George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Miihlhausen in Thuringia, became librarian a
secretary to Duke Wilhelmll. of Weimar, wii
he died July 8, 16S1. He was a renowi
player on the harpsichord and viola da gam
but his fame rests upon his chorales, of some
which he wrote both words and music. Of th
the most important is ' Wer nur den lieben G
lasst walten.' This and other chorales by wh
his name is known appeared in one or other
liis collections of hymns. These were ' Poetis
musikalisches Lustwaldchen,' etc. 1652, and
enlarged form of the same book, published
Jena in 1657 under the title of 'Poetle
musikalisches Lustwald.' Two of his prod
tions seem to have been intended for the stai
They are 'Keuscher Liebes.spiegel' (1649), wh
Dr. K. E. Schneider (' Das musikalisches Li
iii. 151) says is a kind of opera ; and ' Politisc
Gesprachsspiel ' (Weimar 1662). [1:

NEVADA, Emma. See Wixom, vol. iv. ip.^.

NEW PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. 1 1

that the society came to an end in i879> *'
concert of June 21 being the last concert gi'';
under the above title. The scheme was can M
on for three years more under the title of Ga '(
Orchestral Concerts.

NIBELUNGEN. Add that the trilogy r
tetralogy, as it is called in the article, *■-
given at Her Majesty's Tlieatre on May .'!»i
1882. Four performances of the entiie ^ 't
took place.

NIC0D1&, Jean-Louis, a pianist and c
poser of Polish birth, well known in Germ:
He was born at Jerczik near Posen, in I
was brought at an early age to Berlin by



NICODfi.

ler, an amateur of music, who, after losing
property, earned a living by his violin play-
, Jean-Louis received musical instruction in
lin, resided there for some years as a teacher
. executant, and was offered in 1879 a pro-
orship at the Dresden Conservatoire. Nicod^
i this post until 1885. In the meantime he
, won a reputation by his compositions ; and
coming forward as conductor of orchestral
certs was accorded by the public and the
iS hearty support and sympathy, which in-
bsed when his talent for conducting became
lent. Under Nicode, virtuosi of the first rank
heard in Dresden, in conjunction with the
dof the Gewerbehaus, at the Subscription — or,
hey have come to be called, the Philharmonic
Concerts ; whereas the excellent though infre-



NIXON.



731



quent concert performances of the Court Orches-
tra did not admit of the introduction of the solo
element.

Amongst Nicod^'s compositions for orchestra
are 'Introduction and Scherzo,' op. 11, 'Maria
Stuart,' Symphonic poem, Suite in B minor, op.
1 7, ' Die Jagd nach dem Gliick,' and Symphonic
Variations, op. 27; 'Das Meer' for orch. and
male chorus ; ' Bilder aus dem Siiden ' (op. 28)
and other pieces for PF. ; also music for cello,
violin, and solo voice (B. & H,). [L.M.M.]

NICOLINI, Ebnest. Add that he married
Mme. Adelina Patti on Aug. 10, 1886.

NIEDERRHEINISCHE MUSIKFESTE.

Add to the table on p. 457 the following parti-
culars of the festivals since 1880 : —



Tear.


Place.


Conductors,


Principal Choral and Orchestral Works.


1881
1882
1883

1884

1885

1886

1887

1888


Dusseldorf .
Aix . . ,
Cologne .

Dusseldorf .

Aix . , .

Cologne .

Dusseldorf .

Aix . . .


Gade and Tausch
WuUiier ....
Biller and Brahms .

Brahms and Tausch .

Beinecke and Kriese

Wullner ....

Bicbter and Tausch .

Bichter and Schwickerath


Handel's Samson ; Gade's Zion and Symphony in B\>.

Handel's Joshua ; part of Bach's B minor Mass ; Symphony, no. 9, Beethoven.

