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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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and still more as Briinnhilde in the 2nd Cyclus
in the first two parts of the Trilogy ; not
only was her ' magnificent voice ' equal to all
the demands upon it, but her presentation of
the -character was full of force and of pathos.
While no less touching than Frau Vogl in the
truthfulness of her expression, she was more
heroic and dignified ; the supernatural element
was brought into stroncrer relief ... in the grand



1 KiNDEHMANN, AuonsT, bom Feb. 6, 1816, at Berlin, began his
career at the opera as a chorus singer, received instruction from
Meyer, and plajed both bass and baritone parts at Leipzig in 1839—
1840. since wlien he lias been engaged at Munich, where lie obtained
a life engagement, and has always been there a great favourite,
b*;ing a very versatile artist. He celebrated hia 25th anniversary of
his engagement there on June 15, 1871, as Figaro In ' Nozze,' the
Cherubino being his elder daughter Marie, then engaged at C'assel.
He played Tlturel (Parsifal) at Bayreuth In 1882; and on Sept. 9, 1^86,
he celebrated the jubilee of his career, and the 40th year of his
engacement at Munich, playing the part of Stadinger in Lortzing'a
• WaflfeQschmled.'



REyER.

awakening scene her manner was perhaps to
coldly dignified and wanting in the impulsive
ness which characterizes the heroine when sb
has finally abandoned her supernatural attribute
and become a true woman. '^ [A.C.

REID, General John. P. loia, 1. 23,/(>i
1842 read 1841. I

REINECKE, Karl. Line 4 of article, /o:
1827 read 1824. To the list of his works ad''
' Die Flucht nach Aegypten,' cantata for mal
voices; an opera, 'Auf hohem Befeld' (Schwerir
Mar. 13, 1887); an overture 'Zenobia,' and
funeral march for the late Emperor of German
(op. 200). Of his settings of faiiy tales a
cantatas for female voices ' Schneewittchen
' Dornroschen ' and ' Aschenbrodel,' are ver
popular. jf

REINE DE CHYPRE, LA. Last line (
article,ybr 1846 read 1841.

REINKEN, J. A. P. 103 6, 1. 7, for viol
read viola da gamba, and add that the ' Horti;
Musicus' has lately been republished as no. XTI
of the publications of the Maatschappij t(
bevordering der Toonkunst (Amsterdam, 1887
No. XIV of the same publication consists (
Reinken's 'Partite Diverse ' (variations). Note]
add reference to English translation of Spitta'
'Bach,' i. 197-9.

REINTHALER. Add Martin as a secon ji
Christian name; also that he was a pupil i\^
A. B. Marx, and that his cantata ' In der Wustfji,
has been very successful. jj)

RENN, organ builder. See Jaedine & O^
vol. iv. p. 685. ji)

REQUIEM. Mention should be made of tM"
Requiem Masses of Gossec. [See vol. i. p. 611, j'
Berlioz, whose work is in some respects themoi'*
extraordinary setting of the words that has evtj>i
been produced, and Verdi, whose setting of th W
words maybe regarded as marking the transitions if
point in his style. A work of Schumann'i|f«
op. 148, is of small importance ; more beautifi|i
compositions of his, with the same title, thougii
having no connection with the ecclesiastical U8;J
of the word, are the Requiem for Mignon, and '^
song included in op. 90. See vol. iii. p. 420 a. ; J
REYER, Louis Etienne Ernest. Add th';^
following to the article in vol. iii. p. 122 : — Th'
revival of ' Maltre Wolfram ' and ' La Statue "
at the Op&a Comique, Dec. 12, 1873, and Apr' ^
20, 1878, respectively, showed how little th''
composer had been influenced by injudiciov" "'
advice given him on the production of the forme \ *
work, and the transformation of ' La Statue I ^
into a grand opera made evident the fact that h: *
artistic tendencies and convictions had becom ;'j
stronger instead of weaker. After numerous a ; ^
tempts on Reyer's part to secure an unmutilate { '
performance of ' Sigurd ' at the Paris Opera, 1 *
produced it at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brui ; ^
sels, Jan. 7, 1884, with considerable and lasi'i''
ing success. On July 15 of the same year j "
was produced at Covent Garden. The first pel ' *

i Atheneeum, May 20, 1882. | .



