George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Lib. IV. Venice, 150«. (V. unique.)
Tenori e contrebassi intabulati. Lib. I. Venice. 1509. (V. unique.)
Frottole. Lib. I. Venice. 1-504. (M. V.)
,, Lib. IL Venice. lf<H. (M. V.)

„ ., (Reprint.) Venice, 1507. (Begensburg.)

Lib. ni. Venice, 1504. (M. V.)
Lib. IV. Venice. 1.504. (M,)
„ Lib. V. Venice, iro5, (JI. V)

Lib, Vr. Venice. 1.50fi. (M. V.)
Lib. Vir. Venice, l.ncr. (M,)
Lib. VIIL Venice. 1.507. fM.)
Lib. IX. Venice, l.'OS. (M. V.)
Stra'mbotti. Venice. 1505. (B. unique.)
Missa Choralis. Fossombrone 151.x. (R. unique.)
Missarum X. Libri duo. Fossombrone. ]515. (E. unique.)
Ill Missie Choral. Fossombrone. 1.5-.'0. (R. unique.)
Motetti de la Corona. Lib. I. Fossombrone. 1514. ( .)

„ „ Lib. II. Fossombrone. 15 9. (• V )

„ Lib. III. Fossombrone. 1519. (• V.)

,', ,, Lib. IV. Fossombrone. 1.519. (• V.)

The execution of rare Part-Books is
above all praise. The perfection of their typo-
graphy would have rendered them precious to

3 The discovery of some additional copies In Italy is reported u
these paijes go to press.
* But see Vernarecci as to this date.
t These tiro editions are unnoticed by Schmld.



collectors, even without reference to the value
of the Compositions, which, but for them, would
have been utterly lost to us.^ Each Part is
printed in a separate volume, oblong 4to, with-
out a title-page at the beginning, but with a
Colophon on the last p;ige of the Bassus,
recording the date and place of publication.
In one instance only has the brilliancy and
clearness of the typography been surpassed.
The British Museum possesses the unique
Bassus Part of a collection of Songs, printed
by Wynkin de Worde in 1530, which exceeds in
beauty everything that has ever been produced,
in the form of Music-printing from moveable
types, from the time of its invention by Petrucci
until now. The volume ^ is an oblong 4to,
corresponding very nearly in size with those of
Petrucci ; but the Staves are much broader, and
the type larger, the perfection of both being
such as could only be rivalled at the present day
by the finest steel engraving. The volume con-
tains nine Songs a 4, and eleven, a 3, by Fayrfax,
Taverner, Cornyshe, Pygot, Ashwell, Cowper,
Gwynneth, and Jones ; and, at the end of the
book is the first leaf of the Triplex, containing
the title and index only. This, unhappily, is all
that has hitherto been discovered of the work.

Petrucci's successors were as far as those of
Wynkin de Worde from approaching the ex-
cellence of their leader— and even farther. The
separate Parts of Palestrina's Masses, and the
Madrigiils of Luca Marenzio, printed at Venice
in the closing ye;irs of the i6th century, though
artistic in design, and in bold and legible type,
are greatly interior, in execution, to the early
examples ; and the Motets of Giovanni Croce
published by Giacomo Vincenti (Venice 1605)
are very rough indeed. The nearest approach
to the style of Petrucci is to be found in the
earliei- works printed, in London, by John Day ;
the ' Cantiones Sacrse ' of Tallis and Byrd,
printed by Thomas Vautrollier (London, 1575) ;
and the earlier works published by Thomas Est,
under the patent of William Byrd^, such as Byrd's
'Psalmes, Sonets, and Songes of Sadnes and
Pietie ' (15 88) and his. 'Songs of sundrle natures'
(1589). But Est's later productions, including
the second book of Yonge's ' Musica Transalpina '
(1597), and the works of the later Madrigalists,
are far from equalling these, and little, if at all,
superior to the later Italian Part-Books.

The finest Part-Books of the second class,
presented in Cantus lateralis, are the magnificent
MS. volumes in the Archives of the Sistine
Chapel ; huge folios, transcribed in notes of such
gigantic size that the whole Choir can read from
a Kin;^le copy, and adorned with illuminated
borders and initial letters of exquisite beauty.
In these, the upper half of the left-hand page
is occupied by the Cantus, and the lower half,
by the Tenor ; the upper half of the right-hand
page by the Altus, and the lower half by the

' Facsimiles will be found In ' Ottaviano del Petrucci da Fossom-
brone.' by Anton Schmid ^ Vienna, 1845), and ' Ottaviano dei Fetiucci
da Fossombrune,' by Aufcoisio Vernarecci (2nd edit. Bologna, 1882).
The student may also consult Catelani, ■ Bibliogr. di due stamp!
Ignoti da Ottav. del Petrucci ' (Milan), and the Catalogue of Eitner.