Haydn's Creation ; Mendelssohn's Ps. cxiv ; Symphonies, Eroica, Beethoven,

and Brahms in D.
Handel's Messiah ; Bach's Magnificat: Brahms's Symphony in F; Beet>

hoven's PF. Concerto no. 6.
Handel's Judas Maccabeus and Alexander's Feast; Beethoven's C minor

Symphony.
Handel's Belshazzar ; Symphonies, Beethoven no, 9, Mozart in Eb, and

Brahms, no. 4.
Handel's Joshua ; Bach's Ascension Cantata ' Lobet Gott' ; Tausch's

■Miriam's Siegesgesang' ; Beethoven's PF. Concerto in G; Symphonies,

Beethoven's Eroica and Schumann's in Bb.
Messiah; Bach's 'Gottes Zeif; Mendelssohn's Ps. cxiv; Bruch's ' Sch8n

Ellen"; Finale ' Gotterdiimmerung ' j Brahms's Double Concerto ; Sym-
phony, no. 9, Beethoven.



n the small list of symphonies at the end of
article, the right hand column should read as



^o. 5, performed nine times.
To. 7, do. eight times,
To. 3, do. eleven times.
To. 9, do. fourteen times.



[H.S.O.]



TIEMANN. At the end of article, for
ce read three times. Add that Herr Nie-
m sang the part of Siegmund in the per-
nance of the ' Nibelungen' at Her Majesty's
;atre in 1882, and that he recently (1887)
k his farewell of the public. A son of his,

Niemann, also a tenor, appeared in a se-
iion from 'Parsifal,' given at the London
aphony Concert of Dec. 13, 1887.

TILSSON, Cheistine. Line i of article, /or
g. 20 read Aug. 3. P. 458 b, 1. 4 from
torn, add that M. Rouzaud died Feb. 22,
I2. Add that she created the parts of Mar-
et and Helen of Troy in Boito's ' Mefistofele,'
en that work was produced in England, July
[880. She played at the same theatre in 18S1,
36 when she has only been heard in cen-
ts. She married Count Casa di Miranda
March 1887. She has retired altogether into
i^ate life since her farewell concerts, the second

1 last of which took place June 20, 1888.

VISARD, Theodok. See vol. ii. p. 614, note.

TIXON, Henet George, bom Feb. 20, 1796,
Winchester, was successively organist at St.



George's Chapel, London Road, 181 7-18 20;
at Warwick Street Chapel ; at St. Andrew's
Roman Catholic Chapel, Glasgow, and finally
at St. George's Cathedral, Southwark, in 1839,
which post he held until his death from cholera
in 1849. His compositions include five Masses,
a Te Deum, ' Respice Victimae Paschali,' ' Do-
minus regnavit'; a Cantata written for MaU-
bran ; Vespers for every festival in the year,
many of them published after his death in two
folio volumes, besides pianoforte solos and songs.
He married in 1818 Caroline Melissa Danby,
who died in 1857, *^® daughter of John Danby,
the glee composer, by whom he had thirteen
children ; among them were

James Cassana (1823-1842), a promising
young violinist.

Henkt Cotter, the fourth son, born 1842 in
London, was taught music and the organ by
Deval of Hull, by Henry Smart, Dr. Steggall,
and G. A. Macfarren. He was successively
organist at various churches of all denominations
at Hull, Woolwich, Blackheath, Spanish Place,
and St. Leonard's, where he now resides, and is
the local representative of the Royal Academy of
Music. He received the degree of Mus.B. atCam-
bridge in 1 876. His compositions include a sonata
for piano and violin, played by himself and Henry
Blagrove in 1871 ; a pianoforte trio, first prize
Trinity College, London, in 1880; sonata for
pianoforte and cello ; overture ' Titania ' (Mr.
Cowen'a Concerts, Dec. 18, 1880) concertstiick
for piano and orchestra ; songs. [A.C.]



732



NOHL.



NOHL, C. F. L. Line 9 from end of article,
for 1S70 read 1S67. Add date of death, Dec. 16,
1885.

NORCOME, Dantel. Add that he was bom at
Windsor in 1576. Having embi'aced the tenets
of tlie Eomisli Church, he was deprived of his
lay clerkship and went to Brussels, where he
became one of the instrumentalists in the Vice-
regal Chapel. His name occurs in a list of the
members of the chapel in 1641. [W.H.H.]

NORDISA. Romantic opera in three acts,
words and music by F. Corder. Produced by
the Carl Rosa Company at Liverpool on Jan. 26,
and at Drury Lane, May 4, 18S7. [M.]

NORMA. Line 2 of article,/or Lent, 1832,
read Dec. 26, 1831, and 1. 5, /or 1855 read 1S35.

