George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 186 of 194)
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SCHUTZ.



787



Anf der Brack. Der 25sten Julias. 1814." See ' Poetisches Tage-
'1.' p. 79; in SSmmtl. poet Werke von Ernst Schulze. 8to.
1 zig. 1822.



Add to vol. iv. p. 45 a, 1. 9 from bottom : — The
Landgraf, as a man of culture, interested in all
new movements in literature and art, wished him-
self to gain a closer acquaintance with the new
Italian style of music, and hoped through Hein-
rich Schutz to be able to transplant it to Germany
and into his own Court chapel, and thus vivify
German art by a new alliance with Italian. In
Schutz he found the man for his purpose. Schutz
accepted the Landgraf's offer and proceeded to
Venice, where he remained under Gabrieli's
tuition from 1609 until his master's death in
1612. Gabrieli showed his esteem for his pupil
by sending to him from his death-bed a ring to
wear to his memory, and Schiitz on his part ever
professed the highest veneration for his master.
In 161 2 he returned to Cassel, and was appointed
organist to the Landgraf, but either uncertain
himself as to his real vocation for music or
induced by his friends, he had still some thoughts
of taking up again the profession of law. Per-
haps the Landgrafs chapel was too narrow
a sphere for him to work in ; it was fortunate
therefore that in 1614 he received the invitation
to undertake the entire direction of the capelle
of the Elector Johann Georg of Saxony at
Dresden, at a salary of 400 gulden. The Land-
graf was unwilling to part with him, and would
at first only allow him to accept this position
temporarily. He recalled Schiitz in 16 16, but on
the earnest petition of the Elector finally con-
sented to his remaining permanently at Dresden.
Schiitz's first endeavour at Dresden was to re-
organize the electoral music, and indeed, as he
had been engaged to do, on the Italian model,
for the purpose of introducing the new concerted
style of music vocal and instrumental. He
procured good Italian instruments and players,
and sent qualified members of the capelle to
Italy for a time, to perfect themselves in the new
style of singing and playing.

To p. 45 b, 1. 7 from bottom, add: — For his
purpose Schiitz uses the means of expression
afforded by contrast of dififerent choirs, or
contrast of solo voices with full choir, or con-
trast of voices with instruments, either the
simple Basso Continue, i.e. for organ, lute, or
theorbo, or strings with occasional trumpets,
etc. The work on the subject of the Resur-
rection is entitled 'Historia der frohlichen
und Siegreichen Auferstehung unsers einigen
Erlosers und Seligmachers Jesu Christi.' The
occasion for the composition of this work would
seem to have been the practice, still kept up
at Dresden, Leipzig and other churches in
Saxony, of singing the story of the Resm-rection
at Easter as that of the Passion in Holy Week.
A ' Geistliches Gesangbuch' of 161 2 informs us
that ' Every year on Easter-day at Vespers, before
the sermon, there is sung in our Christian congre-
gations the Resurrection, so splendidly set by
Antonius Scandellus.' This Antonius Scan-
dellus, or Scandelli, had been one of Schiitz's own
predecessors at Dresden from 1568-80, and had
written both a Passion and a Resurrection. His
' Resurrection ' must have continued in use even



788



SCHUTZ.



