George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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was composed thirty or forty years after the
strange production given above; his tune, how-
ever, must not be taken as a sign of any general
improvement, things having rather gone from
bad to worse. The truth seems to be that the
popular tradition of psalmodj' having been hope-
lessly broken during the Commonwealth, and
individual taste and ability having become the
only deciding forces in the production of tunes,
the composers of the 17th and iSth centuries, in
the exercise of their discretion, chose sometimes
to imitate the older style, and sometimes to
employ the inferior methods of contemporary
music. To the public the question of style
seems to have been a matter of the most perfect

Sternhold continued to be printed as an au-
thorized version until the second decade of the
present century. The version of Tate and Bradj'
remained in favour twenty or thirty years longer,
and was only superseded by the hymnals now in
actual use. [H.E.W.]

PUCITTA, ViNCENZO. Line i of article,/or
Rome read Civita Vecchia.

PUPPO, Giuseppe. Line 2 of article, add
day of birth, June 12, and 1. 6 fi:om end,
that of death, April 19.



PURCELL, P. 46b, 1. 19-25. This sentence
is to be corrected by a reference to Macbeth
Music, vol. ii. p. i>'^4; the question of the date
of composition of ' Dido and Aeneas' is discussed
in Mr. Cummings's 'Life of Purcell.' P. 47,
1. 3-4, for ' He does not appear to have pro-
duced,' etc, read His only production for the
stage in 1679 was Lee's 'Oedipus.' [See Dorset
Garden Theatre in Appendix vol. iv. p. 617.]

PURCELL SOCIETY. The edition of 'Timon
of Athens' referred to in the hist sentence but
one of article, was issued in 1882. The music-
meetings mentioned at the end were aban-


doned, and in 1887 the scheme, which ha
fallen into abeyance for a time, was re-organize*
by jNIr. Cummings and Mr. W. Barclay Squiri
who undertook the respective duties of edit( •■
and honorary secretary. '

PYNE. Line 7, omit the xcords (afterwan';
Mrs. Galton) . Susan, or more correctly Susanna:
Pyne, married Mr. F. H. Standing, a baritoi;
singer, known professionally as Celli ; Mr
Galton was another sister, who had no repute u
a singer. P. 54 b, 1. 6, add the date of tl ;
return to England and commencement of tli
atrical management, 1858.


QUARENGHT, Guglielmo, violoncellist, and
professor of the cello at the Conservatorio of
Milan, was born at Casalmag£,'iore Oct. 22,
1826. He studied under Vincenzo Merighi, who,
as he says, ' gave a proof of his wisdom and skill
in educating that piece of perfection (quella per-
fezione) called Alfredo Piatti.' Quai-enghi has
published numerous compositions for his instru-
ment, but he will always be best known by his
great ' Metodo di Violoncello' published at Milan
in 1S77, which is undoubtedly the most complete
method extant. It was formally adopted by the
Milan Conservatorio in 1875, after a commission
of four professors (with Piatti) had reported on
its merits. It is divided into five parts, of which
the third is a .short treatise on Harmony and
Counterpoint, a branch of study which, in the
words of the report, has been either omitted or
imperfectly developed in the existing methods.
It is much to be regretted that this admirable

work has not been translated, as the writer!
assured that it only h;is to be known to.
thoroughly appreciated by all professors of <
violoncello. [GJ

QITART-GEIGE. See Violino Piccolo.

QUAVER. P. 60 a, 1. 4 before last mua
example, for notes read quavers. Add as fo
note, One quaver of historical importance 1
serves mention, that which Handel added
pencil to the quintet in 'Jephtha' in 1758,
years after he is supposed to have lost his sig
and which in Schoelcher's words shows that
' looking very closely at a thing he was still a
to see it a little.'

QUINTUPLE TIME. P. 61 &, after K
mische Studien, op. 52, add ' Viens, ge««
Dame ' in Boieldieu's 'La Dame blanche'; Lo»
Ballad ' Prinz Eugen,' a number in Rubinate
' Tower of Babel,' and elsewhere.


I)ACCOLTA GENERALE, etc. Line 15 of
^ article, /or 24d. read ijd. At end of ar-
ticle add reference to Alfieri in Appendix,
vol. iv. p. 520.