2 K. 1. e. 1. 3 See vol. It. p. 572 a.


Bassus. When a Quintus is needed, half of it
written on the left-hand page, below the Teno
and the remainder (reliquium) below the Bassu
on the right-hand page. When six Parts ai
needed, the Quintus is written below the Teno
and the Sextus, below the Bassus. Books of th
kind seem to have been less frequently used i
England than in Italy ; unless, indeed, the MSi
were destroyed during the Great Rebellion.*

The finest printed examples of this class ap
the large folio edition of Palestrina's First Boo
of Masses (Roma, apud heredes Aloysii Doric
1572) and the still finer edition of ' Hymi
totius anni' (Roma, apud Jacob um Torneriui
et Bernardinum Donangelum, 1589). A ver
beautiful example of this kind of Part-Book,
a small scale, will be found in Tallis's ' Eigt
Tunes,' printed, by John Day, at the end (
Archbishop Parker's metrical translation of tt
Psalms (London, 1560) ; and one not very muc
inferior, is Thomas Est's ' Whole Booke (
Psalmes' (London, 1592). Ravenscroft's 'Brie
Discourse,' (1606), is a very rough example
and the ' Dodecachordon ' of Glareanus (BasI
1547), though so much earlier, is scarcely mo)
satisfactory, in point of typography.

The third class of Part-Books, designed to 1
read from the four sides of a table, was moi
common in England than in any other countr;
One of the best-known examples is that given
the closing pages of Morley's ' Plaine and eas
Introduction ' (London, 1597 and 1606), :
which the parts are presented in a rectanguli
arrangement, each part facing outwards as tl
book is placed open on the table.




In Douland's ' First Booke of Songs or Ayrei
a still more complicated arrangement is dictat*
by the necessity for accommodating a Luteni
by the side of the Cantus, the part for these tv
performers appearing on two parallel staves ontl
left-hand page, while the other three voices sha
the right-hand page.


(with the tablatnre
for the lute on a
second stave).


OE. " Of.

An interesting example of this class is 'I
Parangon des Chansons,' printed by ' Jaqu-

i A large folio MS. of this kind, containing a Mass by Philippus
Monte, was lent to the Inventions Exhibition of 18)<5 by M
Kivington, and another exceedingly fine specimen, containing
Gloria a 5, written by Fayrfax for his degree of Mus. D. was lent
the same exhibition from the Lambeth Palace Library.


Jerne diet Grand Jacques' (Lyon, 1539-41)
volumes, containing 224 Songs, a 4, and 32
and 3, so arranged, that the Superius and
or sit facing each other, on opposite sides of
table — the Superius reading from the lower
of the left-hand page, and the Tenor from
upper half; while the Bassus and Altus
ipy the same positions with regard to the
t-hand page.

he rapid cultivation of Instrumental Music
le 17th and iSth centuries, naturally exer-
1 a great influence upon the Part-Books of
period. Scores, both vocal and instru-
tal, became more and more common : and
vocal and instrumental Part-Books gradually
med the form with which we are familiar at
present day. [W.S.R.]

A-ET-WRITING (Free Part- Writing ; The
J Style; German, Stimmfiiliruvg). When
Polyphonic Schools were abandoned, in the
nning of the 17th century, in favour of the
ly-invented Monodic Style, the leaders of
revolutionary movement openly professed
r contempt for Counterpoint, and for every
1 of composition foi- which it served as the
nical basis. Vincenzo Galilei thought it
•ile ; Monteverde made a pretence of study-
it, under Ingegneri, but never paid the
itest attention to its rules ; neither he,
any other disciple of the Monodic School,
' suggested a better system to supply its
e. But musicians like Giovanni Gabrieli,
ladino Nanini, and Leo Hasler, could not
ent themselves with a stiff and ungraceful
ody, accompanied only by a still more stiff
unmelodious Continue. Still less could
r successors, Colonna, and Alessandro Scar-
, in Italy, and the ancestors of the great
li family in Germany, dispense with the
ft producible by a number of voices or
"uments, combined in accordance with a
-arranged system of harmonious concord,
the other hand, the gradual abandonment
tie Ecclesiastical Modes opened the way for
y new forms of treatment, and rendered
y older ones impossible. Yielding therefore,
I time to time, to the necessities of the case,
3 true apostles of progress gradually built up
ew system, which, while relinquishing no
of the old one which it was possible or
dient to retain, added to it all that was
ed for the development of a growing School,
Jed by peculiarities altogether unknown to
jarlier Polyphonists.

