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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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r subjects from the madrigal being treated first
^ly and then together, and with contrary
tion and other devices. The secular pieces
sist chiefly of variations on secular melodies,
ong which appears one entitled an English
g ' de fortuna.' The third part of the ' Ta-
atura Nova' stands however on a higher
el than the first two. The composer ex-
issly renounces the virtuoso ; he writes, as the
e-page says, for those who delight to play the
an purely musically, and without mere orna-
Qtal and passage work. In this third part he
es very fuU directions with regard to register-
both for manuals and pedal. It is intended
irely for church use, and both by the choice of
ces, and the manner in which they are ar-
ged, it gives us an insight into the way in
ich the organ was very frequently employed
the church services of those days. It was
then generally used to accompany or sustain
voices of the choir or congregation, but
ber to alternate with them. Thus, for in-
Qce, between each verse of the ' Magnificat '
ig by the choir without accompaniment, the
an would come in independently with some
iation or changing harmonies on the plain-
g melody, A further use of the organ was
n to take the place of the choir in making
responses to the ecclesiastical intonations of
officiating clergy when there was no proper
lir to do this. Frescobaldi's works (espe-
ly ' Fiori Musicali,' 1635") furnish instances
this use of the organ in the Roman Church.
us when the priest had intoned the Kyrie of
Mass, in the absence of a proper choir, the
anist would answer, as Ambros expresses it,
en speaking of Frescobaldi's works of the
d, ' with a kind of artistically-ennobling and
iching echo ' (' mit einer Art von kiinstler-
i-veredelnden und bereicheruden Echo '), that
o say, the organist, taking up the plain-song
me, would not just harmonize it note by note,
; treat it in the form of a short polyphonic
iposition for the organ. (See the quotations
n Frescobaldi in Ambros's ' Geschichte der
isik,' iv. pp. 444-450.) The third part of
leidt's 'Tabulatura' shows that this usage
3 not confined to the Roman Church, but was
> retained for a considerable time in the
theran. It opens with twelve short move-



ments based on the plain-song of the different
sections of the Kyrie and Gloria of the Mass, and
the remark, or rubric, as we might call it, ' Gloria
canit Pastor,' shows that they were expressly
intended as responses made by the organ to the
intonation of officiating clergy. The Magni-
ficat follows, in all the church tones, one verse
sung by the ecclesiastic and every alternate
verse arranged to be played by the organ in lieu
of a choir. This way of treating the Magnificat
prevailed in Lutheran Churches even up to
Pachelbel's time (1706), though the plain-song
was more and more put into the background,
and the practice became simply an excuse for
interludes on any motive. After the Magni-
ficat came a series of hymns common to both
Roman and Lutheran Churches, with their
plain-song melodies treated in a similar fashion.
The book further contains Luther's version of
the Creed (' Wir glauben All, an einen Gott')
with its Doric melody, John Huss's Commu-
nion Hymn, arranged to be played instead of
being sung during Communion. The two last
pieces in the book are 6-part movements for the
full organ, meant to be played at the end of
Vespers. Interwoven with the last is the litur-
gical melody of the Benedicamus. In all these
compositions Scheidt has faithfully adhered to
the original plain-song melodies when they ap-
pear as Cantus Firmus, but in the further work-
ing out has not been content simply to harmonize
them according to the laws of the Church modes,
but has so far altered them in accordance with
the new ideas of harmony then beginning to
make way. But there is still wanting in him a
consistent system of modulation. The chromatic
semitones are still employed by him rather in
a hap-hazard sort of way.

Twenty-six years later, viz. in 1650, Scheidt
published another work for the organ, his second
and last, which shows a different conception as
to the use of the organ in the services of the
Church, and probably marks a change which
was then going on gradually in the practice of
the Lutheran Church. The congregational sing-
ing of metrical hymns was gradually superseding
the older liturgical music, and the organ had
more and more to surrender its independence to
accommodate itself to the simple accompaniment
in 4- part harmony of the melodies of these
hymns, which now began to assume exclusively
the name of Choral-musik. This, which was at
first a loss, became in time a gain, as it deepened
the sense of the value of harmony for its own
sake ; and besides, out of this originated the new
art-form of the Choral- Vorspiel of later days.
Scheldt's last organ work was intended to meet
the new requirements. Its title sufficiently ex-
plains its object : ' Tabulatur-buch 100 geist-
licher Lieder u, Psalmen D. Martini Lutheri
und anderer gottseliger Manner fiir die Herren
Organisten mit der Christlichen Kirchen u.
Gemeine auf der Orgel, desgleichen auch zu Hause
zu spielen u. zusingen, aufalleFest-u. Sonn-t^e
durclis ganze Jahr mit 4 Stimmen componirt
. . . Gedruckt zu Gbrlitz . . . im. 1650 Jahr.'