EEYER.

I lance of the work in France was at Lyons,
Jan. 15, 18S5, when it was received with
ked success. On June 12, 1885, 'Sigurd'

performed at the Grand Opera in Paris, but
he general rehearsal the directors thought fit
aake curtailments in the score, and the com-
3r retired, protesting against the proceeding,

yet unwilling to withdraw a work, on which
nuch trouble and expense had been bestowed,
the eve of its production. He threatened
er to set foot in the opera-house until his
•e should have been restored to its original
igrity, and in this he has kept his word. The
iUc, less exacting than the composer, received

opera, which in many passages must have
siderably surprised tnem, with increasing
ipathy, and its success was all the more re-
•kable as it was entirely unassisted either by
composer, who appeared to take no interest
ts fate, or by the directors, who would not
e been sorry had it failed. The qualities
ch are most prominent in ' Sigurd ' are the
vidual charm of its musical ideas, the exact
jement between the words and the music,
1 repetitions and conventional formulas being
erally absent ; and lastly, the richness and
uring of the instrumentation, the style of
ch was greatly influenced by Eeyer's favourite
iters, Weber and Berlioz, and in places by
gner. No charge of plagiarism from the last-
led composer is intended to be suggested, nor
id such a charge be substantiated. It is true
} the subjects of 'Sigurd' and the 'Eing
Nibelungen ' are identical, but this is a mere
cidence. The plot of the libretto, which was
:ten by Du Loole and A. Blau, is taken from

Nibelungen N6t, the source that inspired
gner, who, however^ went farther back and
; his subject direct from the Eddas, moulding
^ter his own conce2:)tion. In 1868 the libretto
Vagner's trilogy had been published for 15
■s, but it was completely unknown in France,

when the trilogy was produced in 1876,
er's score was nearly finished and ready

production. Eeyer was decorated with

Legion d'Honneur in August 1862, after

successful performance of ' La Statue ' at
Lyrique, and was raised to the rank of an
er in Jan. 1886, after that of 'Sigurd,' the
ess of which has had the important result of
ding him to write a new grand opera on
ibert's ' Salammbd.' He is now editor of the
ical portion of the 'Journal des Debats.'
ng succeeded d'Ortigue, who followed Ber-
(The sentence in lines 1-5 from bottom of
s 122 a, is thus to be corrected.) He has
icted his most important articles and pub-
id them under the title of 'Notes de Musique'
■is, Charpentier, 1875). In both literature
composition he is the disciple and admirer of
ioz. It is curious that M. Eeyer, having
ceded F. David at the Institut (1S76), who
self succeeded Berlioz in 1S69, should thus
py the positions, both in music and literature,
le master whose legitimate successor he may

claim to be. [A. J.]



EHAPSODY.



771



EHAPSODY. The Greek Ehapsodist (Faf-
wSbs) was a professional reciter or chaunter of
epic poetry. 'Pa^wSia is the Greek title of each
book of the Homeric poems, the first book of
the Iliad being 'Pa^pwSia A, and so forth. The
Ehapsody was the song of the Rhapsode ; a
sequel of Ehapsodies when sung in succession or
written down so as to form a series constituted
an epic poem, and when a long poem was
chanted in sections at difl^erent times and by
different singers it was said to be rhapsodized.
The usual derivation of 'Pai//ai5ia is pa-nrm = I
sew, and oJStJ = song, ode.

Musicians might speak, in Hamlet's phrase,
of a 'rhapsody of words,' or of tunes — that is to
say, of a string of melodies arranged with a view
to effective performance in public, but without
regular dependence of one part upon another.
Such .a description would seem to apply pretty
closely to Liszt's fifteen Rhapsodies Hongroises.
and to his ' Eeminiscences d'Espagne ' (a fantasia
on two Spanish tunes, Les Folies d'Espagne and
La Jota Arragonesa, 1844-45) which, in 1S63, he
republished as a ' Ehapsodio Esp;ignole.' The
history of the latter piece is similar to that of the
Hungarian rhapsodies — portions of which were
originally published under the title of 'Melodies
Hongroises — Ungarische National-melodien ' —
short transcriptions of Hungarian tunes as they
are played by the wandering bands of Gipsies, the
national musicians of Hungary. The prototype of
these ' melodies' in all probability was Schubert's
'Divertissement h, la Hongroise, ' in G minor, op.
54 — a piece Liszt has always been fond of, and ot
which he has produced several versions — as of the
whole for pianoforte solo, and of the march in C
minor for orchestra. "^ Liszt's ten sets of ' Melodies
Hongroises' date from 1839 to 1847 ; the 15 so-
called 7iA«;jsofZie*2roM^?'oises from i8.t3 to 1854.