NORWICH FESTIVAL. Add that in 1881
the festival was conducted by Signor Randegger,
who still holds the post. The new works were
Cowen's ' St. Ursula' and A. Goring Thomas's
' Sun- worshippers,' and, for orchestra alone, Bar-
nett's 'Harvest Festival' and W. Macfarren's
' Henry V.' In 1S84 the chief novelties were
Mackenzie's ' Rose of Sharon ' and Stanford's
' Elegiac Ode.' At this festival Mme. Albani
was not engaged, the principal soprano music
being sung by Miss Emma Nevada. In 1887
Mme. Albani again appeared, and contrary to
previous practice, several of the younger English
singers were engaged. The new works were both
Italian oratorios, 'The Garden of Olivet,' by
Bottesini, and Mancinelli's ' Isaias.'

NOTA CAMBITA. After the reference to
Part-writing add in Appendix.

NOTATION. P. 470 b, the statement as to
the stave, occurring immediately after the first
illustration, col. h, is to be corrected by a refer-
ence to vol. iii. p. 692 6. P. 471 a, 1. i'j,for
two read three. P. 474 a, 1. 32 from bottom,
for or read and ; and see Chiavette in App.
vol. iv. p. 586. P. 477 a. I. 24 from bottom,
for Scarlatti's opera, etc. read Cavalli's ' Gia-
sone,' 1655. Compare vol. i. p. 47 a. P. 477 h,
1. 17, add that the tenor part in choral works is
sometimes indicated by two G clefs close to-
gether. Messrs. Ricordi & Co. use a somewhat
barbarous combination of the G and C clefs for
the same purpose. P. 478 a, 1. 19-20 from
bottom. ybr are usually read were formerly ; and a
line below, _/br Sometimes read In modern music.

NOTOT, Joseph, born at Arras, Pas de Calais,
in I755. From his earliest infancy he mani-
fested a wonderful aptitude for music. His



NUANCES.

father intended to educate him for the church,!
the bar ; and for the purpose of diverting
mind from the pursuit he most loved they sol
him to Paris. It happened soon after his arri«
in that city that a friend took him to St. Gte
main-des-Pres, where, having obtained pel
sion of Leclerc, the organist, to sit at the o:
he performed extempore in so ingenious a
ner that Leclerc would not believe it poi
the boy could be playing from his own ii
Leclerc therefore gave him a subject, upon wl
the boy instantly formed a fugue, and acquil
himself so admirably that the great compOM
seized him in his arms, and, lifting him up i
high as he could, exclaimed, in an ecstasy i
delight, ' Tu resteras k Paris.' His father, fine
ing him to have really a genius for music, pe
mittod the boy to adhere to the study of mug
as his future profession, and he consequent
remained in Pai-is, whei'e he soon acquired
great reputation. On his return to Arras \
was appointed organist there. His composition
which were greatly admired by John Chiistia
Bach, consist of four sj^mphonies, three piam
forte concertos, and a number of sonatas for thi
instrument. And it is said that in his sty
of accomjjanying from a full score Joseph Nob
was unequalled. At the French Revolutic
this excellent musician renounced music as
profession and came to reside in England. Vi
regret not to be able to ascertain the period <
his decease. The above notice is from a woi
called the ' British Minstrel and Musical Lit
rary Miscellany,' published some years ago :';
Glasgow as a periodical, No. 58, [C.H.P-:

NOTTEBOHM. Add to his publication |l
'Ein Skizzeiibuch von Beethoven aus dem Jal'
1803' (B.&H. 18S0). This contains the sketch'l
for the Eroica. His death took place at Grat
on Oct. 30, 1S82. Since then the papers whi( ■
appeared in the ' Mus. Wochenblatt' as 'Nei
Beethoveniana,' with others of the same nataj^
by him, have been collected by E. Mandycze^
ski, and published in 1S87 by Rieter-Biede
mann of Leipzig in a volume of 590 pages ; :
'Zweite Beethoveniana.' An index to both tl
Beethoveniana volumes was published in Ot
1888. [G

NOVELLO, EWER & CO. Add date
death of Henry Littleton, May il, 1888.

NOZZE DI FIGARO. Line 5 of articl
for 1876 read 1786.

NUANCES. For corrections of this article S'
Notation, vol. ii. p. 4686, 476 S, and also 535 i






0.