beyond Schiitz's time, since it even appears in
Vopelius' ' Leipziger Gesangbuch ' of 1682. It
may be seen in Schoberlein and Riegel's ' Schatz
des liturgiscben Chorgesangs' vol. ii. 619-647.
(With regard to the authorship, compare O.
Kade's remarks in the Vorwort to the Noten-
beilagen to Ambros's Geschichte xlvi.). Schiitz's
Eesurrection follows the line of Scandelli's, only
whereas Scandelli's composition is purely vocal,
that of Schiitz is adapted to instrumental accom-
paniment. Both works begin with a setting (in
Scaudelli 5 -part, in Schiitz 6 -part) of the words
'Die Auferstehung unsers Herrn Jesu Christi,
wie uns die von den Evangelisten beschrieben
wird,' and conclude with a setting (Scandelli
5-part, Schiitz 8-part) of the words ' Gott sei
Dank, der uns den Sieg gegeben hat,' etc.
In Scandelli, the part of the Evangelist is alto-
gether liturgical, but in Schutz, while it is
mostly based on the liturgical melody, the more
important passages have given to them a more
characteristic and expressive form of declamation,
which sometimes rises up to actual melody in the
more modern sense of the term, and the Evan-
gelist's part is accompanied throughout either by
the organ or preferably by four Viole da Gamba,
which are called upon at certain pauses in the
narrative to execute appro]iriate runs or passages
(' Zierliche und appropriirte Laufe oder passaggi
machen'). The words of other personages are
set for two or more voices, according to their
number, as for instance, the words of the three
Maries as a trio, of the two angels as a duet, of
the eleven disciiales as a 6-part chorus, only that
usually for single personages two parts are
employed (as in Scandelli), though Schiitz permits
one of these parts to be taken, as he expresses
it, instrwmentaliter. This work of Schiitz's is
altogether remarkable, as being a highly success-
ful endeavour to unite dramatic expressiveness
with reverence for ecclesiastical tradition. The
same spirit is shown in another form in liis next
work of importance, Cantiones Sacrae, for four
voices with iDass accompaniment for organ. The
endeavour here is to unite the older form of the
Motet with the newer form of the Concerto, and
the Diatonic Church Modes with the use of
Chromatic harmonies. In 1627 Johann Georgl.
of Saxony wished to signalize the occasion of the
marriage of his daugliter to the Landgraf of
Hesse- Darmstadt by giving the first performance
of opera in Germany. The opera had just sprung
into life in connexion with the new musical
movement in Italy, as a supposed revival of the
antique music-drama. Schiitz was commissioned
to procure from Italy Peri's opera * Dafne.' The
poet Opitz was set to the task of translating the
Italian text by Rinuocini into German, and as it
was found that Peri's music would not quite fit
the new German words, Schiitz had to adapt
them to new music of his own. The opera
' Dafne,' as thus set by Schiitz, was performed at
Torgau on the 13th of April, 1627. Unfor-
tunately the music of this first German opera
has not been preserved, and, no further account
of it has been given. It ia probable however



SCHUTZ.

that Schiitz did little else on this occasion tl
re-arrange Peri's music and add something
exactly the same style. In any case the res
was not such as to induce Schiitz to make a
further attempts in music for the theatre, if
except another occasional piece, a Ballet writi
in 1638, the music of which appears also to
lost. In 1628, Schiitz having lost his wife, fon
some comfort in his sorrow, as he tells us,
occupying himself with the task of compoK
melodies with simple 4-part harmony to a rhyn
version of the Psalms by Dr. Cornelius Beck
This version by Becker was meant to be
Lutheran rival to an earlier Calvinistic vere
by Lobwasser based on the French Psalter
Marot and Beza, and adapted to the sa
melodies. Later on, Johann Georg II., witl
view to the introduction of the Becker Psalter
place of Lobwasser s in the schools and ch
of Saxony, urged Schiitz to complete his
sition of melodies for the work. The t:
hardly congenial to our composer, as he hi
confesses in the preface to the complete
when it appeared in 1661. Two further ei
however of this Psalter, with Schiitz's mel
appeared in 1676 and 17 12. Some of
melodies passed into later Cantionals, tl
none have ever taken the same place in
use or esteem that similar work by less emiii'
composers has done.

Correct p. 46 a, 1. 4, etc. by the following
Partly to distract himself from his great sorn
partly to familiarize himself with the still ne\
development of music in Italy, with wh
the name of Claudio Monte verde
associated, Schutz set out on a second
to Italy in 1629. He found musical
"Venice greatly changed since the time of
visit (161 2), 'modern ears were being regaled w
a new kind of sensation' ('recenti titillatioii'
The new style consisted in the greater promine
given to solo singing, and to intensil
expression in solo singing, the freer
dissonances, and greater richness and vai
instrumental accompaniment. In a seriea
works entitled Symphoniae Sacrae, Schutz
deavoured to turn to account the new experier
he had gained, without however, like his i
Italian models, turning his back upon his ear
polyphonic training. He never altogether for
to unite the solidity of the old school with
piquancy of expression of the new. The first f
of ' Symphoniae Sacrae ' appeared at Venice
1629, and consists of twenty settings of Ls
texts, chiefly from the Psalms and the Song
Songs. A second part of Symphoniae Sacx
with the sub-title 'Deutsche Concerten,' appea
at Dresden in 1657 ; a third part also at Drew
in 1650. The two later parts are settings
German Bible texts. They may be described |r
brief dramatic cantatas for various combiaati' ji
of voices and instruments, and in virtue of th ,
Schutz may be considered joint-founder w ^
Carissimi of the Dramatic Oratorio. Winterf j
(Gabrieli, vol. iii. pp. 82, etc., also Evang. B^
Gesang. ii. p. 315) singles out for special not



h wb
) chu

taA
fhisl



SCHUTZ.