RAFF, Joachim. P. 65 J, 1. 7, add that he
died in the night of June 24-25, 1882. In the
list of works, add op. 191, ' Blumensprache,' 6
songs ; 209, ' Die Tageszeiten,' for chorus, piano-
forte, and orchestra ; 210, suite for PF. and vln. ;
214, symphony ' Im Winter'; 215, 'Von der
Schwabischen Alb,' 2 PF. pieces, and 216, ' Aus
der Adventzeit,' 8 PF. pieces, edited by Biilow
after the composer's death.

RA:\IANN, Lina. Add that her life of
Liszt was translated by 3Ir.s. S. H. Edd_y,
Chicago, and by Miss E. Cowdery, and published
in 2 vols, in 1882.

RAMEAU, J. P. In the list of operas
ballets on p. 70 h, the date of production of * I
Fetes de Polymnie ' is to be altered to Oct.

RANDEGGER, Alberto. P. 73 6, 1. 3.. '
Maurona read Mauroner. Line 6, for i >
read Zara. Line 22, for a director readi
honorary member antl director. Line 26, •"
1879-80 read 1879-85, omitting the words r
Majesty's Theatre from the next line. ?
superintended the productions and conducted »
performances of the following operas, prodi I
for the first time in Enghsh: — 'Carmen,' 'Tai |
of the Shrew,' ' Lohengrin,' and ' Tannhau i
besides 'Esmeralda' and 'Nadeschila* bj ^
Goring Thomas. A scena by him, set to w J
from Byron's ' Prayer of Nature,' for tenor }



estra, was given at a Philharmonic Concert


ASOUMOWSKY. Pp. 77 6 and 78 a, the
examples are given in Kcihler's 'Album
36,' nos. 188 and 175 respectively.

AUZZINI, Venanzio. Line 8 of article,
that his first appearance in London was in
i's ' Alessandro nell'Indie.' The Round men-
;d in 1. 25 will be found in vol. iv. p. 191.

AVENSCPvOFT, Johx. Add that a set of
tas in three parts (two violins and violone
rch-lute) by him, were printed at Eome in

A.VENSCROFT, TnoirAa. Line ig, for
read 1614.

A.Y.MOND AND AGNES. Add that the
3l had been produced at Manchester in 1855.

EAL FUGUE. P. 81 a, note i, for 1558

: 1588.

EBEC. Line 5 from end of article; a correc-
of the statement there made will be found in
iv. p. 271, note i.

ECITATIYE. P. 85 a, last sentence, for
action see vol. iii. p. 695, note 2.

lANEOUSLY. Many efforts have been
e to obtain a permanent record of music
ed impromptu on the pianoforte or organ.
1 the year 1747 the Rev. J. Creed proposed
lake a machine ' to write down extempore
ntaries as fast as any master shall play
n,' but tbe apparatus does not seem to have
1 constructed. In voL i. p. 499 of this work
be found a brief account of some early at-
pts to construct such machines. Hohlfeld's
iratus, madeini752, is simplicity itself, and
been the parent of many such schemes put
b as novel from that time down to our own day.
plan of attaching a pencil or some form of
us underneath the far end of each pianoforte
, so that when it is depressed it shall make
ark (more or less long according to the time
le of the note held down) upon a slowly
ing band of paper unwound from a roll, is an
ious idea. But there ai'e material difficulties
lected with such a plan, the chief being the
ly translation of its product into the ordinary
Hion. Some inventors proposed to substitute
the friable pencil a metal stylus and Ijlack
)onized paper. But no attempt was made to
cate the bars on the paper, and so the streaks
e or less long, the hazy accidentals and the
s on the paper presented a hopeless puzzle to
transcriber. In 1827 M. Carreyre exhibited
)re the French Institute a ' Melographic
10,' in which the music played was repre-
;ed by certain signs impressed on a thin plate
sad. A committee was appointed to examine
apparatus, but inasmuch as they never re-
ted, the machine was doubtless not a success.
Boudouin afterwards read before the same



