George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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over 4000 others, including every Italian of note,
and in the present century many illustrious

foreigners, such as John Field, Wagner,
Gounod, etc., etc.

The officers originally appointed were a
dinal Protector, a ' Primicerio ' or presic
usually a person of high position, a ' Cons
dirigente' of four members (representing the
sections — composition, the organ, singing
instrumental music), a Secretary, a Chance
twelve Councillors, two Prefects, etc.; there i
also professors for almost every branch of mu
Corelli was head of the instrumental sectio
1700. Those qualified for admission into
institution were chapel-masters, organists, pu
singers, and well-known instrumentalists. I
papal decree of 1689 all musicians were boun
observe the statutes of the Academy ; and 1
later decree (1709) it was ordained that
licence was necessary for exercising the pre
sion. Soon after this the Congregation
suffer from an opposition which, though cffv
was none the less keenly felt ; and in 171
papal decree unfavourable to the institution
passed. In 1762 it was flourishing again, fa
that year we find that a faculty was grantee
the cardinal protector to have the general di:
tion of all ecclesiastical music at Rome,
another decree, of 1764, it was enacted that n
but those sJcilled in music should be in fa<
admitted as members. The entrance-fee was
it has continued to be, a very small one. '
demands made upon members were also y
slight. At first they were only expected to
sist, by their compositions or performances, in
grand annual festival in honour of the pat
saint. Towards the close of the 17th cent
were added one or two annual services in mem
of benefactors ; in 1 700 a festival in honour of
Anna, and in 1771 a 'piccola festa di Sta. Cecil

The Academy originally took up its quart
at the College of Barnabites (afterwards Pala f
Chigi) in the Piazza Colonna, where they
mained for nearly a century ; thence they moi i
to the Convent of Sta. Maria Maddalena, i
again to another college of Barnabites dedica:
to San Carlo a Catinari. Here they resided
the greater part of two centuries, and, after
temporary occupation of premises in the "Via n^
petta, finally, in 1876, settled at their presij^
quarters, formerly a convent of Ursuline nu j' j^
in the Via dei Greci. Besides the hostility wh (^
the Congregation had to undergo, as we hi \ ' ,
seen, from outsiders, at the beginning of 1 ;
last century — which was repeated in anoti j ^
form as late as 1836 — it has had its finanC|^
vicissitudes. Indeed at the end of the last, a , vj
beginning of the present century, the funds w< ^ l
at a very low ebb, from which they have be ; j
gradually recovering. The institution was digi ; u,
fied with the title of Academy by Gregory XVI. j ^
1839, ^^^ shortly after Queen Victoria consent ; j
to become an associate. Two years later Eossin j jj
'Stabat Mater 'was performed for the first time j
Italy in its entirety by the members of the Ac | ^
demy. Pius IX., who became Pope in i846,thon|
he founded several other schools for singing, bw \ k
as that of ' S. Salvatore in Lauro,' did little mo j Jj


ilje Academy than to bestow upon it the epithet
F tificia.' After the consolidation of the king-
loof Italy the Academy began to make great
ti 3S ; Victor Emmanuel himself gave it his
II ort and erected it into a Royal Institution.
;nS7o Signers Sgambati and Pinelli started
h> pianoforte and violin classes, v?hich are
iti the most popular, owing to the excellence of
h instruction given and the very moderate
ir of lessons. It was not till 1877 that the
(): wished-for 'Liceo musicale' in connection
.1 the Academy became a fait accompli.
d ibers were now divided into ' Soci di merito,
r. lari, illustri, and onorari ' ; but the titles of
h irincipal officers were not materially altered.
'1 3ssors were appointed, twenty-nine in number
•> e increased to thirty-four) for every quality
t )ice and for every instrument of importance.
L sandro Orsini had the superintendence of
h-Jinging, and Ferdinando Furino of the Vio-
j ello classes. A school was also set up for
hal singing ; lectures were delivered by the
J arian, Professor Berwin (to whose efforts a
1 1 deal of the success of the ' Liceo ' may be
tbuted); prizes were offered ; public concerts
f 3 given by the members ; — in fact it is to the
I demy that Rome looks on all public occasions,
7 ther it is for a charity concert or a requiem,
si the cases of Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel.
" Library, which was a very small one when
Ijory XVI. bequeathed to it, in 1846, his
1 ical library, has since, in 1875, been enriched

