George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 184 of 194)
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Concert in May 1885), (op.
e Carnaval des Animaiu,'
lal suite,
sited music frith orchestra:



SAINT-SAfiNS:

ig the last few years his talent in this
tion had increased, and such receptions as
a,9 received at the Conservatoire, where he
(d Beethoven's Choral Fantasia, in Russia,
he occasion of his tour in 1887 with
jiel, Turban, and Gillet, and in London,
i him to be one of the moat remarkable
earnest pianoforte players of the day.
;r the title of 'Harmonie et M^lodie'
3, Calmann L^vy, 1885), he has published
[lection of his principal contributions to
dical literature, with an introduction and
idix explaining the change which his views
undergone in relation to Richard Wagner.

volume, proving as it does the author's
lity of character and changeableness as re-
1 ideals and tendencies, will not add materi-
;o his fame.

the list of works on p. 216 a, add the fol-
'g:—

— 'Ehapsodie d'Auvergne,' for PF.
and orchestra (Concerts du Cha-
telet, March 13. 1885).

Chamber music; — Sonata for
PF. and violin in D minor ; Ca-
price (quartet) on Danish and
Russian airs for PF. and wind
instruments (op. 79) ; Havanaise
for violin and PF. (op. 83).

Pianoforte :— ' Souvenir d'ltalie '
(op. SO), and 'Feuillet d'Album'
(op. 81).

Vocal:— 'La Fiancee du Tim-
balier,' ballade (Y.Hugo), (op. 82).

[A.J.]

JNTON-DOLBY, Charlotte Helen.
that she died at the age of 64 at her resi-
3, 71 Gloucester Place, Hyde Park, Feb. 18,
, and was buried at Highgate Cemetery,
Teat concourse of persons assembled testify-
10 the estimation in which this singer was
M. Sainton's farewell concert, June 1883,
e Albert Hall, was the occasion of his wife's
appearance in public. ' Florimel,' a fairy
ita for female voices, written during the last
months of Madame Sainton-Dolby's life, has
I been published by Novello. The Royal
lemy of Music founded, shortly after her
n, a scholarship in memory of the eminent
ir, once a student within its walls. [L.M.M.]
lLE, John. Line 10 of article, for 1783
1788.

lLIERI, Antonio. Line 3 of article, /or
lano in the Venetian territory, read Legnago
e Veronese territory.

lLMON, Thomas. See vol. iii. p. 655,
2.

lLVAYRE, Gervais Bernard, called
CON, bom at Toulouse, Haute-Garonne,
i 24, 1847, began his musical education at
maitrise of the cathedral, and afterwards
ied at the conservatoire of the town, before
vas brought by Ambroise Thomas to the
3 Conservatoire, where he studied the organ
Benoist, and composition and fugue with
nas and Bazin. He gained the first prize
rgan in 1868, and competed for the Prix de
le every year from 1867 to 1872, gaining it
at by sheer force of perseverance. During



SAMARA.