In 1859 Liszt published a book in French, ' Des
Bohdmiens et de leur Musique en Hongrie ' — a
late and overgrown preface, as he confesses, to
the Ehapsodies. In this brilliant, though at
intervals somewhat meretricious work,^ an effort
is made to claim for the set of Ehapsodies the dig-
nity of an Hungarian Epic sui generis. P. 344 :
'Alors nous acquimes la conviction que ces
morceaux detaches, ces mflodies disjointes et
^parses ^taient des parties diss^minees, tJmiett^es,
^parpill(^e3 d'un grand tout ; . . . et pourrait etre
consideres comme une sorte d'^pop^e nationale, —
epojiee hohimienne, — chantee dans une langue et
dans une forme inusitees,' etc. P. 346 : ' Par le
mot de Rhapsodic, nous avons voulu designer
I'i^le'ment fantastiquement 6pique que nous avons
cru y reconnaitre.' ' Les Ehapsodies, nous ont
toujours sembl^ faire partie d'un cycle poe'tique,'
etc. Be this as it may, the term ' Ehapsodie '
remains as one of Liszt's many happy hits in the
way of musical nomenclature, witness 'Potjmes
Symphoniques' (Sinfonische Dichtungen), 'Par-
titions de Piano,' 'Paraphrases de Concert,' 'Fan-
taisies Dramatiques,' etc.

> He played his version of the march In London, April, 1S86.
2 Lilie Liszt's ' Chopin,' this boolc is on good authority reported to
be the joiut production of himself and certain lady-lrieuds.



772



RHAPSODY.



Brahms has adopted the term ' Ehapsodie '
both in Liszt's sense and in that of the Greek
Rhapsodists ; and, as usual with him, he has
added weight to its significance. His original
• Rhapsodien,' op. 79 for pianoforte _ solo— in B
minor and G minor — are abrupt impassioned
ajihoristic pieces of simple and obvious structure,
yet solidly put together. The 'Rhapsodie' in C,
oi>. 53, for contralto, male chorus, and orchestra,
justifies its title, in the Greek sense, inasmuch as
it is a setting — a recitation, a rhapsody — of a por-
tion of Goethe's poem ' Harzreise im Winter ' ; it,
also, is a comjiact and carefully balanced piece.

Of Rhapsodies recently written, for the most
part in the vein of Liszt, the following may be
mentioned : —

Raff, op. 22, two 'Rhapsodies el^giaques,'
op. 120, ' Rhapsodie Espagnole,' and the ' Rhap-
sodie ' contained in the Suite, op. 163— all for
pianoforte.

Dvorak, op. 45, three ' Slavische Rhapsodien,'
fiir orchestra.

SvENDSEN, two ' Norwegische Rhapsodien,' for
orchestra. ,

A. C. Mackenzie, op. 21, 'Rhapsodie Ecos-
saise' in Bb (original), and op. 24, 'Burns,
Second Scotcli Rhapsody,' also in B b, for orches-
tra. The latter, based on national tunes, is an
admirable e.xample of its kind.

The last movement of C. Hubert H. Parry's
'Symphonic Suite in A minor for orchestra,' en-
titled ' Rhapsodie,' consists of a systematized
series of melodies on the plan familiar in the
Rondo. [E.D.]

RHEINBERGER, Joseph. Line 2 of article,
for 1S59 read 1839. Among his works are to be
mentioned the following, besides those referred
to in the article. Two large compoiitions for
solos, chorus and orchestra, ' Cliristoforus ' and
' Montfort'; two elaborate settings of the ' Stabat
I\Iater ' and a Requiem for the same, an organ
concerto, and 6 sonatas for that instrument,
making the number of these compositions eleven
in all ; two string quartets, three piano trios, a
quintet for piano and strings, a duet for two
pianos, besides pai-t-songs, and other vocal works.
Among his latest works are a nonet for wind
instruments (op. 139), a string quartet (op. 147),
6 pieces for PF. and organ (op. 150), a mass
(op. 151) and 12 organ pieces (op. 156^ He has
the title of Hof kapellmeister and Professor, and
is a member of the Academy of Arts in Berlin.