tlie Orsini collection, and, in 1882, by the
: ical works which had formerly belonged to

dis^^olved Monasteries ; in the latter year
s also added copies of all modern musical
lications — since 1500 — which were to be found
he various libraries of Rome; so that now the
jbdemy possesses one of the largest and most
lortant musical libraries in Ital}^. Owing to
1 large grants made by the government, the
faicipality, etc., at the time of the creation of

'Liceo,' — grants which have been for the
it part continued annually and in some cases
■•eased — the institution has been enabled to
jnd its sphere of operations. It still enjoys
irt patronage, King Humbert being honorary
sident, and Queen Margherita also an as-
ate. There are now nearly 200 members,
. it is proposed to erect new schools to meet
increased demands. Interest in the Academy
lot by any means confined to Italy; this is
n shown in a substantial way, as in the pre-
tation to it of pianofortes by Messrs. Erard
. Brinsmead, etc. etc. At the present moment
•rge concert hall is in course of construction.'
'he institution has done great service in the
b to the Roman musical world, and is still
tinuing to do so, to such a degree that Rome
need longer fear comparison with any other
iian town, Milan perhaps excepted,
till, notwithstanding the presence of such ex-
ent musicians as Sgambati and Pinelli, whose

considerable part of the information relating to the Academy
)een derived from Enrico Tosti's 'Appunti storici sull' Acca-
a di S. Cecilia.'



classical concerts have done much to elevate the
taste of the capital, notwithstanding its national
Apollo theatre, its well conducted journal the
' Palestra Musicale,' and its numerous musical
critics, the Rome of 1889 reflects but little of
its former glories. [A.H.-H.]

ROMEO AND JULIET. Line 8 of article,
for Carnival read Jan. 30. Line 11, for the
Scala read the Teatro della Canobbiana, and for
spring of 1826 read Oct. 31, 1825. Line 15,
for 12 read 11, Add date of first' performance
of Berlioz's symphony, Nov. 24, 1839.

RONCONL P. 154 h, 1. 14 from bottom,
for Giovannina read Elguerra. Line 13 from
bottom, for the previous year read early in the
same year. Line 12 from bottom, /or St. James'
Theatre read Lyceum and King's Theatres.
Add date of death of GlOEGiO, Feb. 1883.
P. 155 a, 1. 3 from bottom, add that his first
appearance in England was at the Lyceum as
Cardenio in Donizetti's 'Furioso,' Dec. 17, 1836.
It is presumed to have been Sebastiano who
sang at the Philharmonic Feb. 27, 1837, since
Giorgio first appeared in London in 1842.

ROOSE, John, a Brother of the Order of
Preaching Friars, repaired one of the organs in
York Minster in 1457. This is the first English
organ builder of which we have any authentic
mention. [V. de P.]

RORE, CiPEiANO DI. Line 14 of article, /or
almost immediately read after about eighteen

ROSA, CaeI/. Add that in 1882 a season was
given at Her Majesty's Theatre, from Jan. 14
to March 11. ' Tannhauser ' and Balfe's ' Painter
of Antwerp ' (* Moro ') were produced, and Mme.
Valleria joined the company. For the season
of 1883 (March 2 6- April 21) the company
moved to Drury Lane, which was its London
centre until 1887. Thomas's 'Esmeralda' and
Mackenzie's ' Colomba ' were produced, and
Mme. Marie Roze appeared as Carmen, etc. In
18S4 (April 14-May 10) Stanford's 'Canterbury
Pilgrims ' was the only new work produced. In
1885 (April 6-May 30) Thomas's 'Nadeschda'
and' Massenet's 'Manon' were given. In 1886
(May 2 3- June 26) Mackenzie's 'Troubadour,'
and in 1887 (April 7-June 11) Corder's 'Nor-
disa' were the novelties. In 1889, a 'Light
Opera Company' opened with Planquette's 'Paul
Jones ' at the Prince of Wales's Theatre.