779



his stay at Rome, Salvayre worked very hard,
and many of his compositions date from this
time, notably his opera of ' Le Bravo,' and his
sacred symphony in four movements, ' Le Juge-
ment dernier,' of which the first two movements
were performed at the Concerts du Chatelet,
March 19, 1876. It was given in its entirety
at the same concerts on Dec. 3, 1876, under the
title of ' La Resurrection,' and again, under a
third title, ' La Vallee de Josaphat,' at La-
moureux's concert on April 7, 1882. The
remaining works written by Salvayre for the
concert-room are an 'Ouverture Symphonique,'
performed on his return from Rome at the Con-
certs Populaires, March 22, 1874; a Stabat
Mater, given under the care of the Administra-
tion de.s Beaux-Arts ; a setting of Ps. cxiii for
soli, chorus, and orchestra ; and an air and
variations for strings, performed in 1877, aU
the last given as the fruits of his residence
in Italy. On his return to Paris, he was
appointed chorus master at the Opera Populaire
which it had been attempted to establish at the
Theatre du Chatelet, and he then wrote ballet
music for Grisar's ' Amours du Diable,' revived
at this theatre Nov. 18, 1874. Three years
later he made his real ddbut with Lis grand
opera, ' Le Bravo' (Theatre Lyrique, April 18,
1877), a noisy and empty composition revealing
the true nature of the composer, who lovea
effect, but is wanting in inspiration, style, and
form, and is wholly destitute of any fixed ideal.
His little ballet, ' Fandango ' (Op^ra, Nov. 26,
1877), in which he made use of some highly
characteristic Spanish melodies, was a decided
advance in point of instrumentation, but his
grand opera, ' Richard III,' performed at St.
Petersburg, Dec. 21, 1883, was a dead failure,
and in ' Egmont,' produced at the Op^ra Comique,
Dec. 6, 1886, his chief faults, noisiness, and an
amalgamation of different styles, from that of
Meyerbeer to that of Verdi, were so predominant
that the work was only performed a few times.
Salvayre, who is a great friend of the present
director of the Opera, M. Gailhard, having been
his companion at the maitrise of Toulouse, was
commissioned to set to music Dumas' drama
' La Dame de Monsoreau,' a subject little fitted
for musical treatment. It was produced at the
Op&a, Jan. 30, 1888, and was wholly unsuccess-
ful. Salvayre, who has the qualities of a good
musician, in spite of his repeated failures, was
decorated with the Legion d'honneur in July
1880. [A.J.]

SAMARA, Spiro, is a Greek, son of the
Consul-general of Greece in Corfu, by an English
mother. He was born Nov. 29, 1S61. He
got his first musical education in Athens,
under the tuition of Enrico Stancampiano,
a pupil of Mercadante, himself an opera con-
ductor and music master, living in the Greek
capital. While studying piano and harmony,
literature had a great attraction for young
Samara, and he dedicated to it all the time he
did not employ with music. Thanks to his
perseverance and to his natural facility, Samara



\



7S0



SAMAEA.



acquired both ancient and modern Greek, and be-
came a good English, French and Italian scholar.
He was already a pianist of uncommon talent
when he left Athens for the Paris Conservatoire.
There he finished his musical education as a
pupil of Delibes. It was in Paris that Samara's
first compositions for orchestra were executed ;
there also some of his drawing-room songs were
received with success. But that was not sufficient
for the new composer ; his ambition wanted a
larger field, and he went to Milan, where the
publisher E. Sonzogno, who had already heard
of him in Paris, gave him ' Flora mirabilis,' a
tliree-act libretto by the renowned poet, Ferdi-
nando Fontana, to set to music. The first
performance of his opera took place on May i6,
1886, at the Theatre Carcano of Milan. In a
few days the name of the Greek maestro became
popular in Italy, so successful was the appearance
of his work. While the public applauded with
enthusiasm, the critics were unanimous in pro-
claiming that this opera, without approaching
perfection, still showed that its author had
studied the great masters with care, that he
possessed a certain originality of ideas, and
above all, dramatic power.

Many important European towns have con-
firmed the verdict of Milan, and Samara has
triumphed everywhere. Before writing ' Flora
mirabilis ' he had already composed an opera
entitled ' Medj^.' This he has lately revised
and completed, and it was brought out at the
Costanzi Tlieatre in Rome, Dec. 12, 1888. ' Lio-
nella ' is the title of another three-act libretto
by Fontana, on which Samara is now at work.

After the splendid dawn of ' Flora mirabilis,'
it is not surprising that the musical world should
expect great things from its author. [F.Rz.]

SAN CARLO, P. 223 1, 1. 9,/or first read
second.

SANDONI. See Cdzzoni in Appendix.

SANTINI, FoKTDNATO. Line 2, for July
read Jan. (on the authority of Riemann and
Paloschi).

SANTLEY, Chakles. Add that he joined
Mr. Carl Rosa's company for the season of 1876,
when he sang the ' Flying Dutchman ' with the
greatest success. On April 5, 1889, he left
London for an artistic tour in Australia. His
daughter, Miss Edith Santley, before her mar-
riage with the Hon. R. H. Lyttelton in 18S4,
had a short but exceedingly biilliant career as a
concert singer.

SAPHO. Add that the opera was recently
remodelled by its composer, extended to four
acts, and produced at the Grand Opera April 2,
1884, with moderate success.