I order to understand the changes introduced
the new system of Part-writing, by the
eers of the modern Schools, we must first
ly consider the changed conditions which
their adoption.

le daily increasing attention bestowed upon
pumental Music played an imjiortant ]iart
le revolutionary movement. When voices
i supported by no accompaniment whatever,
as necessary that they should be entrusted
the intonation of those intervals only
h they were certain of singing correctly in
VOL. IV. PT. 6.



tune ; and on this point the laws of Counter-
point were very precise. When instrumental
support was introduced, it was found that many
intervals, previously forbidden on account of
their uncertainty, could be used with perfect se-
curity ; and, in consequence of this discovery, the
severity of the old laws was gradually relaxed,
and a wide discretion allowed to the composer,
both with regard to pure instrumental passages,
and vocal passages with instrumental accom-

Again, the complete abandonment of all the
Ecclesiastical Modes, except the ^olian and
Ionian, led to a most important structural
change. In the older style, the composer was
never permitted to quit the Mode in which his
piece began, except for the purpose of extending
its range by combining its own Authentic and
Plagal forms.^ But, he was allowed to form
a True Cadence^ upon a certain number of
notes, called its Modulations.^ As it was neces-
sary that these Cadences should all terminate
upon Major Chords, they involved the use of
a number of Accidentals which has led modern
writers to describe the Modulations of the
Mode as so many changes of Key, analogous to
the Modulations of modern Music. But the
Modulations of the Mode were no more than
certain notes selected from its Scale, like the
Dominant and Sub-Dominant of the modern
Schools ; and, in applying the term Modulation
to a change of Key, the technical force of the
expression has been entirely changed, and the
word itself invested with a new and purely
conventional meaning.* When it became the
custom to use no other Modes than the Ionian
and .iEolian — the Major and Minor Modes of
modern Music — and to change the pitch of these
Modes, when necessary, by transposition into
what we now call the different Major and Minor
Keys, it was found possible to change that pitch
many times, in the course of a single composition
— in modern language, to modulate from one
Key to another. But, this foi-m of Modulation
was quite distinct from the formation of true
Cadences upon the Regular anjl Conceded Modu-
lations of the Mode ; and it necessarily led to
very important changes in the method of Part-

Another striking characteristic of the new
School — closely connected with that of which we
have been speaking — was manifested in the
construction of its Cadences. The principle of
the Polyplionic Cadence was based upon the
melodic relation of two real parts.* The Cadence
of the modern School is based upon the har-
monic relation of two successive Chords.* And,
naturally, the two forms demand very different
treatment in the arrangement of the vocal and
instrumental parts.

Finally, the free introduction of the Chromatic
genus, both in Melody and in Harmony, opened
a wide field for innovation in the matter of

1 See vol. li. p. 338-9. 2 See vol. Iv. p. 592. 3 See vol. II. 3516.
4 The Latin words Modtila and Modulatio simply mean a tune.
6 See vol. iii. p. 742 ; also vol. Iv. App. p. 592.
6 See vol. i. pp. 290 et teq,






Part-writing. Neither in Harmony nor in
Jlelody was the employment of a Chromatic
Interval permitted, in the Strict Counterpoint of
the i6tli centur}'.' The new School permitted
the leap of the Augmented Second, the Dimin-
ished Fourth, and even the Diminished Seventh ;
and, by analogy, tlie leap of the Tritonus, and
the False Fifth, which, though Diatonic Inter-
vals, are strongly dissonant. The same intervals
and other similar ones were also freely em-
ployed in harmonic combination ; for the excel-
lent reason that, with instrumental aid, they
were perfectly practicable, and exceedingly

These new conditions led, step by step, to the
promulgation of an entirely new code of laws,
which, taking the rules of Strict Counterpoint
as their basis, added to or departed from them,
whenever, and only whenever, the new con-
ditions rendered such changes necessary or

The new laws, like those of the older code,
were at first entirely empirical. Composers wrote
what they found effective and beautiful, without
being able to account, upon scientific principles,
for the good effect produced. It was not until
Rameau first called attention, in the year 1722,
to the roots of chords, and the difference between
fundamental and inverted harmonies,^ that any
serious attempt was made to account for the
prescribed progressions upon scientific princi-
ples, or that the essential distinction between
the so-called ' vertical ' and ' hoiizontal ' methods
was satisfactorily demonstrated:* and, even then,
the truth was only arrived at, after long and
laborious investigation.^

We shall best understand the points of differ-
ence between the two systems by referring to
the general laws of Strict Counterpoint, as set
forth in vol. iii. p. 741-744.