ROSALIA. P. 160 b, 2nd paragraph, add For
a fivefold repetition see the Beanlb given under
FOEM, vol. i. p. 542 b.

ROSENHAIN, Jacob. Line 5, for Stutt-
gart in 1825, read Frankfort in 1823. Line 11,
for not so fortunate read never performed. Line
12 from end, for minor read major. Line il
from bottom, for but not played read played at
a Concert Populaire. To list of works add a
PF. concerto, op. 73 ; Sonata, op. 74 ; do. PF. and
cello, op. 98 ; ' Am Abend' for quartet, op. 99.

ROSSI, Laueo. p. 163?), 1. 12, for one of
the Milanese theatres read the Teatro delta




Canobbiana, in September 1849. Line 2 from
end of article, for version read libretto. Add
date of death, May 5, 1S85.

ROSSINI. P. 166 a, 1. 5 from bottom, for
1814 read 18 13-14. Line 4 from bottom, for
in the Carnival read in Dec. 1813. P. 174 a,
1. 30-34, add that the three choruses for female
voices here referred to are stated by IMr. Louis
Engel to be spurious. In his ' From Mozart to
Mario ' he says that the composer denied their
authenticity. P. 177 n, 1. 13 from hoiiora, for
Countess read Baroness. P. I'J'jb, in the list
of operas, after * Ermione,' insert ' Figlio per
Azzardo, 11,' produced at Venice, Carnival, 1813.
For date of production of ' Mo'ise ' in Paris, read
March 26. For date of production of ' Mosfe '
at Naples, read INIarch 5. For the first per-
formance of ' Otello ' at Naples, read Dec. 4,
and for production of the same in London, read
May 1 6. For date of production of ' Tancredi '
in Venice read Feb. 6. After ' Turco in Italia '
insert 'Viaggio a Reims,' produced in Paris,
June 19, 1825. P. 178 a, omit from the list of
Sacred Music 'La Foi, I'Esperance, et la Charite.'

ROTA. Line 4 of article, omit the tvords or
dulcimer or primitive zither. The instrument is
partly analogous to the Welsh Crwth, and would
appear to be derived from the ancient lyre. The
VFord Rota is also employed to denote a round
or canon, as in the well-known instance of Sumer


ROUGET DE LISLE. Line 12 from end of
article, omit the reference to Varney.

ROUSSEAU'S DREAM. For the last two
sentences of the article read as follows : — The
melody occurs in the ' Pantomime ' in Scene 8 of
the ' Devin du Village,' where its form is as
follows ; —

The origin of the title 'Dream' is not forth-
coming. [M.]
RO W OF KEYS. Line 4 from end of article,
for one sounding less noisy wires than the other
read one fitted with jacks more finely quilled,
and therefore less powerful, than those connected
with the other manual.

L 25, add that the room was not available
as a public concert room for a few years, the
license being witlidrawn for some time. Line 28,
add that Mr. Shakespeare was succeeded in this
capacity by Mr. Barnby in 1886. Line 34, add
date of death of Sir G. A. Macfarren, 1887, and


that of the appointment of his successor, Dr. A, !

Mackenzie, 1888.

information as to the commencement of the
stitution, see Training School, vol. iv. p. i
Line 15 from end of that article, add that
18S6, Mme. Lind-Goldschmidt was succeeded
Mr. Henschel, and he by Mr. A. Blume. A
that the number of scholarships is now (Feb. iSI
58, of which 15 include maintenance; the nural
of paying students is 188. In 1887 the Alexan«
House was opened, containing a beautiful e
cert hall, where the students' concerts are rej
larly held, as well as accommodation fop 1
ladies, some of whom are pupils of the CoU^

ROZE, Marie. Add that after singing
the Birmingham Festival of 1882 with gn
success, she joined the Carl Rosa company fri
1883 to 1887; in that time she added to )
repertory Fideh'o, and Elsa, and was the fi
representative in England of Manon Lescaut
Massenet's opera of that name. Margaret a
Helen in Boito's ' Mefistofele,' Carmen, Fade
in Maillart's 'Dragons de Villars,' Donna Ma
in Marchetti's ' Ruy Bias,' are among the pa
which she has sung on the first production
these works in English.