This work is dedicated to the Magistrates and
Town Council of Gorlitz, and the composer
seems to imply that it had been undertaken at
their special desire. In this, as in his previous
work, there is noticeable, as Ritter points out,
the same undecided struggle in the composer's
mind between attachment to the old and in-
clination to the new. Thus, while he strictly
adheres to the original rhythms of the old melo-
dies, he harmonizes according to the rules of
modern musical accent, and thus the rhythm of
the melody is not in agreement with the rhythm
implied by the harmony. See for illustration
his setting of ' Ein' feste Burg ' in Ritter, ' Ge-
schichte der Orgel-Musik,' p. 19, the first two
bars of which may here be given : —

One chorale appears in this book for the" first
time, viz. ' Jesulein siiss, O Jesulein mild,'
which has been adapted in later chorale books to
the words ' heiliger Geist, heiliger Gott.'
As harmonized by Scheidt it is given in Win-
terfeld 'Ev. K. G.",' ii. No, 218, and Schbberlein,
♦ Schatz des Chorgesangs,' ii. No. 457.

If it is his organ works that now entitle Scheldt
to honourable remembrance and give him a dis-
tinct position of his own amongst composers, it
was not his organ works, but his vocal composi-
tions, that procured him the esteem of his con-
temporaries, and caused him to be ranked as one
of the celebrated three S.'s. Of his vocal works,
besides the 'Sacrae Cantiones' of 1620, men-
tioned above, there are mentioned 'Liebliche
Kraft-BIiimlein conzertweise mit 2 Stimmen und
General-Basse,' Halle 1625; ' Geistliche Con-
certen mit 2 und 3 Stimmen, etc., 4 parts,' Leip-
zig, 1631, Another instrumental work should
also be recorded, more for the clavier than the
organ, ' Ludorum musicorum prima et secunda
pais, 1623.'

It is natural to draw comparisons, as Ritter
does in his 'History of Organ Music,' between
Scheidt and Frescobaldi, whose lives covered
nearly the same period of time, and who may
both be regarded as the true founders of modern
organ music, or rather, the Italian of clavier
music generally, the German of specifically
organ music. Of the two, Frescobaldi is the
greater genius, showing greater force of imagin-
ation in the invention of new forms and the
solution of difficult problems ; Scheidt is more
laborious and painstaking, showing greater study
of the capabilities of his instrument, as, for in-
stance, in the use of the pedal, and in registering
generall}', with neither of which did Frescobaldi
concern himself. As Ritter points out, while
Scheidt has thus greater command of all the
resources of expression, Frescobaldi has mors
of real poetic expression in his music itself.


For more detailed comparison of the two mas-
ters it will be sufficient to refer to Ritter'g
work. [J.R.M.]

SCHEIN, JoHANN Hermann, was born Jan,
29, 1586, at Griinhain in Meissen, where his
father was the Lutheran pastor. Having lost
his father at an early age, he was taken to Dres-
den and became a chorister in the Court Chapel
there. His further education was received at
the Gymnasium of Schulpforta and the Univer-
sity of Leipzig. Of his musical training furthei
than what he received in the Court Chapel at
Dresden we have no details. In 1613 he wa«
invited to be Capellmeister at Weimar, but held
this post for only two years. On the death oi
Seth Calvisius in 16 15 he obtained the appoint-
ment of Cantor to the Thomas-Schule in Leip-
zig, which post he held till his death in 1630.