body a paper concerning another scheme of this
kind, but nothing is known of his plan. In
1836 an English patent was taken out on behalf
of M. Eisenmenger of Paris for an apparatus of
the depressed stylus and carbonized paper type,
and it is notable as showing the first attempt
made to measure off the bars. The inventor sug-
gested that this could be accomplished by the
performer's beating time with his foot on ar pedal ;
mechanism connected with this punctured the
moving band of paper, dividing it into regulated
spaces. It is uncertain whether a machine was
ever made on this plan. Towards the close of
1840, M. Duprat de Tressog patented at Paris an
apparatus of this kind, but no description of the
plan has been published. In 1856 I. Merzolo,
an Italian engineer, applied for a provisional
patent for an apparatus to give an ' identical
repetition with types like those used in ordinary
printing.' The specification is very brief, and too
vague to indicate how tlie desired object could be
accomplished. In 1863 electricity is first men-
tioned in connection with this subject, a patent
being taken out by Mr. F. B. Fenby of Worcester,
for 'The Electro-Magnetic Phonograph' (the same
word which Edison employed some sixteen years
later). The main principle of Fenby's instrument
was identical with that which underlies all tele-
graphic operations, viz. the making a bent piece
of soft ii'on into a temporary mngnet by passing
an electric current round it ; by the motion so
obtained from its armature a small inked wheel
was pressed against a band of moving paper.
The scheme seems to be complicated, and there
is no evidence that such a machine was ever
made. In : 864 Mr. E. S. Endres applied for a
patent, but it was refused him. His chimerical
proposal was to have as many type-wheels as
there were pianoforte keys ; on the periphery of
these wheels there were cut notes of various
values, from a semibreve to a deinisemiquaver.
Upon the finger risinsr from a note struck, the
intention was, that the revolving wheel should
print on paper an ordinary note of the exact
time- value of the sound phiyed. Pedals had to
be depressed when accidentals were used. An
examination of the mechanism drawn shows that
the idea was quite impracticable. As late as 1880
Schwetz a German, Hoyer a Frenchman, in 1884
Allen an Englishman, and in 1S85 Greiner of
New York, amongst others, took out patents for
apparatuses of the depressed pencil order. At
the Paris Exhibition of 1881, M. J. Char-
pentier exhibited ' La Melographie E^petiteur,'
attached to a small harmonium. Its inventor
stated that it was to write down ordinary music
played extemporaneously on the instrument dana
le langage de Jacqnard. The process was to
be eft'ecied by means of electro-magnets con-
nected with the keys putting into action a series
of cutters which cut slits in a band of moving
paper, the slits corresponding to the length and
position of the notes. By an after arrangement the
perforated paper allows the wind to pass through
its slits, and thus reproduces the music previously
played, M. Charpentier was enthusiastic enough



to believe he could also make his machine priut
the music executed in the ordinary notation,
but avowed that tliis was only a project. The
apparatus shown did not appear to have been in
working order. In 1887 M. Charpentier took out
another patent, in which metal styles attached to
the under part of the keys acted on the balanced
ribs of arevol viiig cylinder ; these were kept inked,
and marked the paper as it gradually unwound.
He also provided for depressing by electro-mag-
nets or pneumatic agency. In 18S0 Mr. H. J.
Dickenson proposed to apply the principle of the
Casselli electro-chemical telegraph to recording
music played on the piano ; from the meagre
account of his plan printed in the specification it
is impossible to describe its mechanism. In 18S1,
M. A. P. Hodgson, an engineer of Paris, took
out a patent (No. 573) for an ' Apparatus for cor-
I'ectly transcribing musical compositions.' Tlie
instrument is termed by the inventor the 'Piano-
graph Metronome.' To j udge from the specifica-
tion and drawings attaclied to the patent, this
apparatus was of the most complicated descrip-
tion. The machine was furnished with a metro-
nome for governing the rate of motion at which
a cylinder should revolve, and so regulating the
time ; this had to be mathematically exact, other-
wise the mechanism would not synchronise with
the player. If all went right, the machine was
supposed to print on a huge band of paper about
four feet broad, lines representing in their length
the duration of the notes held down. As no pro-
vision was made for indicating any variation of
the time-measure, or for accelerandos , ritardan-
dos, etc., M. Hodgson's machine would not have
proved of mucli utility, even if it could have
been constructed; he had so little idea of music
that he directed the player ' to end his compo-
sition by a perfect chord in the key of F, and not
by the tonic a third or a fifth.'