RUBINL Line 20 from end of article, a
that the date of death is variously given
March i (Paloschi), and 2 (Mendel and Rieman

RUBINSTEIN, Anton. Line 3, corr.
date of birth to 1830. To the list of his ope:
given on p. 192a, add 'Die sibirische Jagt
'Toms, der Narr,' 'Die Rache,' and ' Kalas(
nikoff,' (1880), all to Russian words; 'Su
mith,' in 5 acts, Hamburg, Nov. 8, 18!
' Unter Raubem,' comic opera in one act (p
duced, according to Riemann's 'Opemhandbuc
on the same evening with ' Sulamith '), and ' I
Papagei,' comic opera in one act, Hambu;
Nov. II, 1884. (The last three with Germ
words.) Add to list of works the following :-

Op. 111. 6th Symphony (A mln ;
112. 'Moses,' a Biblical or
in 8 tableaux. Par
containing fourtable >,
(Bilder), was publU: .
by Senff, 1S88.


P. 192 5, 1. 8 from bottom, omit the senten.
beginning No doubt he played in public, et .
and add that an account of his performance w
be found in the ' IMusical and Dramatic Reviev |
for 1842. P. 193a, 1. 10, for 'Ocean' ret,
'Dramatic' Line 17, add that he gave a set j
seven historical recitals in S. James's Hall, : (
May and June 1887. <

RUBINSTEIN, Josef. Add that he di< t
by his own hand in September 1884. !

PUCKERS. P. 194 a, 1. 3. This H»)f
Ruckers harpsichord transformed into a grai !
pianoforte appeared again at the sale of Loi I
Lonsdale's furniture in June 1887, when '
realised £700. Burney's description of Rameau !
portrait inside the lid should be amended. Tl '
composer does not hold a lyre, and is beis '

Op. 108. Trio for PF. and Strings
in C minor.

109. Soirees Musicales. 9 PF.


110. Eroica. Fantasia for PF.

and Orchestra.





aed with a ■wreath. The expressive cha-
r shown in the portrait shoijd vouch for
esemblance to the composer even if Bumey
lot said that it was very like. On the front
I above the keys is inscribed a complete piece
tvecin music, ' Pastorale par Mr. Balbastre,
^.oust, 1767,' beginning —



stand for this instrument is rococo, and gilt.
e same house (Carlton House Terrace), and
)y auction at the same time for £290, was an

Andries Ruckers harpsichord that had also been
made into a pianoforte by Zeitter. In this instru-
ment the original belly, dated 1628, was pre-
served. The soundhole contained the rose (No. 6)
of this maker. The present compass of the piano
is five octaves F — F. Inside the top is a landscape
with figures, and outside, figures with musical
instruments on a gold ground. Round the case
on gold are dogs and birds, a serpent and birds,
etc. All this decoration is iSth century work.
The instrument is on a Louis Quinze gilt stand.
It will be seen that these two harpsichords have
undergone remarkable changes at intervals of
more than one hundred years. They will be
numbered 67 and 68 in the list of extant Ruckers
clavecins, which completes all that is at present
known to the writer concerning the existing
instruments of that family.

Hans Euckees (the Elder or the Younger) and Andries Euckees (the Elder).




General Description.

Present Ouiner$.

Source ofinforvh'

Bent side.

Not original.

To be found in pp. 1936, 194 o.

Panmure Gordon, Esq.

A. J. Hipklng.

Bern side.


7ft. T4 by 3ft. 6 »

Bose No. 6 in soundboard, which is painted with
the usual decoration. The width has been in-
creased to admit of a greater compass.

Walter H. Burns. Esq.
and Captain Hall.

A. J. Hipkins.


32 in. long, 12^

"White natural keys, E to D, nearly 4 octaves.

W. H. Hammond

W. H. H. Jones,


in. wide, 6 in.