Schein is chiefly known to later times by his
'Cantional,' first published in 1627. Its ori-
ginal title is ' Cantional oder Gesangbuch Augs-
purgischer Confession, in welchem des Herm
D. Martini Lutheri und anderer frommen Chris-
ten, auch des Autoris eigne Lieder und Psalmeu
... So im Chur und Fiirstenthiimern Sachsen,
insonderheit aber in beiden Kirchen und Ge-
meinen allhier zu Leipzig gebrauchlich, verferti
get und mit 4, 5, 6 Stimmen componirt . . .' A
second enlarged edition appeared in 1645 aftei
Schein's death. As the title shows, it consist:
of Choral-melodies, both old and new, harmonizet
for ordinary cliurch use, mostly note against note
Schein himself appears in this book in threi
capacities, viz. as poet, melodist, and harmonist
Of the 200 and odd Choral-melodies in the boo!
about 80 are Schein's own, a few of which havi
still held their ground in modern chorale books
though some appear to be attributed to him b;
mistake. Schein's book differs from Criiger'
similar book of later date (1648) in retainim
the old irregular rhythm of Choral-melodies
while Criiger has transformed their rhythm
according to more modern ideas. But if Scheii
still retains the old rhythm in the melodies, i;
his harmonies he has almost entirely lost, a
Winterfeld points out, the feeling for the pecu
liarities of the old church modes in which tlios
melodies are written, though otherwise his har
monies are serious and dignified. With Michae
Praetorius and Heinrich Schiitz, and probabl;
through their influence, Schein was one of th
pioneers in Germany of the new movement i:
music proceeding from Italy at the begmnin;
of the 17th century. Naturally his other work
show this more plainly than the ' Cantional, a
many of them are avowedly written in imitatioi
of Italian models. These other works are a
follows : — ,,

1. ' Venus-Kranzlein ' ('Garland of Venus >
a set of ' weltliche Lieder ' or secular songs, for ;
voices. Leipzig, 1609.

2. 'Geistliche Concerte' (Sacred Concertos
for 4 voices. 161 2.

3.' 'Cymbalum Sionium,' containing 31 set
tings of German and Latin sacred texts for 5,
8, 10, and 12 voices. 1613.


■ 'Banchetto Musicale,' a collection of Pa-
ls, Gaillardes, etc., in 5 parts, 1617.

'Opella Nova,' ist part, containing ' Geist-
I Concerte auf jetzo gebrauchliche Italien-
|! invention componirt' (Sacred Concerto3
|;en in the new Italian style). 1618.
I 'Musica boscareccia, Waldliederlein auf
Hn - VillaneUische Invention fingirt und
lionirt ' (Hunting or Forest Songs, com-
il in the style of Italian villanellas).
' ' Fontana d'Israel,' ' Israelis Briinnlein aus-
Bner Kraftspriichlin altes und neuen Tes-
nts, etc., auf ein sonderbare anmuthige
m-MadrigaHsche Manier, etc., mit Fleiss
'Onirt ' (Israel's fountain of select passages
8 Old and New Testament, carefully com-
t in the specially graceful style of the Ita-
Madrigal). 1623. In this work Schein

up the basso continuo, and goes back to
lore purely vocal style of the old madrigal,
itting himself however the bolder harmonic
ie of the new style of Monteverde and other
ms. Wherever the words seem to justify
oing so, the composer delights in using un-
ired discords, and discords without resolu-

with perhaps too much straining after
onate expression.

' Opella Nova,' and part, 1626, contents
u" to the 1st part, both parts having basso
nuo and instrumental accompaniment,
er 30 numbers from Schein's ' Cantional '

be found in Schoebeilein's ' Schatz des
gischen und Chor-gesangs,' Gottingen,
-72. [J.R.M.]

HICHT, J. G. Last line but one, add
,bly before the words not by John Sebastian ;
efer to Bach in Appendix.

HILLING, Db.G. Add date of death, 1880.

HIMON, Adolf. Add date of death, June


HINDLER, Antox. Line 2 of article, /or

\read 1796. Line Z,for Modi read Medl.

HIRA, Francesco. Add date of death,
'.6, 1883.

HLESINGER. p. 254 a, 1. 4, /or in read


HMIDT. See SiniH, Fatheb.

BMITT. P. 2545, 1. 7 from bottom, /or
read 1796.