SARABANDE. P. 227 &, in the example at
top add a dot to each quaver rest ; and make the
last Gt] quaver in line I, and the E quaver in
line 3, semiquavers.

SARASATE. Add that his full name is
Pablo Martin Meliton Sarasate y Navascues.
''The right date of birth is that given in the



SAXOPHONE.

Dictionary.) In 1885 and 1886 he gave 8 ,
orchestral concerts, conducted by Mr. Cusii j
St. James's Hall, and at the Birmingham Ij
val of 1885 played a violin concerto writt«)j|
him by Mr. Mackenzie. , i

SARTORIS, Mes. Line 2, for 6 read , |
SATZ. The German term for MovEi!i!|(
which see.

SAVONAROLA. Grand opera in a
logue and three acts ; words by Gilbe
Beckett, music by C. Villiers Stanford,
duced at the Stadt-Theater, Hamburg (vi
translated by Ernst Frank), April 18, 1884,
at Covent Garden (German Opera, under I
ter), July 9 of the same year.

SAXOPHONE. Add that R. Wagner .,
to instruments of this class the formidable-!
ing name of ' Ra9enkreuzungsklangwerkze ',*
which may be translated by 'tonal hybrids.'

For the second paragraph of the article, M
stitute the following : —

It is manufactured in different sizes, com
ing a complete choir of its class. A. Sax saj
made tight varieties ; namely, i. Sopranin \
Eb ; 2. Soprano in Bb ; 3. Alto in Eb ; 4. T
in Bb ; 5. Baritone in Eb ; 6. Bass in Bb ; 7. ^
in Eb (an octave lower than the baritone)
Contrabass in Bb (an octave lower than dr
bass). Of these the first and the two last-na i
kinds have, however, never come into ger ^
use. !

It is rather singular that an instrumen
considerable artistic capacity, and very effec
when manipulated by an ai-tist, should m e'
have been accepted as a means of enlarging 3
tonal resources of our modem orchesi ■.
Georg Kastner introduced it into the scor f
his biblical opera, ' Le dernier roi de Ju '
which was performed at the Conservatoir( 1
Paris in Dec. 1844 ; A. Adam gives an etfec J
solo to the Eb Alto Saxophone in his oj 1
'Hamlet,' and we are told that it is also emplo I
by Berlioz in his opera ' Les Troyens.' ^ J
last work remaining in MS. it is not easy to ;
precise information on the point ; in none of J
published works of Berlioz is the Saxophon »
be found. Wagner, the greatest tone-pan '
of our time, has never given it a place in J
scores, and the instrument remains outside i
recognized orchestral resources.

The reason for this neglect lies probably in •
unsympathetic tone, combining two characteri '•
tone colours, ' reed ' and * brass,' which are j r^
ferable when rendered separately and pure
either the clarinet or a brass instrument.

It has, however, been accepted as a valua \
addition to Wind-bands, where its hyl .'
tone forms a most effective link between r '
and brass instruments. When represented
a full choir it materially improves the ti
quality, while its capacity for distinct renc
ing of very rapid passages, combined with
powerful tone, make it a valuable adjunct
obtaining a good balance of instrumentat
of wind-bands.



SAXOPHONE.

, The Saxophone is extensively employed in
)St military reed- bands of the south of Europe,
)ecially those of France ; but in the infantry
ads of Germany and Austria it remains almost
known.

Even in France it has had a rather chequered
rear. Adopted by a decree of the Minister
War (published in the ' Moniteur de I'armee,'
Sept. lo, 1845), it came into general use
th all infantry bands. In the year 1848 it
s suppressed, to be again reiatroduced in 1854,
ice which time it has obtained a permanent
.ting, [J.A.K.]

SCARAMUCCIA, UN' AWENTURA DI.
237 h, 1. iffor Sept. 6 read March 8.

SCARIA, EjnL, Add that he created the
it of Gurnemanz in 'Parsifal' at Bayreuth,
d sang the same at the concert performances
the work in Nov. 1S84 at the Albert Hall,
s subsequently became insane, and died July
, 1886,

SCARLATTI, Alessandbo, To the list of
orks add tbe foUowing, the MSS, of which
e in the possession of the Earl of Aylesford : —
atorios : ' Giuditta,' and ' S. Cecilia,' a ' Salve
igina ' for chorus, and a cantata.