Inscribed Andreas Euckers me fecit Antverpiae

Jones, Esq., Witley,


deep : kej-

(Rose No. 6?). Inside surfaces painted in black


board projects

curved design on a white ground. Red line


round the inside. Georgian mahogany case.

Andeies Euckees (the Elder).




General Description,

Present Otcner.

BoMrce 0/ inform-

Bent side.


en. 4 1n.,2fl. 9
at keyboard.

Two keyboards, compass 4j octaves G— D, white
naturals. Two unisons and octave. Sound-
board painted, and usual A. Buckers rose.

Mr. 0. Cramp. Bjfield,

Mr. C. Cramp.

«. I to 58 are tabulated in vol. iii. pp. 197-9-
69 to 62, voL iii. p. 652. Nos. 63 to 66,
V. p. 305.

194 a, 1. 21, for always long read long, or
.y have been trapeze -shaped. It must be
mberedthat the names Clavicordio in Spain,
icordo in Italy, and Clavicorde in France,
been always applied to the quiUed instru-
a. We are not therefore sure whether old
ences to the clavichord are to be taken as
ibing a plectrum or a tangent keyboard

194 6, It is doubtful what changes of con-
;tion Hans Euckers made in the harpsichord
rbaps the octave strings only. Yet a clavicem-
by Domenico di Pesaro, dated 1590, lately
ired by South Kensington Museum, has the
re strings vsdth two stops. His great service
after all have only been to improve what
rs had previously introduced. It is nearly
,in that harpsichords with double keyboards
stops for different registers existed before
s Ruckers' time, and their introduction may
ittributed to the great favour the Clavi-
aum, or combined spinet and organ, was held
iring the i6th century. The researches of
Edmond Vander Straeten (' LaMusique aux

Pays Bas,' vol. viii. Brussels 1885), have done
much to bring into prominence the great use of
the Claviorganum at an early time ; see Rabelais,
who, before 1552, described Caremeprenant as
having toes like an ' epinette organisee.'

P. 1946, footnote 2. The latest harpsichord in
date known to have been made in London is the
fine Joseph Kirkman, dated 1798, belonging to
Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland.

P. 195 b, 1. 37, see Ruckers No. 59, by Hans
the elder, now in the Kunst und Gewerbe
Museum, Berlin, as being similarly constructed.

P. 196 a, footnote. The Hitchcocks were active
in the second half of the 17 th century and in the
first years of the 1 8th. [A.J.H.]

CURSE (Title afterwards spelt Ruddigore.)
Comic opera in two acts ; the words by W. S.
Gilbert, music by Sir Arthur Sullivan. Produced
at the Savoy Theatre, Jan. 22, 1887.

EUDERSDORFF, Hermine. Line 11 of
article,/or June 5 read June 25. Add date of
death, Feb. 26, 18S2.

RUDOLPH, Archddke. P. 201 h, to list of
works add Variations by him on a theme of Rossi-
ni's, corrected by Beethoven, exist in MS. (Thayer).



EUDORFF, E. To list of works add Sym-
phonic variations and a Scherzo capriccioso for

E.QE, PiEKBE DE LA, also known as Pierchon,
Pierson, Pierzon, Pierozon, and Petrus Platensis,
born in Picardy about the middle of the istli
century and fellow-pupil of Josquin des Prt5s in
the school of Okeghem. State records prove
that he was in the service of the court of Bur-
gundy in the years 1477, 92, 96, 99, 1500 and
1502. In 1501 he was a prebend of Courtrai,
and later held a similar benefice at Namur, which
he resigned in 1510. Most wiiters on music
accord him a position as a contrapuntal com-
poser scarcely second to that of Josquin, and
the magnificent copies of his masses made by
order of the Princess Margaret of Austria, and
now in the libraries of Vienna and Brussels,
testify to the value set upon his works by those
he served. Indeed, considering his great repu-
tation, it is somewhat surprising that so little is
known of the events of his life, and that so little
of his music has been printed. Of the 36 masses
now existing Petrucci printed five in the com-
poser's life-time (Misse Petri de la Rue; Venetiis,
1503), and a few more in later collections. Of
motets only 25, and of secular pieces no more
than 10, are to be found in the publications of
the 1 6 th century — a small result compared
to the long catalogue of Josquin's printed
works. Barney, Forkel and Kiese wetter give


short examples from Pierre de la Hue's cc
positions. [J.R.S.

wrote an overture in which it is introduc
See vol. iv. p. 373 a.