HNEIDER, F. J. C. A fuUer list of his
rios will be found in vol. ii. p. 555 a.

atNETZLER. See Snetzleb, and vol. ii.

aOELCHER, Victor. P. 2576, 1. 13 from
n, the sentence beginning ' Uj) to 1850 ' re-
) correction, as in 1827 'The Messiah' (with
words), the * Ode on St. CecUia's Day,' and

I ander's Feast,' had been given in Paris. P.

\, 1. 4 from end of article, read the highly

I'ated narrative.

ilONE MINKA. The name by which a

la very popular Ruthenian or Little Rus-



sian song is generally known. (The music and
original words are given by Pratsch, ' Sobranie
russkikh narodnuikh pyesen,' end of vol. i., and
the literal German version in Fink, ' Musikal-
ischer Hausschatz,' No. 157.)

Te-khav Ko - zak za Dn - na - I, Ska - zai dlr - chi -


H * ^ ifc


-1- I I

Ein Eo - sak ritt In den Erieg, Sagt dem MSd-cben
na pro - shchal ; Vul ko - ni - kl vo - ro - nen - kl


Le - be - wohl ; Kun, ihr mel - ne lie - bea Bap-pen,
Na aJ - In - gn - lal. Po - stol, po - stoi

"g ^~^ J ■ \ ^

Lau - fet was ibr kSnnt.

Wart doch, wart doch,

Tto - ya dlv - chi - na pla - che.


il — h

mein Eo - sak, Sieb dein MSd-chen weint nm dicb>
Tak tul me - ne po - ki - da-esh, Til -ko po - du mai.


Wenn du mich nun auch ver-lass-est, Den-ke doch an mich.

It is marked by perfect regularity of rhythm
and absence of certain eccentricities noted in
the article Song, vol. iii. pp. 612, 613, as com-
mon in the Cossack and Little Russian songs ;
and the words are a dialogue in rhymed verse.
It is an interesting instance of a Volkilied of one
country becoming domesticated in tlie same ca-
pacity in another, and also of the extraordinary
transformation which the song may undergo in
the process. A very loose imitation of the words
of this song, beginning * Schone Minka ich muss
scheiden,' was published by the German poet
Ch. A. Tiedge in 1808, and this, with the melody
much altered, is now to be found in most collec-
tions of German Volkslieder without notice of
the Slavonic source. J. N. Hummel has made
this air (rather in its original than in the German
form) the subject of ' Adagio, Variazionen und
Rondo iiber ein russischts Thema' for PF.,
violin, and violoncello, op. 78, and Weber wrote
a set of brilliant variations for pianoforte on the
same theme. [R.M.]

1. 12 from bottom,/or 1612-1618 read 1615-18.
P. 285 b, as to the date of Purcell's ' Dido and
.^neas,' see Puecell in Appendix. P. 287 a,
1. 7, /or 1694 read iGg-,.

SCHOTT (B. Schott's SOhne). P. 31505,
1. 15 of article, after Adam add (living after-
wards as bandmaster in Canada and India, where
he died). At end of first paragraph add Schott's
sons have been music publishers to the Court
since 1824. After Rink's organ-music add ' der
Choralfreund,' in 9 volumes ; ' !lfecole pratique de
la modulation,' op. 99 ; 'Gesangstudien' (vocalises,
m^thode de chant, etc.) by Bordfese, Bordogni,
Concone, Fetis, Gavaude, Garcia, Lablache, Abb6
Mainzer, Rossini, Rubini, Vaccai, etc.



SCHOTTISCHE. The last bar of lines 2 and
4 of the musical example should be identical.
The right notes are F, G (appoggiatura), F, E, F.

Scheoder), organ builder. See vol, iii. p. 539 b,
article Father Smith.

Line 3 of article, /br December read Dec. 6.

