George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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' Sonate path^tique,' and the final Variations in
the Sonata in E Major, op. 109, exhibit the
contrast in its most strongly-marked form. In
the works of Wagner, the two methods are so
closely combined that it is sometimes scarcely
possible to separate them. The Leading-Themes
are interwoven in Free Part-writing as ductile
and as fearless as that of Bach himself ; while
an occasional burst of sustained harmony unites
tlie strongest characteristics of the ' vertical '
and ' horizontal ' methods, in a single passage.

It will be seen from what we have already
said, that Free Part-writing was no new in-
vention peculiar to the 17th and iSth centuries,
but a gradual development from the Strict
Counterpoint of the i6th century. It is not,
therefore, to be wondered at, that it can only be
successfully' studied by those who liave previously
mastered the laws of Strict Counterpoint, in all
their proverbial severity. So true is this, that
before writing Exercises in the Free Style,
Beethoven studied Strict Counterpoint in the
Ecclesiastical Modes, first under Haydn, and
then under Albrechtsberger, as his exercise-books
conclusively prove. Schubert felt it so strongly
that, at the moment of his death, he was
actually in treaty with a well-known teacher of
the time, for lessons in Counterpoint. Modern
progress would have us believe that it is unne-
cessary for the student to master the rule, so
long as he makes himself familiar with the
exceptions. Time will prove whetlier this
system is, or is not, more profitable than that
which Beethoven followed, and which Schubert,
after all he had already attained, was preparing
to follow, when an early death put an end to
his astonishing career. [W.S.R.]

PASDELOUP, Jules ^Itienne. Add to
article in vol. ii. p. 659, the following : — After a
popularity of many j'ears' duration, during which
the Concerts Populaires acquired an almost
imivers^il celebrity, and did much to develop
musical taste in France, and to cultivate the
symphonic school of music, the enterjjrise ra-
pidly declined. The Sunday Matinees at the
theatres were formidable rivals to Pasdeloup's
concerts, besides which the public taste which he
had done so much to train was turning altogetlier
in the direction of the concerts given by MM.
Colonne and Lamoureux, whose standard of
performance was more careful, and who suc-
ceeded better in gauging the requirements of
the audience. Under these circumstances
Pasdeloup, after vain efforts to reinstate him-
self in public favour, decided to resign, and
closed the Concerts Populaires in April 1884,
the 23rd year of their existence. On Ma}' 31,
1884, a grand festival benefit was organized
in Pasdeloup's honour at the Trocadero, by
which a sum of nearly 100,000 francs was
raised; all French artists, whether coniposere,
singers or inatrumentalists, joined to contribute



PASSION MUSIC.

towards assuring a competence for the exce
man who had done so much to make the
tunes of many artists without furthering
own interests. After this exhibition of gni
tude and charity M. Pasdeloup would have do
well to remain in weU-eamed retirement ;
the winter of 1885, however, he organized c(
certs at Monte Carlo, and afterwards found
pianoforte classes in Paris. At the concluri
of the educational course he gave paying en
certs of chamber music. In Oct. 1886, all
Godard had failed (in 1884) in his attempt
reconstruct the Concerts Populaires, Pasdelo
began a new series with the old title, giving «
concert a month from Oct. 1886 to March 18}
with a sacred concert on Good Friday. T
inopportune revival, with a conductor weakec
by age and illness, and an inefficient orchest
could not possibly succeed. Pasdeloup did i
long survive the cessation of the concerts, a
died at Fontainebleau on Aug. 13, 1887, fr
the effects of paralysis. [Au

PASQUALATI. Add that Beethove
' Elegischer Gesang' (op. 1 18), was written
memory of Eleonora Pasqualati, who died
181 T, and dedicated to her husband, £a
Pasqualati. [See vol. iv, p. 537.]

PASQUALI, NicoLO, a composer who sett
in Edinburgh about 1740 until his death
1757. He published numerous composition*,
opera called ' L'Ingratitudine Punita,' songe
' The Tempest,' ' Apollo and Daphne,' and * '
Triumph of Hibemia,' as well as the ' Sole
Dirge in Romeo and Juliet.' Most of these
printed in the ' XII English songs in sec
dated 1750, and published in London. 1
sets of sonatas, one for violin and bass, and
for two violins, tenor and thoroughbass, T
also published in London. 'XII Overtures
French horns ' (!) were printed in Edinbui
' for Rob. Bremner, the assigney of Sig^or ]
quali ' ; and the book by which his name k
known, ' Thoroughbass made Easy,' was j
lished in Edinburgh in the year of his death. [

PASSACAGLIA. Add that the form
recently been introduced into the symph
structure, by Brahms, in whose Symphon^'
E minor, no. 4 (op. 98), the finale is an eic
ingly elaborate passacagha.

