portugal and
Spain in i866, when he played before Queen Isa-
bella. Owing to circumstances entirely indepen-
dent of art, Arthur Napoleon left off playing in
public at a time when he might really have begun
a distinguished career as one of the first pianists
in Europe, for which he had all the requisites.
In 1868 he established at Rio Janeiro a business
in music and pianofortes that has become the first
in South America, the present style of the firm be-
ing Arthur Napoleao & Miguez. He married a
lady of Rio in 1S71. He has not altogether aban-
doned music as an art, having written several
successful pieces for piano and for orchestra. At
the request of the Emperor of the Brazils he
directed in 1876 the performance of Verdi's Re-
quiem, and in 1880 undertook the direction of the
(Jamoens tercentenary festival. [A.J.H.]

NARDINI. Add day of death, May 7.

NARES. Add that he was born shortly before
April 19, 1 71 5, on which day he was baptized.

NATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL. Ad-
ditions and corrections will be found under
Training School, vol. iv. p. 158. The date of
the incubation of the scheme is 1S54, as in vol.
ii. ; not 1S66, as in vol. iv.

NAUJIANN. Add that Dr. Emil Nau-
mann's exhaustive ' History^ of Music ' has been
translated by Ferdinand Praeger, edited and
furnished with very necessary additional chap-
ters on English music by Sir F. A. G. Ouseley,
and published by Cass^U & Co. (18S6), The
author died June 23, 18SS.

^'AVA, Gaetano. Add days of birth and
death, May 16 and March 31 respectively.

NAYLOR, John, one of our best cathedral
organists, was born at Stanningley, near Leeds,
on June 8, 1838. As a boy he was a chorister



NEGRO MUSIC.

at the Leeds parish church, and also receivec
instruction on the pianoforte from the well-knowi
musician and organist Mr. R. S. Burton. Witt
this exception he is a self-taught man. At the
age of 18 he was appointed organist of the parish
church, Scarboroiigli, where he soon began, ii
spite of his youth, to promote a taste for goot
music in the town. He graduated at Oxford U
1S63 as Mus.B. and proceeded to the degree©
Mus.D. in 1S72. In 1873 he became organis
of All Saints' Church, Scai-borongh, where ii
collaboration with the vicar, the Rev. R. Brown
Borthwick, he raised the musical services to :
pitch of great excellence. He was here able t ■
make experiments in connection with the chant]
ing of the Psalms which were not without theii
influence in bringing about the publication c]
Dr. Westcott's Paragraph Psalter. Dr. Naylci
is now organist and choir-master of York Minste
for which post he was selected out of numeroi
candidates in 1883. He is a musician of cathol
tastes, and a composer of no mean merit. H
works include, besides various anthems and se
vices, the cantatas 'Jeremiah' and ' The Brazi
Serpent,' written with organ accompanimer
which were performed with great success by
large body of voices in York Minster in 1 SS4 ai
1887 respectively. [T.P.H

* NEGRO MUSIC OF THE UNITE
STATES. The nearest approach to ' folk miis;
in the United States is that played or sung
the negroes in the Southern States. Before t
Civil War (i 86 1-65) brought freedom to t
slaves, the ability to read was very rare anio
those held in bondage. Indeed, in many of t
States which authorized slavery, education of t
slave was a misdemeanour. The tunes to wlii
they danced or to which they sang their sor
and hymns were, therefore, traditional. T ,
origin of some of the tunes is held to be Afric
on these grounds : — they can be reduced to
pentatonic scale, which is the scale of musi' .'
instruments said to be stiU. in use in Abyssin {
Nubia, and other countries in Africa ; they hii ^
the same ' catch ' that appears in songs still su j
in Africa, according to the observations of seve :'■
travellers. Both ' catch ' and scale are a ij
common in the traditional music of the Scot
Irish, Welsh, and Magyars, the ' catch ' be;
the rhythmic device known as the ' Scotch sn;
There are, however, many tunes in common '
among the American negroes which have neitl 1
peculiarity. The negroes have the imitat <
faculties very highly developed, and most
their tunes which do not resemble those of
old races were probably caught fi-om Methoi
preachers, whose system of conducting 'revivs
with its appeals to the imagination of the hea; .
was such as readily to capture these impressis-j
able people. I\Iany of the negro hymns h f^
lines and ] jhrases that show a Wesleyan orij i« j
Traces of Catholic teachings are visible also, A,
these are infrequent. Resemblances betw»~
various sections as to the tunes and the w( <
used are noted by close observers, the differei <
being such as would naturally be producec-i



• CopjTight 1889 by F. H. JENK3.