Tlie ' Five Orders ' of Strict Counterpoint are,
theoretically, retained in Free Part-writing,
though, in practice, composers very rarely write
continuous passages in any other than the Fifth
Order," which includes the four preceding ones,
and, in the new style, admits of infinite variety
of rhythm.

The four Cardinal Rules remain in force,
though their stringency is slightly modified, in
their relation to ' Hidden Consecutives.' In one
respect, however, the severity of the law is in-
creased. In Strict Counterpoint, there is no rule
forbidding the employment of Consecutive Fifths

1 One of the earliest known instances of the employment of the
chromatic genus In Polyphonic Music will be found in a canzonet
by Giles Farnaby, ■Construe my meaning' (1598) lately edited by
Mr. W. B. Squire. The English School was always in advance of all
others in Innovations of this kind.

2 It Is true that, at the present day, these Intervals are freely em-
ployed in unaccompanied vocal passages ; but, they are only safe now,
because our vocalists have so long been accustomed to sing them
with Instrumental assistance,

3 See Sir George Maclarren's remarks upon this subject, In the
JEncyclopeedla Britannlca, art. ' Music."

* See vol.1, p. 072.

5 An attempt has been made to claim for Dr. Alfred Day the credit
of having first clearly explained the difference between the Strict and
the Krt^e Styles ; but the distinction had already been clearly demon-
strated by Albrcchtsberger more than half a century earlier.

« A remarkable exception to this will be found in the opening
movement o( the Credo, in Bach's great Mass in B minor.

by contrary motion;'' while, in the Free Sty
the progression is severely censured.

In Free Part-writing of the First Order, it
not necessary to begin with a Perfect Concoi
Melodic leaps, in any interval, whether diato;
or chromatic, are freely permitted. The enif
ment of more than three Thirds or Sixths
succession is not prohibited. Dissonant h,
monies, both fundamental and inverted, may
used with the freedom of consonances, provic
only that they be regularly resolved. Ch
matic chords may be freely introduced ; and, a
natural consequence of their employment, the 1
which relates to the treatment of False relati;
— especially, tbat of the Octave — has undei^(
considerable modification, as in cases analogi
to the following, which is j^erfectly lawful
the free style —


Among these innovations, one of the most
portant — perhaps the most important of all — is
natural result of the introduction, by Monteve
of the Unprepared Discords so carefully avoid©
Strict Counterpoint.* Not only is the harm
now known as that of the Dominant Seven
freely permitted without any form of prepara'
whatever ; but, the Licence is extended to
Dominant Ninth, whether Major or Mino
the Diminished '"• and Augmented Triads;
three forms of the Augmented Sixth ; the Dil
ished Seventh ; and even to double Dissonan
sounded simultaneously. Combinations tolera
in Strict Counterpoint, as Suspensions only,
therefore strictly confined to the Fourth Or
may be treated in Free Part-writing witl
preparation, and used in the First Ordei
Appoggiaturas. Dissonant Harmonies maj
employed as freely as Fundamental Concoi
and the Licence is comprehensive enough U
elude all possible combinations of this charai
provided only that the percussion of the Disi
be followed by its legitimate resolution. .
so great is the change of style efiected by
introduction of this salient feature, that had
progress of the movement been arrested her
would still have sufficed to separate the F
phonic from the Modern Schools, by an
penetrable barrier. '

In the Second Order, it is not necessary
the Minim on the Thesis should always 1
Concord, or that every Discord should lie '
tween two Concords. All that is prescribe! n
place of this rule, is, that the Discord, whe 't
struck upon the Thesis or the Arsis, mus e
followed by its correct harmonic Resolution *■
wards or downwards, either in the next no *.
the next note but one — or at most two.