PASSION MUSIC. Besides the works
tioned at the end of the article. Bach w
four other settings of the story of the Pass ■
The Passion according to St. John, which is f
as weU known in England as its grander but *
more inspired companion work, was first ■
formed in the Thomaskirche on Good Fri ',
April 7, 1724. These two masterpieces hap f
came into the hands of Emanuel Bach, and ' *
thus preserved in their integritj' ; the f
three works were left to Friedemann Bacl: f.
whom they were sold for a small sum ; tv ,♦.
them have so far entirely disappeared. Of t •
last, one was a setting according to St. M ♦'
performed on Good Friday, 1731, in the The '"
kirche, and the other seems to have been » ^



I



PASSION MUSIC.

[fl by Picander, in the year 1725. The
ining one was a Passion according to St.
3, the autograph of which is extant in the
jssion of Herr Joseph Hauser of Caxisruhe.
■e is no doubt that Bach wrote the MS. at
I time between 1731 and 1734, but from
nal considerations it is equally certain that
bs not then newly composed. If the whole
(osition is ultimately proved to be genuine,
ust be assigned to a very early period of
I's career, probably to the first Weimar
d ; the question of its authenticity must be
regarded, however, as an open one, although
» are many numbers in the work which

evident traces of Bach's style, A great
has been recently conferred upon lovers of
B by the publication of the work in vocal

(Breitkopf & Hartel, 1886), The whole
ict of the Passion settings is discussed at
;h in Spitta's Life of Bach, book v. chap. vii.
te four settings by Heinrich Schiitz, men-
d on p, 665 b have been published in Breit-

& Hartel's complete edition of that com-
:'s works, vol, i, and his Matthew Passion
Jso appeared in vocal score. [^I-]

LSTOKALE. Line 20 of article, for in
read on March 19.

LTON, Makt Anxe. Line 2 of article,
laster read writing-master. Last line but
of same column, for July 22 read July
P, 673 a, 1. 15 from bottom,yo;" 1854 read

[W.H.H.]
LTEICK, RiCHABD, Omit the words (some-
1 called Nathan or Nathaniel). That name
igs to a composer whose ' Songs of sundry
res ' were printed by Este in 1597.
LTTI, Adelin A. Line 2 of article,/o?- Feb.
ad Feb. 10. Both parents of Mme. A. Patti

Italians, her father having been born at
ttia, Sicily, and her mother at Rome. The
r's maiden name was Chiesa, and before her
iage with Signer Patti she had married a
in Signer Barilli. Their son, Antonio Barilli,
sician, died atNaples, aged 50, June 15, 1876.
gin, Supplement to Fetis.) In 1885 Mme,

was divorced from the Marquis de Caux,
n 1886 married M, Nicollni. [See above,
1 6.] [A.C.]

lUKEN. The German name for Kettle
IS, commonly used in orchestral scores. See
t, vol. i. p. 463. [V, de P,]

lVAX. For another description of the
s see Bishop Earle's ' Microcosmographie,' ed,
liss (Nares's Glossary).
lXTON, Stephen. Add that he died Aug.
787, aged 52, and was buried in St. Pancras
lurchyard. [W.H.H.]

IDALIER. The sentence in lines 7-11 of
f tide is to be corrected, as recent researches

by Mr. Dannreuther leave scarcely any
b that these works were intended for the
I. Add that Gounod has written a suite
rtante for pedal piano with orchestra, and
tasia for the same on the Russian National



PENTATONON.



745



Hymn, both for Mme. Lucie Palicot, by whom
the former was introduced at the Philharmonic
on April 21, 1887.

PEDALS. P. 682 a, 1. 22, for wrote once
only up to F read wrote twice up to F and once

up to Fj.

PENl^ATONIC SCALE. The name given
to an early tonality, of very imperfect construc-
tion, but extremely beautiful in its aesthetic
aspect, and peculiar to a great number of Na-
tional Melodies, especially those of Scotland.^

The term is an unfortunate one, since it leads
us to expect a Scale based upon five intervals of
a Tone ; whereas, it really means a Scale formed
from the combination of five fixed sounds.