I



NEGRO MUSIC.

flight of time or by lapse of memory, as they
e handed down from father to son or carried
iss the country. The tunes are sometimes
or (generally without a sharp seventh) and
etimes major ; occasionally a mixed mode is
loved, beginning in a major key, and ending
dther the relative or tonic minor ; or the
rary course may be followed. And there
tunes which end on the subdominant or
where but on the tonic or the dominant.

negroes are very sensitive to rhythm. As
dances a jig, his companions gather about

and furnish a percussive accompaniment
I bones (played after the manner of casta-
) or roughly made tambourines, or, wanting
ruments, by alternately slapping their hands
ther and on their knees, keeping excellent
1. Ttiey have songs for all occasions where
■ move in concert, such as loading or uuload-
ships, or working at the pumps of a fire
ne. Their rhythmic sympathies are most
agly active on these occasions. Often one

gang acts as a precentor, giving a line or
by himself, and the chorus coming in with
refrain. This leader, when his supply of.
I gives out or his memory fails, resorts to
■ovisation. A similar practice obtains with
1 at their religious and social gatherings,
etimes the improvised lines will be given in

by different ones in the company who have
acuity of inventing them. The women's voices
I a peculiarly pathetic timbre within their
ral range, which is narrow, rarely reaching
ler than from A below the treble stave to D
rth line). When forced they are harsh and
ent. As a rule the tenor voices are dry, but
basses are generally rich and sonorous. A
k ear is more common than tunefulness
ag the race, but the effect produced by the
ng of a great number, always in unison, so
kens the hearer's pulse or moves him to
1 that defects are forgotten. Their time is

to be accurate. Of instruments in use
ig them the variety is small. Bones and
)ourines are common, but the banjo is not so
rally used by them as has been thought, and
ers are very rare. Some of the slave songs,
3ially those that may be classed as hymns,
! made known in the Northern States for
irst time by small bands of singers of both
5 who gave concerts in the principal cities in
and subsequently. One troupe (the ' Jubilee
irs ') came from the Fisk University, Xash-
, Tennessee, and in the course of its tours,
h included two trips to Europe, raised over
3CXD dollars for the University, which was es-
shed especially to educate those who had been

in slavery. Another came from a similar
tution at Hampton, Virginia. One effect of
' tours was the introduction of some of the
8 into the religious services of the Northern
oes. It is observed, however, that the songs
iverywhere gradually disappearing from use
le negroes become better educated. Their
itive faculties lead them to prefer music
tly like that which is performed in churches



NEGEO MUSIC.



729



where the worshippers are white. Some of the
secular songs of the negroes have acquired
peculiar distinction. 'Jim Crow' — the name
both of the song and of the negro whose per-
formance of it had a local reputation in Louis-
ville, Kentucky, in 1830 — was, indirectly, the
origin of the negro minstrel show, the most
fanuliar example of which in England was
that long known as Christy's. Many of the
plantation songs were introduced into these
shows, ' Coal-black Rose,' ' Zip Coon,' and ' Ole
Virginny nebber tire' being the most familiar
among them. A plantation song, ' Way down in
Raccoon Hollow,' enjoyed a wide popularity set
to words beginning ' Near the lake where droops
the wiUow.'

A few examples of the negro melodies and
verses are appended. They are taken from the
collection 'Slave Songs of the United States.'
The reader must understand that all of these
are sung much faster than either the tunes or
the words would seem to warrant, the rapid pace
being a result of the negroes' strong rhythmic
instincts. The first example shows a pentatonic
scale, and the use of the ' Scotch snap.'




TeU my Je - sus hud - dy, oh



The following is an illustration of the use of
an unconventional ending : —



i



w






Turn, sinner, turn to-day. Turn, sinner, turn !



q*— (s— N-



Turn, sinnew turn to - day. Turn sinner, turn !

A very popular tune, and fuU of pathos when
sung by a large company, is the following : —



No - bo- dy knowi de trou-bla I've had.



:fE=fc



-»^S_| -



No - bo - dy knows but Je - sua.