)AKELEY, Sib Hekbebt Stanley. Line 13
of article, add: — He received in 1879 the
degree of Mus. D. from the University of
ford, and in 188 1 that of LL.D. from the tjni-
[^ity of Aberdeen ; he was created in the same
ir Composer of Music to Her Majesty in Scot-
id. In 1886 the University of Toronto con-
red on him the degree of D.C.L., and in 1 887 he
:eived the degree of Mus. D. from the Univer-
yr of Dublin. Line i^,for some 20 read 25,
i add that 20 of the songs have been pub-
led in a ' Jubilee Album ' dedicated to the
een. Line 17, /or 12 read 18. Line 18, add
^ubilee Cantata for 18S7. Among the sacred
npositions add a motet with orchestral ac-
npaniment. Add that the annual festival
intioned in the third line from the end of
3 article, is due to Sir Herbert Oakeley. (See
:rD Concerts, vol. iii. p. loi.) He has lately
586) prepared a scheme for musical graduation
the Edinburgh University, which has been
proved by the senate, and only awaits the
lotion of the Chancellor and the University
urt to come into effect.

OBERTAS. 1 This is described in the ' Ency-
)pedyja Powszechna' (Warsaw 1884) as the
ist popular of Polish national dances. The
iples follow their leader, turning from right to
t, and describing a circle or oval ring. The
man sometimes dances round her partner, and
netimes vice versa ; a song is often sung at the
ne time. The obertas is evidently regarded
the Poles as their national waltz, though, as
11 have been seen, it diflfers from the German
dtz in several characteristics of the dance as
:11 as in the style of the music associated with
by modern composers. Wieniawski's 'Mazurka
:act€nstique' for violin No. I, bears the sub-
le ' Obertas ' ; it is deficient in the rough, wild
wacter, without which the dance is scarcely
be distinguished from a mazurka. Boito in-
iroduces the obertas into the first scene of act i.
• Mefistofele ' :




From 'Obracai!,' signifying to turn round. 'Obertas' has a
)nd meaning, confusion or perplexitj. The accent lies ou tbe
>nd syllable.



^V-



Eg^



Whether Boito was guilty of an anachronism in
representing his i6th century Frankfort populace
indulging in a national dance of Poland i^to say
nothing of Polish exclamations) is open to ques-
tion. The Mazurka found its way into North-
Germany only after August III. of Saxony as-
cended the throne in 1733 (Brockhaus). Had
the obertas been adopted at any time by the
German people, such writers as Angerstein,
Czerwinski, Voss, etc, could not have ignored it
in their works on the art and history of the
Dance ; though their neglect to include the
name of a dance known only in Poland, in their
enumeration of dances of all nations, is at least
excusable. However, the charm of these
stiiTing strains, no doubt suggested to Boito by
his Polish mother, renders very welcome the
composer's possible deviation from historic truth.
Wieniawski and Boito suggest by a drone bass
in fifths the rude accompaniment of the bagpipes
or other primitive combination of instruments.

Tutto vanno alia rinfusa
Sulla musica confusa
Cosi far la cornamusa—

writes Boito for his chorus. The wild and romp-
ing nature of this dance and music must have
proved without attraction for Chopin, who has
at any rate not included by name an Obertas
among his Mazurkas. Nevertheless, we may
recognize that in C major, op. 56, no. 2 (Vivace),
as being in harmony and rhythm the nearest
approach to the Obertas attempted by this fas-
tidious and undramatic composer. [L.M.M.]
OCCASIONAL ORATOEIO, THE. A work
of Handel, probably intended to celebrate the
failure of the Jacobite rising of 1745. It con-
sists of an overture and three parts, among which
are ' O liberty,' afterwards transferred to ' Judas
Maccabeus,' some of the choruses from 'Israel
in Egypt ' and a Coronation Anthem, introduced
into Part III. The words of Part I. are in great
part taken from Milton's Psalms, and inany
numbers appear to be written by Dr. MoreU.
(See pref. to the work in the Handelgesellschaft
edition.) It was performed at Covent Garden
on Feb. I4, 19, and 26, 1746. (Rockstro's Life
of Handel.) [M.]



734



OCTAVE,



OPERA.



OCTAVE. Add that an explanation of the
term ' Short Octuve ' will be found in vol. ii.
p. 58S, and vol. iii. p. 653.