No written record tending to throw a light
upon the origin or history of the Pentatonic
Scale has been preserved ; but the construction
of the Scale itself furnishes us with a very va-
luable clue. The five sounds employed — Ut,
Me, Mi, Sol, La — correspond exactly with those
of the Hexachord, minus the Fa. Now the Fa
was precisely the crux which prevented the
completion of the system of the Hexachords,
with their various Mutations,^ until the diffi-
culty was removed by the invention of the Fa
Jictum^ — presumably by Guido d'Arezzo* — in
the opening years of the nth century. It is,
therefore, more than probable that the Pentatonic
Scale belongs to a period anterior to that date :
how far anterior, it is absolutely impossible even
to hazard a guess.

The characteristics of the Scale led to certain
marked peculiarities in the form of the Melodies
for which it was employed ; and there is abun-
dant proof that these peculiarities were continued,
as a feature of ' style,' after the invention of the
Hexachords supplanted the older tonality by a
more perfect system : for instance, the Melody
of 'The Flowers of the Forest,' which cannot
have been composed before the year 15 13, exhi-
bits, in its first strain, the strongest possible
pentatonic character, while the second strain is
in the pure Hypomixolydian Mode (Mode VIII)
— assuming, that is, the F3 to be genuine ; a fact
of which the Skene MS. leaves but little doubt.

The Chinese Melody, 'Chin chin joss,' intro-
duced by Weber into the Overture to ' Turandot,'
is, if we may trust an apparently uncorrupted
copy, in the Pentatonic Scale ; though some ver-
sions introduce an F3, which would reduce it to
the MixolytUan Mode (Mode VII). [VV.S.R,]

PENTATONON (irej/TarovJi'V The Greek
term for the interval known in Modern Music
as the Augmented Sixth, which consists, in the
aggregate, of five Tones ; i. e. two Greater and
two Lesser Tones, and one Diatonic and one
Chromatic Semitone,

The term cannot be correctly applied to the
Minor Seventh, since, though this contains the
aggregate of five Tones, in Equal Temperament,
it contains more than that in Just Intonation —

I See SCOTISB MD31C.

» See Hexachord, vol. 1 ; Mdtations, vol. 11.

> See Fa Fictcm, Appeudix.

* See UUIDO d'Abezzo, Appendix.



746



PENTATONON.



viz. two Greater and two Lesser Tones, and two
Diatonic Semitones. [W.b.K.J

PERGOLESI. P. 688 a, 1. 20 from bottom,
add that before the successful performance of
•La Serva Padrona' in France it had failed
there in 1746.

PETRELLA, Enkico. Line 2 of article, for
Dec. I read Dec. 10. P. 696 a, 1. 2, add date
of production of ' Le Precauzioni ' May 20, 1851,
at Naples, and add 'Elena di Tolosa,' 1852.
Line 4,/or 1855 read 1854. Add that his last
work was 'Bianca Orsini,' produced at Naples,
\pril 4 1874. A more correct chronological
list than that given by Mendel will be found in
Pougin's supplement to F^tis, art. Petrella.

PETRUCCI, O. DEL. Line 4 of article, for
June 14 read June 18. Line 11 from bottom of
same column, /or shortly after that he probably
died read he died May 7, 1539- See Paet-
BooKS, above, p. 739.

PETZMAYER, Johann, born in Vienna,
1803, the son of an innkeeper. When he was 18
years old he obtained a common zither, and
taught himself to play it with such success that
his performances brought a considerable amount
of custom to his father. His fame spread in
higher quarters, and it was not long before he
became the fashion in Vienna. He even played
before the Emperor. In later life he took to the
bowed zither (Streich-Zither) instead of the
ordinary kind he had previously used. In 1833
lie made a successful tour in Germany, and in
1837 was made Kammervirtuos to Duke Maxi-
milian of Bavaria. He was living in Munich in
1870 (Wurzbach's Biographisches Lexicon,
vol. 22.). [^I-]

PFEIEFER, Geokges, pianist and composer,
was born at Versailles, Dec. 12, 1835. His first
piano lessons were from his mother, Mme. Clara
Pfeiffer, an excellent pianist of the school of
Kalkbrenner. Llaleden and Damcke first taught
him composition. He gained a brilliant success
at the Conservatoire concerts in 1862. His
compositions include a symphony, a quintet, trios,
sonatas, concertos, of which the 3rd has been
repeated several times in Paris. Also an ora-
torio, 'Agar'; a Bvmphonic poem, 'Jeanne
d'Arc ' ; an overture,"' Le Cid,' and a quantity of
piano music, including some well-known studies.
His last important work is a comic opera, ' L'En-
clume,' represented in 1884 and '85. M. Pfeif-
fer is a partner in the piano firm of Pleyel,
Wolff & Cie, Paris, and although he has fully
maintained his artistic reputation he has yet
found time to devote serious attention to tliis
business. He succeeded his father, Emile Pfeif-
fer in this position. His great uncle, J. Pfeiffer,
was one of the pioneers of piano-making in
Paris. [A.J.H.]

PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. P. 6986,
1. 9, to the list of treasurers add the name
of Charles E. Stephens, who was elected on
the secession of Walter C. Macfarren after the
season of 18S0. The office of treasurer has been
honorary since the foundation of the Society, ex-



PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY.

cepl in seasons 1836 to 1840, inclusive. Complc
the list of secretaries as follows : Henry Hen
(18S1-1884); Francesco Berger (1885). 1
office of secretary became honorary in 18I
The office of conductor was originally honora
except in the case of some special engagemen
and was performed by one or other of the dir
tors. Alter the first three concerts in 18,
Mendelssohn was engaged for the remainingfi
and, in 1845, Sir Henry Bishop for the wh
series, but at the third concert he withdrew
the plea of ilhiess, and Charles Lucas official
in his stead ; Moscheles was' engaged for the'
maining five concerts of the season. For B
sequent conductors see pp. 699 and _ 700; <
below, for completion to the present time.

The list on pp. 699 and 700 is continued
follows : —

N B. » denotes that a work was composed f«
Society; + that it was first performed in England to
year named. 1st app. signifies first appearance at
iPliilharmonio.

1881. (Six concerts). Dr. rrancis Hueffer appcfc
annotator of prugrammes, in succession to birB
Macfarren. Dramatic Symphony, Kom^o et JnllB
BerUoz i sjiven twice duilng the season). • hmJom
in A (MS.), F. H. Cowen. Oveitiijes - ' AA aver ^
Op. 1, Berlioz; ' Sigurd Slembe' J. SvOTd *
iVV Concerto, No. 2, in C minor (MS.) Xaver Sc 3
wenka. Liedertaeis, Op. 98, Beethoven. Ist i«
Sofie Menter, Eugene d' Albert, Ovide Musrn, E^
Glenn, Sembrich, Albani, F. Boyle, Herbert Eee .
King, and Ghilberti. . itj„„^ :

1882. (Six conceits), t Po&me feymphonique, Hunga .
Liszt. OTertures-t'03sian'(iI^)F-Corder; t
Veiled Prophet,' Stanford, t PF. Concerto l'
minor, Sgambati. Violin C?ii<=ei-to ,^,'i ,4,™ .
Moliqie. Scena, ' Che vuoi, mio cor ' (MS.) Mem t
Eohn. The Centurion's Song (Boadicea), Dr. J
Bridge. Chorus of Reapers (Projnetheus)^ L
Chorll Symphony, Beethoven; t Choral Ode, 'HJ
Brahms, t Chorus for female voices, Die H

•Kubinstein. Selection from 'Preciosa, W€
t' Paradise Lost,' Kubinstein. 1st. app. Sg»g
kufferath, Annie MaiTiott, Edith bantley.lto
Fenna, Eleanor Farnol, EUen Oii'idge, feophie I
son, F. Barrington Foote, Ludwig. *!"«.•«
of a voluntary choir ^trained by the Society's «
ductor, Mr. W". G. Cusins). .

1S83. (Six concerts.) Prize of ten guineas offeredfm
best Overture. Forty-six submitted, anonjiM^
AdJudicator.SirMichaelCosta assisted ml^^



Adjudicator, Sir Michael uosta, assisreu i" J^"-?
illness, by Sir Julius Benedict and Mj. Otto 6
Bchmidt. •Ballade for Orchestra, 'La BeUeD
sansMerci,' Mackenzie. fFantaisie Ecos8aise,>»
MaxBitich. t Scena, 'Marie St^iarts Farewell, B
diet, t Pri^e Overture, ' Among the Pines, OUW
King. tMotet, 'Adjutatorinopportunitatibus, IJ
binil t Pastorale and ' Angel's Message (Chm
Liszt. The Choral Fantasia the Chorus d^.
vishes, and the March and Chonis m The»u
Athens,' Beethoven. 1st app. Pachmann, Tew
Tua, Minnie Gwynne, Mierzwinsky. EmestL
At the close of this season ^^T,.. ^V^ . G. Cuaw
signed the office of conductor, which he had ieK