In 1 88 1 Herr J. Fohr showed at the Stuttgart
Exhibition of that year an excellent contrivance
which accomplishes the object aimed at in a
more complete way than bffore. The apparatus
was exhibited in action in London, and a paper
was read upon the subject by the present
writer at the June meeting 1882, of the Musical
Association; it is described at length in the
1 88 1-2 volume of the society's proceedings. The
machine was also shown in operation before the
members of the College of Organists. The me-
chanism of this Electro-chcmischer Notenschreib-
apparat is simple. The apparatus is contained
in a small pedestal which may be placed at the
side of a piano, and connection is made with the
instrument through a cable of wires attached to
a long frame resting on the keyboard of the
instrument. This is furnished with a series of
studs each one touching the back of the ivories
and ebonies just in front of the usual name
board ; these studs, by means of insulated wires,
are in connection with platinum points which
press on a band of paper, five inches broad,
unwound from a drum by means of clockwork.
The paper, as it passes through the mechanism, is
saturated with a solution of ferrocyanide of potas-


sium, ammonia, sulphuric acid and water ; i(
afterwards ruled by means of an aniline ink
roller with the five lines of the stave, and so
dotted ledger lines are added above and beh
On the pianoforte key being depressed, the circ
is completed and the current runs from a J
clanch^ battery, passing through the satura
paper by the particular style or styles in conn
tion with the keys struck, and staining it a blu
colour ; the electric current decomposing the ss
with which the paper is charged. The lengtl
the stain depends upon the time the key
held down ; a semibreve, for instance, appeari
as a long streak, while a quaver would be bu
dash, and a demisemiquaver a mere dot. 1
blank spaces on the paper represent the peri<
of silence ; thus, marks are formed by the pass;
current, and rests are indicated by its absen
The stains representing the white notes ■■ :
twice as broad as those standing for the bl;
ones m^. A pedal serves to indicate the 1
lines. On depressing this (as in the ordim
mode of beating time) the position of the fi
beat in the bar is indicated by short dou'
lines = stained at the moment of depression
the top and bottom of the stave. The rate
motion of the paper is governed by a slidi
lever, which also serves to start and stop 1
clock-work arrangement. Herr Fohr's appara
is simple in design, and the musical shorthn
it produces is translateable without much di
culty. It is worked upon much the same pi
as that of the electro-chemical telegraph of Ba
In 1872 Mr. Alexander A. Rossignol took ou
patent (No. 990) for an 'Apparatus for traci
music,' and his scheme is substantially the sa
as that of Herr Fohr. The only modificat;
would seem to be that M. Rossignol emplo\
styles made of two different metals wh:
severally stain the saturateil paper red and bl
representing the black and white keys of 1
piano. There is no record of this instrum(«
having been constructed. As it is stated
Herr Fohr's design dates from several 3'eara ;
since which time he has been working it oufci
question as to priority of invention is uncerl
The following illustration is a reduced reprew
tation of the first section of' God Save the Quee
as produced by Herr Fohr's contrivance ; it U
the key of A and in four parts, 3-4 time. ■






e following represents bar i6 from Chopin's
cm I lie in Eb, Op. 9, No. 2 (12-8 time). In
^ example the paper Las been set to run
w er, and so the bars occupy a larger space.

REGAL. 769

i ::>


— ■bi


n 18S6 Mr. H. H. Muir took out a patent

recording music, the principle of which

8 practically the same as that of Herr

br. [T.L.S.]

REDEMPTION, The. A Sacred Trilogy,
itten and composed by Chai-les Gounod. First
&rmed at the Birmingham Festival, Aug.
, 1882, under the composer's direction. [M.]