RICHARDS, Beinlet. Add date of death.
May I, 1S85.

RICHARDSON, Vaughan. Line 8 of article,
jor about 1695 read in June 1693.

RICHTER, Hans. Line 5 of article, for
Pesth read Vienna. P. 1 29 a, 1. 9, for Capell-
meister read Hof kapellmeister ; 1. 10, etc. add
tliat the Richter Concerts have been given every
year, since the publication of the article, and
are now among the most successful of London
concerts.

RICORDI. Line 14 of article, add that Tito
Ricordi was born in iSi i, and died Sept. 7, 1888.



ROBERTS.

RTEDEL, Carl. Add date of death, June l
1888.

RIES. P. 132 a, add day of birth of Hubee
RiES, April I.

RIETZ, Julius. Line 7 from end of articli
for Oct. I read Sept. 12.

RIMSKY-KORSAKOW, Nikolaus Andri
JE WITCH, born at Tichwin, Russia, in 1844, wa
at first intended for a military career, and bt
came an officer of marines in the Imperial armj
After several years' service, he abandoned hi
profession in order to devote himself to musit
Although principally self-taught, he turned hi
studies to such good account that in 1871 he wa
made professor of composition at the Conservf
torium at St. Petersburg. Not long afterward
he was appointed director of the free school (
music in the same capital. Two operas by hii
have been represented at the Russian opera-hmisf
' Pskowitjanka,' Jan. 13, 1873, and 'Die Ma
nacht ' (as the name is given in Riemann's Open
handbuch), Jan. 20, 1880. The words of th
latter are by the composer himself Some fraj:
ments of another opera were published at S
Petersbm-g, where several symphonies, works ft
piano, and a collection of 100 Russian popula
songs, have appeared. A ' legend ' for orchestri
entitled 'Sadko,' was given by the Allgemeii
Deutsche Musikverein at Altenburg in 1876, i
which year a string quartet by him obtains
considerable success. The society just mei
tioned produced his symphony ' Antar ' (op. 15 ,
at Magdeburg in 1881. He lately collaborate
with the Russian composers, Liadow, Borodini ^
and Glazounow, in writing a string quartet
the name Belaieff, i. e. the notes ' B-la-f,' or Bl^
A, F. A ' symphoniette ' in A minor has latel
been published as op. 31, a 3rd symphony i
op. 32, a fantasia for violin and orchestra
Russian themes as op. 33, and a Capriccio Ei
pagnol for orchestra as op. 34. [M

RITTER, F. L. Line 2 from end of article/ '.
Women reac^ Woman. Add that Mme. Kitt(,
has recently brought out a second series of th ,
Essays and Criticisms of Schumann, and hs^
written a sketch entitled ' Some Famous Songs ;
RITTER, Theodore. See vol. ii. p. 735 'f
and add date of death, April 6, 1886. '

ROBARTT, of Crewkerne, was an 'orgyi
maker ' who let out organs to churches by tb I
year. The Mayor of Lyme Regis in 1551 P«
him ten shillings for his year's rent. [V. de P.
ROBERTO DEVEREUX. Line 4 of artidt j
for 1836 read the autumn of 1837, and add thSj
an opera of the same name, composed by Merc£,
dante, was produced at IMilan on March IC'
1883.

ROBERTS, J. Yaelet. Add that in 188.
he was elected organist at Magdalen Collegtj
Oxford, succeeding Mr. Parratt. In 1 884the Un: ;
versity Glee and Madrigal Society was foi™[^ i
under his conductorship ; it now numbers abon 1
150 members. In 1885 he accepted the post C;
organist of St. Giles's, Oxford, and in the sam!



EGBERTS.

was appointed examiner in music to the
rd Local Examinations, and also became con-
>r of the Oxford Choral Society. In iS86
IS appointed one of the University examiners
msical degrees. The latest addition to the
Fhis church music is an anthem, ' I will sing
the Lord,' written for the JubUee Service
agdalen College. [W.B.S.]