SCHROTER, Corona Elisabeth Wilhel-
mine, a celebrated singer of the Weimar court
in its most brilliant days, was the daughter of a
musician, Johann Friedrich Schroter. Accord-
ing to her latest biographer, Kail (Vor hundert
Jahren, Leipzig, iSjs^i, Corona was born Jan.
14, 1 751, at Guben, whence the family shortly
afterwards migrated to Warsaw and finally to
Leipzig. Corona's voice was trained by her
father, and she sang when she was but 14 at
a Leipzig Grosses Concert (1765). From the
following year until 1771 she was engaged at
these concerts, Schmehling (La Mara) being re-
tained as principal vocalist. Goethe had become
acquainted with Schroter in 1766 ; ten years later
lie convej'ed to her the offer of the post ofKam-
mersangerin to the Dowager Duchess of Weimar.
Here she made her first appearance Nov. 23,
1776, and soon became the idol of the place.
Associated with Goethe himself in the produc-
tion of his dramas, she created amongst others
the part of Iphigenia, corhpletely realizing the
poet's ideal (see Auf Mieding's Tod). Her co-
operation in ' Die , Fischerin ' included the com-
position of all the music. It was on July 22,
1782, that .she was heard as Dortchen, and that
'Der Erlkonig,' with which the play opens, was
sung for the first time. After 1786 Schroter
sang little in public, but devoted herself to com-
position, painting, and a few dramatic pupils.
Schiller heard her read Goethe's Iphigenia in
17S7, and Charlotte von Schiller, a year or two
later, found much to praise in the musical settings
of ' Der Taucher ' and ' Wiirde der Frauen,' and
their expressive rendering by the famous artist.
In the meantime Schroter's health had broken
down, and her death, when aged 51, at llmenau,
Aug. 23, 1802, was not unexpected.

Her songs were published in two books. They
are melodious and simple settings of poems by
Herder, Matthison, Klopstock, etc. Book I. (25
Lieder, Weimar, 1786) contains Goethe's 'Der
neue Amadis ' and ' Der Erlkonig.' The list of
subscribers furnishes the names of many notabili-
ties of the day connected with Weimar and other
German Courts. The second collection of songs
was published at Weimar, 1 794.

Corona's brothers, Johann Samuel (vocalist)
and Johann Heinrich Schroter (violinist) visited
England; the former died here in 178S. Be-
sides the life by Keil, Diintzer's ' Charlotte von
tStein and Corona Schroter ' may be consulted for
details of her social and artistic successes. In
1778 Schroter handed to Goethe her MS. auto-
biography, which has never been made public,
perhaps has not yet been discovered among his


papers, although Goethe noted the receipt of
in his diary. [L.M.W

SCHROETER, Leonard, bom at Torgau i
wards the middle of the i6th century, becai
Cantor of the Cathedral of Magdeburg abo
1564, in succession to Gallus Dressier, also
composer of some importance. Schroeter's eh
work is 'Hymni Sacri,' Erfurt, 1587, and co
sists of 4- and 5 -part settings of those Lai
Church Hymns which had also been receiv
into the worship of the Lutheran Church. W:
terfeld says of these hymns, that they belong
the best musical works of the time ; the hi
mony is rich, clear, and dignified, and shows
unmistakeable advance on the path of the ok
masters. They are in the same style as t
Hymns of Palestrina and Vittoria, only 1
choral melody is mostly given to the upper voi
Some of these hymns, as well as some of 1
German psalms of Gallus Dressier, Schroete
predecessor, are re-published in Schoberlein a
Riegel's ' Schatz des liturgischen Chorgesan|
Gottingen, 1868-72. Four Weihnachts-Iii
lein of Schroeter's are received into the reperto
of the Berlin Dom-Chor, and are published
Schlesinger's ' Musica Sacra,' No. 11. AG
man Te Deum for double choir by Schroel
previously existing only in manuscript, has bi
printed by Otto Kade in the Noten-beilagen
Ambros's 'Gesch. der Musik.'No. 28. [J.K.I

SCHUBERT, Franz Peter. P. 324 a, 1.
from bottom of text, omit the word Scliille
P. 331 6, add to first paragraph, also a i
overture in E minor published in Series II
the complete edition. P. 3336 and elsewh<
fo)' Gundelberg read Gundelhof. P. 334
1. 8, the hexameters are Kanne's. P. 33
1. 14 from bottom, read Count F. von Tro;
P. 341 b, 1. 26, afte7- fond add so fond as
have encored it on first hearing, and him
sung in the encore (Spaun). P. 343 6, 1. 9 fi
bottom of text, add See an interesting lei
from Ernst Perabo, the present owner of
MS., with extract from the Andante, ilS
'M. Musical Record,' April, 1888. P. «
1. 16 from bottom, /or Diabelli readMas^^
P. 351a, 1. 32, for alone read in themsd'
P. 355 a, 1. 34, for still fairer read na
fairer. Add that Schubert was reburied on S
23, 1888, in the central cemetery of Vier
P. 359 a, note 2, add It was taken, or b^
while Schubert took refuge in the artist's ho
from a thunderstorm (Pohl). P. 359 6, L
add He had a beautiful set of teeth (Benedi
P. 362 b, at bottom, the sentence beginufr^;
' They show no aesthetic artifices,' etc., is | ~
correct. See the ' Rondo brillante,' op. 70, wl I '
part of the introduction is quoted in the Ron 1 '
also in op. 100 the subject of the slow mcj '
ment is introduced into the Finale, and otb i
P. 367 a, add to note. His poems were collected j
' Poetische Betrachtungen in freyen Stunden, • '
Nicolaus : mit einer Vorrede . . . von Friedi '
von Schlegeh' Wien, Gerold, 1828. P. 36: .^
add to list of authors of poems, W. Miiller j }i