SCARLATTI, Domenico, P. 240 a, 1. 9,
r B. Cooke read John Johnson (at the Harp
:d Crown, Cheapside). After 1. 12, add that
1752 John Worgan obtained the sole licence
print certain new works by Domenico Scar-
tti, and published them (at J. Johnson's, facing
JwChurch, Cheapside). These were twelve sona-
s, most of tbem new to England.
SCENA. P. 240 5, L II firom bottom, ybr
)88 read 1689,

SCHACK, Benedict, Add that in the ' Har-
onicon,' vol. ix. p, 298, there is an account of a
ass by him which was finished by Mozart.

SCHARWENKA, Xavieb. Line 2 of article,
T 1840 read 1850. To list of important works
Id a Symphony in C minor, op, 60.

SCHAUROTH, Delphine. Add date of
;rth, 1 8 14. She appeared in England when
ily nine years old, and gave a concert on July
. 1823, playing Beethoven's Eb quartet for
F. and strings, and an air and variations by
.alkbrenner,

SCHEIDEM ANN, The name of a family of
:ganists in Hamburg in the i6th and 17th
jnturies. Gerber, in his Lexicon, mentions
Ceinrich Scheidemann, born about 1600, died
654, but appears to confuse him with an older
nd more important member of the family,
*avid Scheidemann, probably an uncle of Hein-
ich. The date of David Scheidemann's birth is
ot ascertained, but in 1585 he was organist of
t. Michael's Church, Hamburg. He is chiefly
oteworthy as associated with three other Ham-
urg organists of repute, Jacob and Hieronymus
'raetorius, and Joachim Decker, in the compila-
on of what we should now call a Choralbuch,
lough this name was not in general use



SCHEIDEMANN.



781



then,' a book of the usual hymn-tunes or chorales
of the Lutheran Church, simply harmonized in
four parts for congi-egational singing. This
book appeared in 1604. Its original title is
'Melodeyen-Gesangbuch, darem Dr. Luthers
und ander Christen gebrauchlichste Gesange,
ihren gewohnlichen Melodien nach , . , .''in
vier stinamen iibergesetzt,' The example first
set by Lucas Osiander in 1586, of uniformly
giving the melody to the soprano part, and not
to the tenor, as the older practice was, is here
followed, and in the preface attention is called
to the greater convenience of this for congrega-
tional singing. Of the 88 tunes in the book,
David Scheidemann harmonized 13 or 14; among
them there appears for the first time harmonized
'Wieschon leuchtet der Morgenstern.' Gerber,
confusing. David with Heinrich, attributes both
the melody and the setting of this Chorale to
Heinrich. But Winterfeld shows (Ev. Kirch, i,
p. 90) that the melody belongs to neither, but
seems to be taken from an old seculr.r song,
beginning with similar words (' Wie schciii
leuchten die Aeugelein'), to the metre of which
Philip Nicolai in 1599 wrote the words of his
hymn, ' Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern,'
Winterfeld praises Scheidemann's settings of the
chorales for their fresh animated character, and
for the happy way in which the rhythmical
peculiarities of the old melodies are brouglit out.
Chorales were not then sung as now, all in slow
uniform rhythm, but many of the older melodies
had curious changes of rhythm, as from common
to triple time, in successive lines. See the
specimens of Scheidemann in Winterfeld, Part I.
nos. 70, 71.

Heineich Scheidemann, mentioned above,
was the son of Hans Scheidemann, organist of
St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg. In 1616 he
and Jacob Praetorius the younger were sent at
the public expense to Amsterdam, to be initiated
into a higher style of organ-playing, under the
tuition of the then most famous organ-player of
Europe, Peter Sweelinck, In 1625 Heinrich
succeeded his father as organist of St. Catherine's.
Matheson says of Scheidemann that his organ
playing and compositions were like himself,
popular and agreeable, easy and cheerful, with
no pretence or desire for mere show. None of
his organ pieces have survived, though Fetis
speaks of having obtained some. A.a a composer,
Heinrich Scheidemann was again associated with
Jacob Praetorius in contributing melodies to