RUSSELL, Henry, was born at Sb
ness on Dec. 24, 1813; went to Bologna,
1825, to study music, to New York in 1833,
turning to England in 1840, when he commem
travelling as a vocalist and composer. In
particular styles he has had no rival. His so!
' I'm afloat,' ' A life on the ocean wave,' ' Cbt
boys, cheer' (the only air played by the re
mental drum and fife band when a regim
goes abroad), 'Woodman, spare that tree,' etc.,
still familiar, and some of his dramatic songs,
' The Dream of the Reveller,' ' The Manii
'The Gambler's Wife,' etc., were immens
popular in their day. It may certainly be s
that over 800 songs have either been writ
or composed by him. Fifty years ago (w!
Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand w
almost unknown), Henry Russell was inst
mental, through the Canadian government, 1
sending over thousands of poor people who '
now wealthy. A memoir was published in 18
and two volumes of copyright songs in 181
* L'amico dei cantanti,' a treatise on the art
singing. His last composition is a song '(•
Empress Queen,' written in honour of 1
Majesty's Jubilee. [J.H.


SACCHINI, A. M. G, P. 208 &, add that
the opera of * Oedipe ' was performed at
Versailles, Jan. 2, 1786.
1. 4 from bottom, for only read, first. Add that
the original society was dissolved in 1882, its
last concert being a performance of 'Solomon'
on April 28 of that year. At the sale of its
property its valuable library was acquired for
the Royal College of Music. Some members of
the committee determined to resuscitate the
society, and the new institution was incorporated
in 1882. Mr. Charles Halle was appointed con-
ductor, and in 1885 was succeeded by Mr. W. H.
Cummings, who had, up to that time, acted as
assistant conductor. In the autumn of 1888
the new society ceased to exist.

SAINT-GEORGES, J. H. V., Makquis de.
Add day of death, Dec. 23.

SAINT-SAENS, Charles Camille. Add
the following to the article in vol. iii. : — Since
the article was written, the composer has pro-
duced two important dramatic works, ' Henri
yill' (Op^ra, March 5, 1S83) and 'Proser-
pine ' (Opdra Comique, March 16, 1887), neither
of which has kept the stage in spite of their real
musical interest* The former, after a successful

series of representations, was twice revived w: >.
out success and almost immediately given 1
' Proserpine ' was received with marked disapj
bation, and only played ten times. Saint-Saer •
a consummate master of composition, and no .
possesses a more profound knowledge than >
does of the secrets and resources of the art ; •
the creative faculty does not keep pace with t
technical skill of the workman. His incomj ■
able talent for orchestration enables him to g ••
relief to ideas which would otherwise be cr -■
and mediocre in themselves ; and it is this tal ■
which makes him the one French musician n ■
fitted to compete with the classic masters of 1
Symphony. His weakness consists not onlj ■
the inequality of his inspiration, but also in \
indecision of his artistic principles ; this is she •■
in all his compositions, and it is this which le 1
him to place excellent and objectionable passa ^
in juxtaposition. For the same reason his wo ,■ '
are on the one hand not frivolous enough ) ,.
become popular in the widest sense, nor on 1
other do they take hold of the public hy t j 1.
sincerity and warmth of feeling which is so c j P
vincing. Saint-Saens, who was made a km j f
of the Legion d'honneur in 1867, and an oflGj .
of the same in July 1884, is always the BBi^
incomparable pianist. It would even seem t \

latic and Lyric :—' Henry
and ' Proserpine,' men-
above ; ' Hymne i Victor
Trocad^ro, March 15,1884);
xli, for solo, chorus, and
ra (Sacred Harmonic So-
loT. 20, 1885).

sstral :— A third Symphony
linor, for orchestra, organ.
lands iplayed at a Philhar-

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 183 of 194)