1884^' [sfx""concerts.) Conductors (l^onoraryto^
season), George Mount, Dr. C. V. ot™*"?
Francis Bamett, F. H. Cowen. SymphonieMl
in Bb minor, Cowen; in D Op., 60; t Overture,
Eitska,' and Ehapsodie (Sclavische), No. 2, l^
Dvoi-^k; Symphony, No. 2, in D, Op. i3 BW
Saltarelio, Gounod. PF. Concerto in C minOT ^
18.5, Eaff. Double bass Concertino m Igm '.
Bottesini. t Scene religieuse, '0 d^Ploi^We b.
(Kacine's Esther), A. &• Thomas. 1st a^^- '
Asher, Gertrude Griswold and W. J- ^>n'^.
Dvorak made his first appearance in Engiana
season at the invitation of the directors.

1885 Tsix concerts.) Sir Arthur SulU van apP^J ■
conductor. Annotator of the first and pait -
second programmes. Dr. panels Htieff^r
of the second and the tl^^d^Mr. Charles L_
(ad interim), after which Mr. Joseph Beuueii
appointed. Priae of twenty guineas ofiered w-



PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY.

est Overture. Eighty-eiglit submitted, anony-
jously. Adjudicators, Messrs. "W. H. Cummings,
reorge Movint, and Charles E. Stephens. *Syin-
hony, No. 2, in D minor (MS.) and PF. Concerto in
r minor, Op. 23, DTorak. t Symplionic Poem, ' Jo-
anna d'Arc,' Moszkowsld. * Orchestral Serenade,
'. Wingham. t Dramatic Overture (Prize Composi-
ion), Gustav Ernest. Symphony, No. 3, iuF, Brahms.
9t app. Clotilde Kleeberg, Oscar Beringer, Franz
lUmmel, Elly Warnots, Minnie Hauk, Marie Ether-
igton, Carlotta Elliot, Mary Beare, Elorence Major,
ver M'Kay, Arthur Thompson, A. C. Oswald, and
V. H. Brereton. Herr Moszkowski made his first
ppearance in England this season, at the invitation
fthe directors.

(Six concerts). Symphonies— No. 3, in F, Prout ;
in C minor, St. Saens. * Orchestral Scene, ' The
'crest of Arden,' Gadsby. * Suite in F, and t Violin
oncerto in C, Moszkowski. Pastoral Introduction,
nd Overture to second part of ' The Light of the
?^orld,' Sullivan. Overture, 'Graziella,' Bottesini.
Violin Concerto in A minor, Op. 53, Dvorak.
Qgeborg's Lament (Frithjof j, ]\Iax Bruch. 1st app.
'rickenhaus, Fanny Davies, Tivadar Nachez, On-
rlcek, Antoinette Trebelli, Agnes Larkcom.

(Eight concerts.) Symphonies — No. 3, in C minor,
rhe Scandinavian,' Coweu; No. 4, in E minor,
rahms; in F, Hermann Goetz. * Suite 'Eouma-
ian,' Corder. Overtures— t'Kenilworth,'Macfarren;
Di hallo,' Sullivan. 'Loreley,' Max Bruch. Qua-
lor Concertant, Oboe, Clarinet, Horn, and Bassoon,
ith Orchestra, Mozart, t Concerto for Piano-Peda-
er (MS.) Gounod, t Vocal duet, 'Hark, her step'
US., a revised setting for the Opera, 'The Canter-
ury Pilgrims '), Stanford, t Aria, ' Per questa bella
)ano,' with Contrabasso obbligato, Mozart. ♦ Prayer
f Nature (Byron). MS.. Eandegger. 1st app. Schfin-
erger, Josef Hofmann, Lucie Palicot, Marianne
lissler, Nettie Carpenter, Marie de Lido, Ella Kus-
iil, Lillian Nordica, Nevada. At the close of the
!ason Sir Arthur Suilivan resigned the conductor-
lip, which he had held for 3 years.