ODINGTON, Walter t>E, or Walter of
Evesham, as he appears to have been indiffer-
ently called, probably took his name from
Oddington, in Gloucestershire. It has been the
fashion among musical historians to identify him
with the Walter, monk of Canterbury, whose
election to the primacy was quashed by the Pope
in 1229; but unfortunately the true spelling of
his name was Einesham or Eynsham. The sub-
ject of this article could not have been born
much before the middle of the 13th century, if,
as appears beyond doubt, he was the "Walter de
Evesham who is referred to in a list of mathe-
maticians as living in 1316. Upon this sup-
poj-ition we may accept the date, 1280, at which
Leland states that Odington was flourishing.
In all probability his musical works were written
early in iiis life, his latter days being given up to
astronomy, in which science he is known to have
been proficient, from several treatises which have
come down to us. His only known musical work
was the ' De Speculatione Musices,' of which
there is a MS. copy in Corpus Christi College,
Cambridge. Another copy is supposed to have
been contained in one of the Cotton MSS. of
which tlie remains are now at the British Mu-
seum. In this treatise Walter shows himself a
sound musician as well as a learned writer, sup-
plying in almost all cases examples of his own
composition. The principal subjects he handles
are musical intervals, notation, rhythm, musical
instruments, and harmony, which latter term he
uses instead of the old ' discantus ' ; he gives
interesting definitions of such words as ron-
deau, motet (which he calls ' motus brevis can-
tilense '), etc. But the treatise is especially
important for the study of rhythm in the 13 th
century. All that is known of his life is that
he was a Benedictine of the monasterj' at Eves-
ham, and that he was at Oxford, as stated above,
in 1316. [A.H.-H.]

OEDIPUS. Add that incidental music,
choruses, etc. were written to the play by Dr.
C. V. Stanford, for the performance at Cam-
bridge on Nov. 22-26, 1887.

OFFENBACH. Add that he died of gout
on the heart, at his residence on the Boulevard
des Capucines, Oct. 5, 1S80. His posthumous
works include ' La belle Lurette,' composed
within a short time of his death, and ' Les
Contes d'Hoffmann,' opera comique. The former
was revised by Leo Delibes, and produced at the
Renaissance, Oct. 30, 18 So, with Jane Hading,
Milly Meyer, Vauthier, Jolly, etc. (in English
at the Avenue Theatre, March 24, 1883). The
second opera was the composer's most cherished
work, on which he had been working for years.
For some time Offenbach had felt his end ap-
proaching, and said to M. Carvalho, 'Make
haste, make haste to mount my piece ; I am in
a hurry, and have only one wish in the world
— that of witnessing the premiere of this



!



work.* ' It was finally revised and partly orchee
trated by Guiraud, and produced at the
Comique, Feb. 10, 18S1, with Adfele Isaac, Mai
guerite Ugalde, Talazac, Taskin, Grivot, etc. I
was played no less than 101 nights in the year
its production. It was given in Germany, am
at the Ring Theatre, Vienna, at the time of it
conflagration. Some of the music was adapte
to a one-act farce by Leterrier and Vanloo, ' Mll«
Moucheron,' produced at the Renaissance, Ms
10, 1881. Offenbach's widow died April 15
18S-. [A.C.

OLD HUNDREDTH TUNE, THE. Thi
tune, as well as others in the Genevan Psaltei
has been so often erroneously ascribed to Goud
mel, or the name of that composer appended t
harmonies which are not his, that it wiU be ir
teresting to give here a transcript of the melod
by Bourgeois, 1552, as harmonized byGoudime
1565-



i



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■^
I



:S ^ r. _S-^



fe^



- .^=.^=k=B



^ d-



-t.



'^






! I



-^^ ^ P-



5E



^^^



=d=



^4



c^



> ^__^ — A =^ ;



■^ -^-



-^



2



^-^^^-^



E3^



I I



-1=t



In 1 56 1 Kethe wrote versions of twenty-fi
psalms for the enlarged edition of Knox's Ang^
Genevan Psalter published in that year. One
these was the Long Measure version of Psalm
'All people that on earth do dwell,' to whi
the Genevan tune was then for the first tii
adapted. [G.A.(

OPERA. P. 499 a, 1. 13, for Mantua re
Modena. P. 501a, 1. l, for 1613 read 16:
P. 502 a, 1. 30. The drama called ' B 1
torno di Angelica,' etc., is ascribed, in La
Morgan's ' Life and Times of Salvator Rosa,'
a composer named Tignali. This name is a
sidered by Mr. S. S. Stratton to be a corrupt!
of Tenaglia, whose ' Clearco ' was produced