I It is worth while noting that the word Choral (In English usually
spelt Chorale), as now restricted to the melodies of German metrical
hymns, really originated in a misunderstandins of nhat Walther
meant when he spoke of Luther as liaving called the 'deutscher
Choralgesang' into life. Wliat both Luther and Walther meant
by ' Choralgesaiig ' was the old Cantus Choralis or r .aiu-»ong of the
Latin Church, which Luther himself wished to retain ; and his merit
consisted in the adaptation of the chief parts of the Latin Choral to
German words, his work in this respect corresponding to Marbeck's
'Book cf Common Prayer Noted' with us in England. All the older
Lutheran Chiu-ch-musicians, such as Lucas Lossius and Michael
Praetorius, used the words Choral and ChoralgesSnge in this sense
of the old Plain-song melodiei to the graduals, sequences, and
antiphons, whether sung to Latin or adapted to German words. It
was only when German metrical hymns gradually superseded in
common use the other choral parts of the service, that the name
Choral in course of time became restricted to the melodies of theae
bymus. See Wiuterteld, £t. Kirch, i. pp. 151, 152.



782



SCHEIDEMANN.



Kist's ' Himmlische Lieder,' which were pub-
lished in 1641, 42. Praetorius composed ten to
the 4th part of Kist's Book, Scheidemann ten to
the 5th part, entitled ' HoUenlieder.' One of
Scheidemann's melodiesin this collection, ' Frisch
auf und lasst uns singen,' continued for a while
in church use, as it appears again in Vopelius
Leipziger Gesangbuch of 1682. On Scheide-
mann's death in 1654, Joh. Adam Keinke or
Keinken became his successor as organist of St.
Catherine's, Hamburg. [J.E..M.]

SCHEIDT, Samuel, one of the celebrated
three S.'s (the other two being Heinrich Schiitz
and Hermann Schein, his contemporaries), the
best German organist of his time, was born at
Halle in 1587. His father, Conrad Scheldt, was
master or overseer of salt-works at Halle. The
family must have been musical, as some works
are still preserved of Gottfried, Samuel's brother,
which A. G. Hitter (' Geschichte der Orgel-
musik ') saj's show considerable musical abi-
lity. Samuel owed his training as an organist
to the then famous ' Organisten-macher ' Peter
Sweelinck of Amsterdam. At what date he
betook himself to Amsterdam, and how long he
remained a pupil of Sweelinck, is not precisely
ascertained. In 1620 at least, if not earlier,
he was back in his native town, and had re-
ceived the appointment of organist and capell-
meister to Christian Wilhelm, Markgraf of
Brandenburg, and then Protestant Administrator
of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. In this
capacity Scheldt officiated as organist not at
Magdeburg, but in the Hof-kirche at Halle.
The troubles of the Thirty Years War and the
misfortunes of his patron, the siege and sack of
Magdeburg in 163 1, and the abdication of Chris-
tian Wilhelm in 1638, seem to have made no
difference to Scheldt's official position at Halle,
though his income and means of living may have
suffered. We have no record as to his personal
relations with Christian's successors in the ad-
ministration of the Magdeburg archbishopric,
but Chrysander in the ' Jahrbiicher fiir musik-
alische Wissenschaft,' i. p. 158, prints a letter
from Scheldt to Duke Augustus of Brunswick in
1642, which seems to imply that he was then
looking for some patronage or assistance from
that art-loving prince. Scheldt never left Halle
however, and his circumstances may have im-
proved, as in his will he bequeathed some money
for the sake of the organ in the St. Moritz-kirche
at Halle. He died at the age of 67 on March 14,
1654.

Scheldt's first published work appeared at
Hamburg in 1620 ('Cantiones Sacrae octo vo-
cum'), and consists of 39 vocal compositioos, 15
of which are settings of Lutheran chorales. His
fame however rests not on his vocal composi-
tions, but on his works for the organ. His next
work, also published at Hamburg in 1624, is
considered epoch-making in the history of organ
music. It consists of three parts, but the whole
work bears the general title ' Tabulatura Nova ' ;
the same title, indeed, as many earlier works of
the same kind in Germany {e.g. Ammerbach,



SCHEIDT.