a the first part, ' Fili, fili mi, Absalom'

.vid's lament over Absalom), written for bass

with accom]ianiment of four trombones, and

a the third p;irt, ' Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du

h ' (a cantata for the festival of the Conversion

t.Paul), and ' Mein Sohn warum hast du uns

gethan' (for the first Sunday after Epiphany).

a 1 63 1 and following years Saxony became

Bcene of war, and one result was the com-

e disorganization of the Elector's capelle,

,D8 failing for the payment of musicians, and

attention of the Elector and his court being

ipied with more serious matters than music.

atz obtained leave in 1633 to accept an in-

tiou to Copenhagen from King Christian IV.

)enniark. The years 1635-41 were spent in

.derings to and fro between different courts

1 occasional returns to Dresden, Schtitz

ig still nominally in the service of the Elector.

chief works worthy of notice published

Bg these years are two sets of Geistliche

carte for i to 5 voices, with Basso Continuo

j6, 39), the second set being especially re-

kable by the composer's frequent directions

fc the securing of proper expression in his

nic. (It is to be remembered that marks

K terms of expi-ession were not then in vogue.)

Ii 641 Schiitz returned to Dresden to make an

•" t to reorganize the music, but from want of

; 113 his efforts were not crowned with any-

lig like success till 1645 ^^ 47- -^ work of

irortatice was written and produced about

Hi, though strangely enough it was never

p: ted or published in Schiitz's life-time, and

or appeared in print for the first time in 1873,

'■ sd by Carl Riedel of Leipzig. It is a small

(ion Oratorio on the Seven Words from the

■s. This work is of importance as con-

; iting some new elements to the development

(I he later Passion Music. First, the part of

tl Evangelist is no longer based on the liturgical

it nation, as in the ' Resurrection ' oratorio of

I' 5, but takes the form of the new Arioso

lutative. For the sake of variety Schiitz

(I les this part among different solo voices, and

8i it twice in the form of a quartet. Next,

tl work is opened and concluded with a chorus

(jart with basso continuo) expressive of the

ft ngs of Christians at the contemplation of our

Li upon the Cross. After the opening, and

a: n before the concluding chorus, there occurs

ft ort 5-part instrumental symphony, which has

bi aptly described as an ideal raising and

d)ping of the curtain before and after the

a'Jn. The instruments to be used are not

S| ified, but strings are probably more intended

tl 1 anything else. The part of our Lord differs

III the other parts in having a 3-part instru-

D tal accompaniment. This probably origi-

Jiid out of the custom in previous * Passions '

followed in Scandelli's * Resurrection ' for

Uance), of setting the words of our Lord in

:4'Cal parts. Schiitz here improved upon the

K, first timidly suggested by himself in his

■ surrection,' of giving the words of a single

d-acter to a single voice, for the sake of

VOL. IV. PT. 6.



SCHUTZ.