In the Third Order these conditions are "
farther relaxed. The Crotchets may procee «
Discords by leap, either on the strong or «
weak parts of the measure, falling into fif *i

7 Fui, Grad. ad Parnass. p. 255.
9 See example, vol. 11. p. 358 a.

8 See vol. 111. p. 74
10 Ibid. "






unated by Appoggiaturas or Mordents at
. Or, they may take all the notes of a given
rd, in succession, in the form of an Arpeggio,
er with or without Appoggiaturas or Mor-
ts between them, as in the following ex-
iles : all that is necessary being the ultimate
olution of every Dissonance into a Consonant
■mony :—








-1 — 1





— 1 1

—M — p


■ — -•—



— ^ —

1 the Fourth Order, it is not necessary that
Syncopation should invariably be prepared
Concord. On the contrary, it may, in certain
3, be even struck, suspended, and resolved, in
bination with two or more successive Dis-
s, as in the following example — -



1 the Fifth Order, as in the Fifth Order of
;t Counterpoint, the Rules and Licences
uribed in connection with the first four
jrs are combined; while much additional
lorn is derived from the rhythmical in-
tions resulting from the intermixture of
B of different length.

tie highest aim of Strict Counterpoint was, the
jct development of Unlimited and Limited
[ Fugue — i. e. Imitation, with all its most
plicated devices, and Canon. The highest

of Free Part-writing is the perfect de-
pment of Tonal Fugue. And as the Eeal
ue of the i6th century could only be de-
ped, in its most complex forms, by the aid
ouble, Triple, and Quadruple Counterpoint,
'or the development of the more modern
form, it was necessary to invent correspond-
Orders of Double, Triple, and Quadruple
! Part-writing — that is to say, combinations
fo, three, four, or even a greater number of
3, which could be placed in any required
r, above, below, or between each other,
out injury to the harmony ; in the absence
hich provision, the successful manipulation
Subject with two, three, or more Counter-
ects, would have been impossible. The
i for these devices were, mutatis mutandis,

nearly analogous to those observed in
it Counterpoint: the chief points insisted on
g, that the Parts could not be permitted to
i each other — since this would have nullified
jffect of the desired inversion ; and, that two
ecutive Fourths could not be permitted, since
e, when inverted, would become consecutive


lie Polyodic School,^ which was gradually

called. In contradistinction to the Monodlc School, by which
Uumediatelf preceded^

developed in connection with this species of
Part-writing, reached its culminating point of
perfection under Handel and Bach, in the
earlier half of the l8th century. Both these
Composers observed exactly the same laws ; but
the student can scarcely fail to notice the
strongly-marked individuality with which they
applied them. Though constantly using the
most dissonant intervals, both in harmony and
melody, Handel delighted in consonant points
of repose ; and to these his Music owes much of
the massive grandeur which is generally regai'ded
as its most prominent characteristic. Sebastian
Bach delighted in keeping the ear in suspense ; in
constantly recurring collisions of discord with dis-
cord, which allowed the ear no repose. And this
fearless determination to give the ear no rest,
enabled him to interweave the Subjects of his
Fugues with a freedom which has rarely, if ever,
been rivalled. Both masters made free usu of
every resource provided by the progress of Art ;
but, while Bach dwelt lovingly upon the discords,
Handel used them only as a means of making
the concords more delightful, and thus attained
a sweetness of expression which Bach never
attempted to cultivate.

But, the influence of the new School of Part-
writing was not confined, like that of Strict
Counterpoint, to the development of one single
form of Composition alone. It made itself felt
in Instrumental Music of every kind ; and, in no
case more prominently than in the Sonata-Form
of the classical period.

Passages such as those we have described, in
speaking of Part-writing of the Third. Order —
Arpeggios, with or without Appoggiaturas or
Mordents between their principal notes ; Scale
passages, and the like, when written in notes
of very brief duration, and executed with
rapidity, form an essential element in Instru-
mental Music. When accompanied simply,
with long-drawn harmonies, they are purely
Monodic — Instrumental Melodies, supported
upon a harmonized Bass. But they are not
always confined to a single Part ; and, in that
case, they form a connecting link between the
Monodic and Polyodic Styles — between the
'vertical' and the ' horizontal' methods of modern
criticism. In Strict Counterpoint, the ' vertical '
method, characterized by the formation of long
passages upon the harmony of a single Chord,
was impossible. Its passages were formed by
horizontally interweaving together a number of
independent Melodies. In Free Part-Writing,
' vertical ' and ' horizontal ' passages succeed
each other frequently. In Bach's Fantasia
and Suite in G Major, the opening Arpeggios
of the Prelude are distinctly Monodic, and
vertically constructed ; while the massive har-
monies which succeed them are distinctly Poly-
odic, and constructed on the ' horizontal' method.
Vertical passages, interspersed with Free Part-
writing, are constantly found in Handel's
finest Choruses— e. g. ' Worthy is the Lamb,'
and ' The horse anl his rider.' The contrast
is less frequently found in the Choruses of Bach i

3C 2



but it may be seen sometimes — as in the * Et
vitam venturi' of the Mass in B Minor. In
Beethoven's Sonatas, we meet it at every turn.
To mention two instances only ; the Rondo of the

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 175 of 194)