REDHEAD, Richard, bom March i, 1820,
Harrow, was a chorister at Magdalen College,
ford, 1829-36, having received his musical
jcation there from Walter Vicary, the organist.
was organist at Old Margaret Chapel (now
1 Saints' Church), Margaret Street, in 1 839-64,
.ce which he has been, and still is, organist at
Mary Magdalene, Paddington. His works
almost exclusively written or compiled for
in the Church of England service, viz.
andes Diurnse, the Psalter and Canticles in the
aming and Evening Service,' 1843, Music for
OflBce of the Holy Communion,' 1853 ; ' O
people,' anthem for Good Friday ; ' Church
slodies, a collection of short pieces and Six
cred Songs,' 185S ; 'The Celebrant's Office
,' 1863; 'Ancient Hymn Melodies, Book
Common Prayer with Ritual music. Canticles
Matins and Evensong, pointed as they are to
sang in churches and adapted to the Ancient
aim Chants, and Parish Tune Book and Ap-
ndix,' 1865 ; 'The Universal Organist, a Coi-
tion of Short Classical and INIodem Pieces,'
66-81; 'Litany with latter part of Com-
ination Service, Music to the Divine Liturgy
iring the Gradual, Offertorium and Communion,
ranged for use throughout the ye:ir,' 1S74;
Mtival Hymns for All Saints and St. Mary
■agdalene Days, Hymns for Holy Seasons,
'nthems, etc. [A.C.]

REED, Thomas GEEMAif. Add date of death,

arch 21, 1888. P. 91a, add to list of pieces

I 'oduced at St. George's Hall, under the

anagement of Mr. Corney Grain and Mr. Alfred


•No. 204." F. C. Burnaad and
German Reed.

' Once in a century." G.A'Beckett
and Vivian Bligh.

'Our new Dolls' House.' W.
Tardiey and Cotsford Dick.

' Answer Paid." F. C. Burnand
and W. Austin.

•Doubleday's Will." Burnand
and King Hall.

'Artful Automaton.* Arthur
Law and King Hall.

' .\ Tremendous Mystery.'
C. Burnand and King Hall.

' Enchantment." A. Law and
German Keed.

' Grimstone Grange.' G. A'Beck-
ett and King Hall.

'1001. Reward.' A. Law and
Corney Grain.

'Back from India,' Pottinger
Stevens and Cotsford Dick.

' The Pirates" Home.' G. A'Beck-
ett and Vivian Eligh.

'A Christmas Stocking.' G.
A'Beckett and King Hall.

' Castle Botherem.' A. Law and
Hamilton Clarke.

'The Three Hats.' A. A'Beckett
and Edouard Jlarlois.

■ A Flying Visit," A. Law and
Corney Grain.

•The Turquoise Ring.' G. W.
Godfrey and Lionel Benson.

' A Merry Christmas.' A. Law
and King Hall.

* Sandford and Merton.' Bur-
nand and A. S. Gatty.

'All at Sea.' A. Law and Corney

* Many Happy Returns." G.
A'Beckett and Lionel Benson.

■A Bright Idea.' A. Law and
Arthur Cecil.

'Cherry Tree Farm.' A. Law
and Hamilton Clarke.

I 'The Head of the Poll.' A. Law
and Eaton Faning.

' Nobody's Fault.' A. Law and
Hamilton Clarke.

'A Strange Host.' A. Law and
King Hall.

• That Dreadful Boy.' G.A'Beck-
ett and Corney Grain.

"A Mountain Heiress.' G.
A'Beckett and Lionel Benson.

' Treasure Trove.' A. Law and
A. J. Caldicott.

' A Water Cure.' A. Law, Arnold
Felii, and George Gear.

Moss Rose Rent.' A. Law
and A. J. Caldicott.

' A Double Event.' A. Law.
.yfred Reed, and Corney Grain.

'Fairly Puzzled.' Oliver Brand
and Hamilton Clarke.

'A Terrible Fright.' A. Law
and Corney Grain.

'Old Knockles.' A. Law and
A. J. Caldicott.

'A Peculiar Case.' A, Law and
G. Grossmith.

'Hobbies.' Stephens, Tardiey,
and G. Gear.

'A Pretty Bequest.' M. Wat-
son and Hamilton Clarke.

' A Night in Wales.' H. Gardner
and Corney Grain.