(Seven concerts.) Mr. F. H. Cowen appointed
onductor. Symphonies— in G (from an early set
f six), Haydn; in D, and Norwegian Bhapsody,
Fo. 2, Svendsen. Overtures — 'Borneo and Juliet,'
lacfarren ; ' (Edipus,' Stanford ; ' Siegfried Idyll,'
ITagner. t Music to a'Walpurgis Night,' "Widor.
Serenade for strings, and fTema con Variazioni
■om third Orchestral Suite, Tschaikowsky. Suite,
dected by F. A. Gevaert from works by Eameau.
etite Suite, 'Jeux d'enfants,' Bizet. Pastoral
uite, J. F. Barnett. Two elegiac Melodies for
Tings, Grieg. * Three mythological pieces, ' Aphro-
ite,' ' Vulcan ' and 'Pan,' Silas. Scotch Khapsody,
o. 1, Mackenzie. Song of Judith, Prout. 1st
pp. Friiulein Soldat, Otto^Hegner, E. Grieg, A. Hol-
ns, Liza Lehmann, Eleanor Bees, Mme. Fursch-
[adi, Mrs. Hutchinson, Hilda Wilson, Carl Mayer,
[erren Tschaikowski, Grieg and Svendsen, and M.
T'idor made their first appearance in England this
eason, at the invitation of the directors. After the
fth concert, Mr. Cowen, having been appointed Mu-
cal (? onductor at the Melbourne Exhibition, was
ileased from completing his engagement at the
hilharmonic, and Herr Johan Svendsen, of Copen-
agen, conducted the last two concerts of the season.

is ardently to be hoped that a society so
e in promoting the cause of true art, and
icouraging the composition of works of high
may long continue to pursue its honoured
Jr. [C.E.S.]

3ILLIPPS, Adelaide, a contralto singer,
ted as American, though born in England
stratford-on-Avon, in 1833. Her father
a chemist and druggist, and her mother,

was of Welsh birth, was a teacher of
ing. The family emigrated to America in
', going first to Canada, and then to Bos-
Mass. Adelaide was early instructed in
ing by her mother, and on Jan. 12, 1842,
5 her first appearance on the stage at the
lont Theatre, Boston, as an ' infant prodigy.'
5ept. 25, 1843, shs began an engagement at
Boston Museum ; she remained at this house

» Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jenks.



PHILLIPPS.



747



eight years, playing a great variety of parts
besides dancing, alone or with one or both of
two brothers. Occasional trips to Philadelphia
and New York were taken at this period.
Her vocal gifts soon attracted the attention of
connoisseurs, and, in 1S50, she was introduced
to Jenny Lind, then on a professional tour in
America. The great singer advised the j'oung
actress to give herself up to the study of music,
a subscription-list was started for the purpose
of jiaying for her training, and she was sent
to Manuel Garcia in London. She had before
this received some instruction in music at home
from Mme. Arnoult, a teacher of repute in her
day, and Thomas Comer, a cultivated English
musician and the director of the orchestra at the
Boston Museum. Another fund was subscribed
to enable Adelaide to pursue her studies for the
opera in Italy. On Dec. 17, 1854, ^^^ made a
debut at the Teatro Carcano, Milan, as Eosina. In
Aug. 1855 she returned to Boston, and in October
appeared at a concert in Music Hall. She was
then engaged for a series of operas of the English
ballad school — ' The Duenna,' ' The Devil's
Bridge,' and 'The Cabinet' — at the Boston
Theatre. Her American debut in Italian opera
was at the Academy of Music, New York, Mai-ch
17, 1S56, as Azucena in 'II Trovatore.' Her
success secured for her an engagement for five
seasons. She went first to Havana, and .subse-
quently to Paris (where she sang Azucena at
Les Italiens in Oct. 1861), Madrid, Barcelona,
and through Hungary and Holland. Her re-
pertory comprised all the contralto parts in the
operas that held their places on the Italian
stage during the twenty-five years that she
was known as an opera-singer. In 1879 she
became identified with the Boston Ideal Opera
Company, devoted to the presentation of ope-
rettas. She appeared with this company for the
last time in Boston, on the Museum stage, where
her early triumphs had been won, on Nov. 30,
1880. Her last appearance on any stage was at
Cincinnati in December 1881. Miss Phillipps
was a universal favourite with American au-
diences as a concert and oratorio singer. From
Dec. 31, i860, when she sang in the 'Mes-
siah,' to Nov. 24, 1878, when she took part
in Verdi's Requiem, she was a frequent and
a welcome contributor to the concerts of the
Handel and Haydn Society in Boston. In
Sept. 1882, the state of her health induced
her to go to Carlsbad. Some improvement
was detected, but there came a sudden re-
lapse, and she died on Oct. 3, 1882. Her
remains were carried to Boston, and subse-



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