1571; B. Schmid, 1577; Paix, 1583; Woltz,
1 61 7), from all of which, however, it diffen
widely both in aim and style, and indeed markt
the beginning of a new and better treatment
the organ both with regard to playing and V
composition. From 1570 to about 1620, oi^ai
playing in Germany almost entirely consisted ii
what was known as the art of ' koloriren," tht
art of ' colouring ' melodies sacred or secular b\
the inserting of meaningless passages, all framet
on one and the same pattern, between each not<
or chord of the melody. These earlier Tablature
books were all compiled simply to teach thi,
purely mechanical art of 'colouring' melodies
for the organ. The music was written in th(
so-called German Tablature, i. e. with letten ;
instead of notes.^ (For a full account of thes<
German ' Coloristen ' * of the i6th and 17th cen
turies, see A. G. Eitter's ' Geschichte der Orgel
musik,' pp. 111-139.) Scheldt's 'Tabulatun
Nova' put an end to this miserable style 0.
playing and composing for the organ, as well a
to the old German Tablature. The music in hL
book is noted in score of four staves, with fivi,
lines to the stave, so far difiering from the nota .
tion both of Frescobaldiand Sweelinck, the forme:
using two staves of six and eight lines respec
tively, the latter two staves both of six lines
To give an idea of the contents of Scheldt's work
we transcribe in full the separate titles of th(
three parts : —

I. Tabulatura Nova, continens variationeB aliqno
Psalmonim, Fantasiarum, CantUenarum, Passamezz
et Canones aliquot : in gratiam Organistorum adomat
a Samuele Scheldt Hallense, Keverendiss. Ulnstris
simique Principes ac Domine Christiani Gulieln:
Arcliiepiscopi Magdeburgensis, Primatis Germania
Organista et Capellae Magistro. Hamburgi . . . MDCXXn

II. Pars Secunda . . . continens Fugarum, Psalmonm
Cantionum et Echos Tocatae variationes varias a
omnimodas. Pro quorumvis Organistarum captu e
modulo. ...

HI. Tertia et ultima pars, continens Kyrie Dominicali ', i
Credo in unxim Deum, Psalmum de Coena Domini Bu ^
Communione, Hymnos praecipuorum Festorum totiu '
anni, Magnificat 1—9 toni, modum ludeudi plen ' 1
Organo et Benedicamus ... In gratiam Organistarun j |
praecipue eorum qui musice pure et absque celerrimi ^ '^
coloraturis Organo ludere gaudent . . .

The last words mark an important diflferenc .
between the third part and the two preceding
In the first two parts the composer appears t
wish to show how he could beat the ' Colourists
on their own ground, his figures and passage
however not being like theirs, absolutely mean
ingless and void of invention, but new am
varied, and having an organic connection witl
the whole composition to which they belong
He shows himself still as virtuoso, desirous t
extend the technique of organ-playing, while a
the same time displaying his contrapuntal mas
tery. So far as technique is concerned, there 1
to be noticed in Scheldt the extended use of th
pedal, so different from Frescobaldi's occasiona
use of it for single notes merely, also the imita ,
tion of orchestral effects, such as what he himsel j |
terms ' imitatio violistica,' the imitation of th j J

1 For an example of Gennan Organ Tablature, see Schlech ( 1

' Geschichte der Kirchenmusik," p. 377 ff. , i, ' '

2 ■ Geschmacklose Barbaren " (tasteless barbarians), as AmDr
calls tbam.



p



SCHEIDT.

Kits of the different ways of bowing on the
lin, and the imitation of an organ tremulant
;lf by the rapid interchange of the fingers of
two hands on one and the same key (' Bici-
m imitatione tremula organi duobus digitis
una tantum clave manu turn dextra, turn
istra '). The first two parts contain a mix-
e of sacred and secular pieces, the secular
ces however being marked off as for domestic
her than for church use by the absence of a
lal part. The sacred pieces consist of ten
tasias or sets of variations on chorale melo-
s, with a few fugues or fantasias on another
tive, among which is a ' fantasia fuga quadru-
;i,' on a madrigal of Palestrina's, which Ritter
cribes as a masterpiece of contrapuntal art,



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