No - bo - d/ knows de



-U— I — u



trou-ble I 've had, Glo - ry bal-la • lul

[Sing]



morn-in' I was a - wall£-in' down. O yes, lord 1 I



It=t=t



=t=e:



e::=^



^^^M



(aw some ber - ries a - bang-in' down, O yes. Lord.



730



NEGRO MUSIC.



NICOD]fe.



Dr. W. How.ird Eussell, of the ' Times,'
describes in chapter xviii. of ' My Diary North
and South,' a song which made a remarkable
impression on him, and which, from his descrip-
tion, appears to be the following : —



Lfcn^



5^3^



graveyard,



graveyard, I'm



walk - in' troo" de graveyard. Lay dls bo-dy down.

The following is a popular song among the
Louisiana Creoles, and the words give an idea of
the dialect : —

Belle Layotte.
Chorus. "^ ^



Mo de-ja rou-W tout la cOte, Fancor ouar par - eil

Fine. Solo.'^~^



'-T.-TA-^-f-r-



^^^



-t>— gj-jy-



Mo ron-W tout lac6te, Morou-1^ tout la



Et=^lES=ilS



col-o-nie; Mo paocor ouar grlff-one la Qua ma gout eomme la
D.C.



belle La-yotte.

The subject has so many ramifications that
full treatment is imjiossible in this article.
Those interested will find it discussed in the
following treatises by writers who have lived at
the South, and made special studies of the sub-
ject : —

Dwight's Journal of Music, Nov. 8, 1862. Iietter, Miss
McKim, Pliiladelphia ; probably the first occasion when
public attention was called to the Slave songs.

Continental Monthly, Philadelphia, August, 1863.
Article, 'Under the Palmettos,' Mr. H. G. Spaulding,
with specimens of the music.

Atlantic Monthly, June, 1807. Article, 'Negro Spirit-
uals,' T. W. Higginson, with the words of many of tlie
most popular hymns.

'Slave Songs of the United States,' New York, 1871.
Words and tunes, the largest collection published.

The Century, New York, Feb. 1886 ; Article, ' Creole
Slave Dances.' April. 1886 ; article, ' Creole Slave Songs.'
]5othby Mr. G.W. Cable. Especially interesting because
of the descriptions of negro customs in Louisiana, some
of whicli are of remote African origin, and because of
the explanation of the peculiar dialect of the Louisiana
neprops — a mixture of Trench and English, sometimes a
little Spanish, but each preatly modified by the negro's
own method of speech. Gottschalk, who was a native of
New Orleans, used some of the Creole music as subjects
for free treatment on the pianoforte. Mr. J. A. Brock-
hoven, of Cincinnati, has written a suite for orchestra,
based on ci-eole tunes, which has been performed at con-
certs in the United States. [F.H.J.]

NERUDA, Mme. Add that on July 26, 1888,
she married Sir Charles Hall^.

NESSLER, Victor, born Jan. 28, 1841, at
Ealdenheim in Alsace, at first studied theology
at Strasburg, but the success of his essay at
operatic composition, a work entitled ' Fleur-
ette,' and produced there in 1864, induced him



icfl



to devote himself to music. He then went'
Leipzig, and obtained various posts as conduei
of male choral societies, for the use of which 1
wrote a set of part-songs, etc. In 1870 he b
came choral director at the Stadt Theater, ai
in 1879 conductor at the Caiolatheater in tl
same town. Meanwhile various operas h;
been brought out with varying success. Tl
list is as follows : — ' Die Hochzeitsreise ' (1867
' Dornroschen's Brautfahrt' (1868); ' Nach
wiichter und Student' (1868); 'Am Alexa
dertag' (1869); ' Irmingard,' a more ambitio
work than the previous productions, in five at
(1876) ; 'Der Rattenf anger von Hameln' (i87(
an opera which rapidly spread his fame throug
out German)', and which has attained an enori
ous success; 'Die wilde Jager' (1881); T
Trompeter von Sakkingen' (1884); and ' Ol
der Schiitz' (18S6). The success of the 'Tro
peter ' was almost as great as that of the ' K;
tenfanger.' Both owe their popularity to
easy superficiality of st3'le, which commer
itself to the less musical portion of the Germ
public. When the ' Rattenf anger,' under t
. name of ' The Piper of Hamelin,' was produc
at Covent Garden Theatre by the English Op(
Company on Jan. 7, 1884, it achieved a we
merited failure. [A

NEUMARK, Geoeg, born March 6, 1621,



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 172 of 194)