)BSON', Joseph, organ builder. See Flight,
i- P- 532, aud Flight, vol. iv. App. p. 636.
)CHE. Line i, /or Edwaed read Edmond.
facts of the case concerning the French
lation of ' Tannhauser ' have only recently

made public, in M. JuUien's 'Richard
aer ' (1887). Roche, not knowing German,
recourse to the services of a friend named
au, and the translation, when sent to the
tor of the Opera, was rejected, as it was in
t verse ; the necessary alteration into rhyme
made by Roche, Nuitter, and Wagner in
boration. On this Lindau brought an action
ist \Yagner, to enforce the mention of his
! as one of the translators ; the case was
1 on March 6, 1861, a week before the first
isentation of the opera, and it was decided
no name but that of Wagner should appear
e books. [M.]

)DE, Pierre (properly Jacques Pierre
ph). Line 2 of article, for 26 read 16.
^2 b, 1. 20, add that he was solo violin at
)pe'ra until Nov. 17, 1799. P. 143 a, 1. 13

bottom, add that three more concertos were
ished posthumously. (See Pougin's supple-
; to Fetis.)

)GERS, Benjamin-. Line 5, add that he
jeded Jewitt in the appointment to Christ
•ch, Dublin, in 1639. Line 4 from bottom
,me column, refer, as to his degree, to Car-
s ' Oliver Cromwell,' v. 243, 4 (People's
ion).

3GERS, Roland, Mus. Doc, born at West
awich, Staffordshire, Nov. 17, 1847, where
as appointed organist of St. Peter's Church
558. He studied under IVIr. S. Grosvenor,
in 1862 obtained by competition the post
rganist at St. John's, Wolverhampton. In
' he similarly obtained the organistship
'ettenhall parish church, and in 1871 was
inted organist and choirmaster at Bangor
ledral, a post which he still holds, He took
Oxford degree of Mus. B. in 1871, and

of Mus. D. in 1875. Dr. Rogers's pub-
id works are ' Prayer and Praise ' a cantata,
ling Services in Bb and D, Anthems, Part-
9, Organ Solos, and Songs ; a Symphony in A,
ahn ' De Profundis,' and several Anthems
Services are stiU in MS. [W.B.S.]

OMANCE. P. 148 a, 1. 2, add the three
J9 by Schumann, op. 28. Line 3, omit the
Is or some one of his followers.
OMANTIC. P. 149 h, second example, the
three dotted minims should not be tied.
OME. The early music schools of Rome,
I the time of St. Sylvester to that of Pales-
VOL. IV. PT. 6.



ROME.



773



trina, were so closely connected with the papacy
that their history, as far as it is known, may be
read in the article Sistine Choir, vol. iii. p. 519.
Whether or not Guido d' Arezzo founded a
school of singing at Rome in the first half of the
nth century is only a matter of conjecture ; the
probabilities are in favour of the theory, as it
is known that Guido spent a short time, at least,
at the capital about the year 1032, and that the
then Pope John XIX. was so delighted with his
method of teaching singing that he urged him
to take up his residence in Rome, an invitation
which only ill-health prevented Guido from ac-
cepting. In any case there can be no reasonable
doubt that the papal choir received many valu-
able hints from him.

The Sistine Chapel was not the only one which
had a school or college of music attached to it,
though it was by far the earliest. In 1480
Sixtus IV. proposed the formation of a ' cappella
musicale' in connection with the Vatican, dis-
tinct from the Sistine ; his idea was not however
realized till the time of Julius II., when the
' Cappella Giulia ' was founded (in 151 3) for 1 2
singers, 12 scholars, and 2 masters for music
and grammar. Arcadelt was the first ' Maestro
de' Putti ' (in 1539), Palestrina the first * Maestro
della cappella della basilica Vaticana ' (i 55 1-4) ;
among celebrated ' maestri ' in later days were
Tommaso Bai (17 13-15), and Domenico Scarlatti
(i7i5-i9\ The 'Cappella musicale nella proto-
basilica diS. Giovanni in Laterano' was founded
in 1535 by Cardinal de Cupis ; one of the earliest
'Maestri de' Putti' was Lasso (1541); Pales-
trina held the office of ' Maestro di cappella *
here after his exclusion from the Vatican chapel
(1555-61). The ' Cappella di Musica nella basi-
lica Liberiana ' (or Sta. Maria Maggiore) was
founded about the same time as the Lateran
chapel, and numbers among its ' maestri ' Pales-
trina (1561-71), Giov. Maria Nanini (1571-
1575), Alessandro Scarlatti (1703-9).