1 * Daily Telegraph," Paris Correspondence, Oct. 7, 1880.



i



OPEEA.

tome in 1661. P. 506 a, 1. 32 from bottom,
or 1669 read 1671. P. 507 a, 1. 15 from
ottom, for (1677), 'Abelazor' (ih.), read
1675), 'Abdelazar' (1677). Line 10 from
ottom, correct date of ' Ampliitrion ' to 1690,
od four lines below, for date of ' Don Quixote,'
sad 1695. P. 5146, 1. 3, for written in 1734
ead performed in 1733. P. 522 a, 1. 14 from
ottom, for 1844 '''Sd'd 1843. P. 524a, 1. 29,
aait 'Tbe Castle of Andalusia,' since that opera
I not by Shield but by Arnold. Same col.,

9 from bottom, /o»- 1810 read 181 1. P. 525 a,

20 from bottom, for the same read the pre-
ious. Nine lines below, /or 1814 read 1813.

OPfiRA COMIQUE (second article with
lat title). At end add that the theatre was
urnt down on May 25, 1887.

ORATORIO. P. 549a, 1. 13,/or 1745 read
750.

ORAZZI E CURIAZI. Line 3 of article,
tr 1794 read 1796.

ORCHESTRA. P. 562 a, last line but one,
ir 1549 read 1649.

ORCHESTRINA DI CAMERA. The title
fa series of little instruments of the harmonium
ibe. They were invented and are made by W.
I. Evans, of London, and represent the orches-
•al clarinet, oboe, flute, French horn, and
assoon. They imitate the timbre of the re-
jective instruments after which they are called,
nd have the same compass of notes. The clari-
et and French horn are furnished with shifting
eyboards, in order to arrange for the mechani-
il transposition of the parts when these are not
ritten in the key of C. The different qualities
f tone are obtained by making the vibrating
jeds of varying dimensions, and by the peculiar
lape of the channels conveying the wind to
lem. The orche.strinas are chiefly intended to
e employed as convenient substitutes for the
:al instruments at performances where players
F the orcliestral instruments cannot be ob-
lined. Dr. Hullah, in his 'Music in the
[ouse,' recommends them as valuable for the
ractice of concerted music, as well as for
le purpose of supplying obbligato accompani-
lents. [T.L.S.]

ORDRES. Another name for Sdites, used
y Couperin and some of his contemporaries,
here is no difierence of arrangement or struc-
are which would accoimt for the employment of
le two names. [M-]

ORGAN. P. 599 b, 1. 31, for he read Mr.
iarker.

ORGANISTS, COLLEGE OF, an association
)unded in 1864 on the initiative of the late Mr.
i. D. Limpus, with a view (i) to provide a
jntral organization in London of the profession
f organist; (2) To provide a system of examin-
tions and certificates for the better definition
nd protection of the profession, and to secure
Jmpetent organists for the service of the
burch ; (3) to provide opportunities for inter-
Jurse amongst members of the profession and



ORGANISTS, COLLEGE OF. 735

the discussion of professional topics ; (4) to en-
courage the composition and study of sacred
music. A council was chosen, and the College
was opened at Queen Square, Bloomsbury, and
afterwards located at 95 Great Russell Street.
The College of Organists is incorporated under
the Companies' Acts ; it consists of a President,
Vice-Presidents, Musical Examiners, Hon. Trea-
surer, Hon, Secretary, Hon. Librarian, Hon.
Auditors (2), Fellows, Associates, Hon. Mem-
bers and Ordinary Members. The Archbishop
of Canterbury and the Bishop of London are
Patrons of the College, and the names of some
notable musicians appear among the office-bearers
— Elvey, Goss, Hullah, Macfarren, Ouseley,
Stewart, Sullivan, Stainer, Hopkins, Bridge,
etc. — from the commencement up to the pre-
sent time. A council of twenty-one Fellows,
with the Hon. Secretary and Hon. Treasurer,
hold the reins of government, retiring annually;
two-thirds of the number are re-elected with
seven other Fellows who have not served during
tbe preceding year. The trustees are Messrs.
M. E. Wesley, E. J. Hopkins, and E. H. Turpin.
At the general meeting every July the retiring
council present their report on the state of the
College.

Arrangements are made for the half-yearly
holding of Examinations in Organ Playing,
General Knowledge of the Organ, Harmony,



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 173 of 194)