370 b. add The articles on Schubert's masses
Mr. E. Prout in the ' M. Musical Record ' for
71, and the ' Concordia' for 1875, are too im-
rtant and interesting to be omitted. Ibid.
Id to the letters, 1S28. Ap. 10 | Vienna |
obst I MS. copy in the writer's possession. P.
I b,for Auf der Briicke read Auf der Bruck.^
374 a, to Tod und das Madchen, Der, add
17. P. 375 b, in No. 7 of the Symphonies read
'pry in last column as MS. (See pp. 334,
5.) Lower down, No. 16 of the Sonatas,

Op. 40 read Op. 140. P. 3786, after 4"^!
d Der Tod und das Madchen | . | Op. 7, no. 3 |
bruary. P. 379 a, No. 496, the date of Furcht
rGeliebten should be Sept. 12, 1815 (Autog. at
fcheby's). P. 380 a, 1 8 2 2, Eitner (' Monatshefte,'
1888, p. 33) mentions an autograph of ' Du
bst mich nicht ' (op. 59, no. i) in Gj minor, and
ted July 1822, but whether this is the original
tograph or a duplicate by Schubert is not certain.
382 a, 1. J, for Kopfermann read Kopfermann.
A. complete edition of Schubert's works in 22
8ses was announced by Breitkopf & Hartel on
jhubert's death-day, 1884.' Up toEeb. 18S9,
s following have been published : — Series I.
iym phonies in 2 vols. II. lo Overtures, etc.
5tets, 4tets, and Trios, 2 vols. VIII. 8
indos, Sonatas, etc., for PF. and one instrument.
L.PF. 4-hand compositions, 32 in all, in 3 vols.

15 Sonatas for PE. solo. XI. Miscellaneous
i". works. XIII. Masses, 7, in 2 vols. XIV.
small church works. XV. Dramatic music :

'Teufels Lustschloss' ; (2) ' Der vierjiihrige
sten ' ; ' Fernando ' ; ' Die Freunde von Sala-
jika ' ; (6) ' Eierrabras.'
The history of Schubert's music owes very
ich to Max FEiEDLAirDEK, Dr. in Philosophy,
.0 was bom at Brieg in Silesia Oct. 12, 1852,
studied singing under Manuel Garcia in
ndon and Julius Stockhausen in Frankfort.

edlander has travelled much and is widely
awn as a baritone singer. He sang at the

8tal Palace on April 19, 1884, and elsewhere
London. He has taken up musical investiga-

, especially in connection with Schubert ;

has edited the new edition of Peters' collec-

of Schubert's songs ; with a supplement of
iations; Schubert's duets; Schubert's quintet,

r wer die Sehnsucht ' ; Gluck's Odes ; Re-

i edition of the text to Schumann's songs ;

Deutsche Volkslieder (not before published) ;
ckbausen's Gesangstechnik (with the author).

is understood to be devoting himself to the
f Mllection of materials for an exhaustive biography
' (Schubert, for which he is well qualified.

5CHQTZ, Heiitrich. See vol. iv. p. 45, and
il as follows: — His father and grandfather
<upied a good social position at Weissenfels,
either his father removed with his family on
1 death of the grandfather in 159 1. In h;s
trteenth year (1598) Heinrich was taken into
1 service of Landgraf Moritz of Hesse-Cassel,
i Qarrated in the former article.

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 185 of 194)