]3esides these exclusively ecclesiastical schools,
others were established by private individuals.
The first man who is known to have kept a
public music school at Rome was a foreigner,
Claude Goudimel, of Vaison, near Avignon ; his
school is supposed to have been founded about
the year 1539, and among his earliest pupils
were Palestrina, Giovanni Animuccia, and Gio-
vanni Maria Nanini. In 1549 Nicola Vicentino,
the would-be restorer of the Ancient Greek
Modes, opened a small private school at Rome,
into which a few select pupils were admitted,
whom he enfleavoured to indoctrinate with his
musical views. But it was not till a quarter of
a century later that a public music school was
opened by an Italian. Whether it was that
Nanini was inspired by his master's example, or,
which is still more likely, was stirred by the
musical agitation of the day, is of little import-
ance ; but it is certain that the year to which
the opening of his school is attributed was the
same which saw the foundation of the Order of
Oratorians, who in the person of their leader,
St. Filippo Neri, were then doing so much for
' 3E



774



EOME.



EOME.



the promotion of music. Nanini soon induced
his former fellow-pupil, Palestrina, to assist him
in teaching, and he appears to have given finish-
ing lessons. Among their best pupils were Felice
Anerio and Gregorio AUegri. After Palestrina's
death Nanini associated his younger brother
Bernardino with him in the work of instruction,
and it was probably for their scholars that they
■wrote jointly their treatise on counterpoint.
Giovanni Maria dying in 1607 was succeeded by
Bernardino, who was in his turn succeeded by
his pupil and son-in-iaw Paolo Agostini. It
must have been this school that produced the
singers in the earliest operas and oratorios of
Peri, Caccini, Monteverde, Cavaliere, Gagliano,
etc. In the second quarter of the 1 7th century
a rival school was set up by a pupil of B.
Nanini, Domenico Mazzocchi, who, with his
younger brother Virgilio, opened a music school,
which was soon in a very flourishing condition ;
this was due in a great measure to the fact
that the masters were themselves both singers
and composers. Their curriculum differed but
slightly from that of the Palestrina-Nanini
school. In the morning one hour was given daily
to practising difficult passages, a second to the
shake, a third to the study of literature, and
another hour to singing with the master before a
mirror ; in the afternoon an hour was occupied
in the stud}' of the theory of music, another in
writing exercises in counterpoint, and another in
literature ; the remainder of the day (indoors)
was emploj'ed in practising the harpsichord and
in composition. Outside the school the pupils used
sometimes to give their vocal services at neigh-
bouring churches, or else they went to hear some
well-known singer ; at other times they were
taken to a spot beyond the Porta Angelica to
practise singing against the echo for which that
neighbourhood was famous. In 1662 Pompeo
Natale kept a music school, at which Giuseppe
Ottavio Pitoni, the reputed master of Durante
and Leo, learnt singing and counterpoint. G. A.
Angelini-Buontempi, a pupil of the Mazzocchis,
writing in 1695, says that Pedi, a celebrated
singer, had opened the first school exclusively for
singing at Rome. His example was soon followed
by Giuseppe Amadori, with equal success ; the
latter was a pupil of P. Agostini and no doubt
had not entirely forgotten the teachings of the
old school; but by the end of the 17th cen-
tury its traditions were gradually dying out,
to be replaced by the virtuosity of the i8th
century.

We must now retrace our steps and give some
account of the most important musical institution
at Rome of past or present time — the ' Congre-
gazione dei Musici di Roma sotto I'invocazione di
Sta. Cecilia.' It was founded by Pius V. in 1566,
but its existence is usually dated from 1584, when
its charter was confirmed by Gregory XIII. ; al-
most all the masters and pupils of the Palestrina-
Nanini school enrolled their names on its books,
and their example has been since followed by



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