In Cupid's Court.' M. W'atson
and A. J. Caldicott.

'A United Pair.' Comyns Carr
and A. J. Caldicott.
The Friar.' Do.
The Naturalist.' Comyns Carr
and King Hall.

'Tally-Ho!' M. Watson and

. J. Caldicott.

' Wanted an Heir.' Do.

■ The Bo'sun's Mate.' AV. Browne
and A. J. Calrlicott.

Brittany Folk." Walter Frith
and A. J. Caldicott.

For some years the ' Musical Sketches ' of Mr.
Corney Grain have been the principal attractions
of the entertainment. Upwards of 50 of these
have been given, the 50th coinciding with Her
Majesty's Jubilee, and treating of topics con-
nected with that event. [M.]

added that one of the most prominent themes of
the w^ork is the beautiful ascending phrase known
as the 'Dresden Amen,' which has been used
with marvellous effect in Wagner's ' Parsifal.'

REFRAIN. P. 93 h, add See Schubert's
' Vier Refrainlieder,' op. 95.

REGAL. This name describes a variety of
organ (not differentiated by size alone, as is
implied in vol. iii. p. 93), which is especially
interesting as being in some ways the prototype
of the modern harmonium. It consists of a
single row of ' beating ' reeds, the pipes of which
are in some instances so small as hardly to cover
the reeds. A fine specimen is in the possession
of the Brussels Conservatoire, and was lent to
the Inventions Exhibition in 1S85. The name
'bible regal' is not a synonym, but the title of
another variety, the peculiarity of which consists
in its being arranged to fold in two, on a similar
principle to that on which leather backgammon
boards are made. The bellows are covered with
leather, so that when the instrument is folded, it
presents the appearance of a large book. Line
II of article, ybr Roll read Voll. For further
particulars the reader is referred to Mr. A. J.
Hipkins's ' Musical Instruments ' (A. and C.
Black, 1887), where both instruments are figured.



REGONDI, GiULio. Line 8 of article, for
1831 or 1832 read in June 1831.

REICHARDT, Alexander. Add date of
death, May 14, 1S85.

REICHARDT, J. F. P. looa, 1. 34, for 17
read 27.

REICHER, Hedwig, rde Kindermann, the
daughter of the celebrated baritone/ was born
July 15, 1853, at Munich. She was taught the
piano first bj' her mother, and at the School of
Music, but abandoned the same in favour of
singing, on the advice of Franz Wiillner. She
received her vocal instruction from her father,
and made her debut at the Munich Opera as
one of the boys in the ' Meistersinger,' and next
played small parts in the opera, drama, and
ballet, besides singing in the chorus, so as to
gain experience. Slje sang the alto part in
Franz Lachner's Requiem at Leipzig in 1871
with such success that she became engaged at
Carlsrulie. She played 'as guest' at Berlin as
Pamina, June 5, and Agatha, June 9, 1S74 ;
she then returned to Munich, and sang Daniel
in Handel's ' Belshazzar,' April 14, 1875. Soon
after she married Emanuel Eeicher, an actor
at the Gartnerplatz theatre, and for a time
sang there in opera bouffe, but returned to
opera and played Grimgerde in the 1st Cycle,
and Erda in the 2nd Cycle at Bayreuth in 1S76.
She next played at Hamburg, Vienna (where
she appeared as Leah on the production of
Rubinstein's 'Maccabees'), and again at Mu-
nich. Having received instruction for tlie pur-
pose from Faure and Jules Cohen at Paris, she
played in French at Monte Carlo in 1S80 with
such success that she received an offer to sing at
La Scala, INlilan, but declined it in favour of an
engagement at Leipzig under Neumann, where
she made her debut as Fidelio May 12, 1880.
She became a great favourite, and remained
there until 1882. She played on tour with Neu-
mann as Briinnhilde in the 'Trilogy ' in London,
Berlin, and other German towns, and finally at
Trieste, where she died June 2, 1883.

She made a great impression at Her Majesty's
Theatre as Fricka on the production of ' Rhein-
gold,' May 5, and of ' Walkiire,' May 6, 18S2,

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 181 of 194)