789



dramatic consistency, and assigning the ac-
companying parts to the instruments. The way
in which this accompaniment is carried out
deserves to be noticed. It is neither in the old
style nor in the new, but a curious combination
of both; the lower part is identical with the
basso continuo for sustaining the harmony
throughout : the other two parts are written in
the polyphonic style with the voice, consisting of
imitations either preceding or following the vocal
phrase. It is well known how Bach in his
' Matthaus-Passion ' developed this idea of a
special accompaniment to the words of our Lord,
surrounding Him as it were with a halo. Na-
turally there are no arias in the modern sense
in Schiitz's work, all is in the form of expressive
recitative. A touching simplicity and tender-
ness distinguish the whole work. In 1648
appeared his ' Musicalia ad Chorum Sacrum,' a
work in quite a different style from those last
mentioned, and showing a reaction in Schiitz's
mind against the exclusive claims of the modern
'Manier.' It consists of 29 pieces to German
words, for 5, 6, and 7 voices, in the old motet
or strictly polyphonic style, in which the bassus
generalis or continuus may be dispensed with (as
the title says, ' Wobei der Bassus Generalis auf
Gutachten und Begehren, nicht aber aus Noth-
wendigkeit zugleich auch zu befinden ist'). In
the preface he expresses the opinion that no one
will become a capable musician who has not first
acquired skill in strict contrapuntal work with-
out the use of the basso continuo. Personal reasons
to some extent combined with artistic reasons to
produce the reaction in favour of the older school
of music as against the new, to which we
have referred. From 1647 onwards, in spite
of the many personal sacrifices he had made on
behalf of the Elector's capelle, as for instance
by paying or increasing out of his own salary
the salaries of others of the musicians, he ap-
pears to have suffered so many annoyances in
connection with it aa caused him to have almost
a disgust for the further cultivation of music
at Dresden, and induced him to solicit over
and over again in 1651-55 dismissal from the
Elector's service. The new Italian element in
the chapel was very different from the old,
Schiitz was getting involved in continual differ-
ences and sijuabbles with a new Italian colleague
Bontempi. Italian art was losing its earlier
seriousness of purpose, turning its back upon its
older traditions, and aiming simply at the
amusement of princes and their courts, and thus
acquiring a popularity dangerous to higher
ventures of art. The Elector liowever refused
to accept the resignation of his Capellmeister,
and after 1655 affairs improved somewhat, so
far as Schiitz was personally concerned, so that
he continued quietly at his post for the remain-
ing sixteen years of his life.

In 1657 he published 'Zwolf geistliche
Gesange ' a 4 for small choirs, a work which we
might call a German Communion and Evening
Service, consisting, as it does, mainly of settings
of the chief portions of the Liturgy in order, viz.



790



SCHUTZ.



SCHUTZ.



the Kyrie, Gloria, Nicene Creed, Words of In-
stitution (usually appointed to be sung in early
Lutheran liturgies\ a Communion Psalm, Post
Communion Thanksgiving, then a Magnificat
and Litany, etc. Fiom 1657-61 our composer
would seem to have been occupied with the task
enjoined on him by the new elector, that of com-
posing additional melodies for Becker's Psalter,
already mentioned ; work wliich apparently gave
him more trouble than it was worth, and
hindered him from devoting himself to other
more congenial work. In the preface to this
Psalter, 1661, he says that ' to confess the truth,
he would rather have spent the few remaining
years of his life in revising and completing otlier
works which he had begun, requiring more skill
and invention ' (' mehr sinnreichen Inventi-
onen '). It is greatly to be regretted that the
next work with which Schiitz occupied himself
has been preserved to us in so incomplete a form.
It was a setting of the story of the Birth of our
Lord, and as a Christmas oratorio would have
been a fitting companion- work to his earlier
'Easter' oratorio and his later 'Passions-Musik.'
Only the part of the Evangelist, in recitative
with bass accompaniment, has been preserved to
ns; but the preface to this (1664) contains a
specification of 10 so-called 'Concerte' for various
voices and instruments which were to come in
at different points of the narrative. The intro-
duction, for instance, consisted of the title (' Die
Geburt, etc.') set for 4 vocal and 5 instrumental
parts ; the message of the Angel was set for
soprano solo with accompaniment of 2 violettas
and I violone ; the Chorus of Angels for 6 voices
with violins and violas ; the words of the Shep-
herds for 3 alto voices with 2 flutes and bassoon ;
of the Wise Men for 3 tenor voices with 2
violins and bassoon ; of the High Priests for 4
bass voices and 2 trombones ; and so on with the
rest of the work. The loss of these concerted
movements is the more to be regretted, as they
would doubtless have shown Schtitz's maturer
views on instrumentation and the combination
of voices and instruments. The last work of
Schiitz preserved to us, and perhaps his most
famous work, is his setting of the story of the
Passions, four settings in all, after the four
Evangelists. This work was never published in
his own life-time, and the only original copy
extant is that of the St. John Passion, presented
by the composer himself to the Duke of Wolfen-
buttel, and now in the library at Wolfenbiittel.
The only copy of the other settings is that made
by a later hand in 1690, regarding which see
below in list of Schiitz's works. As we now
have the work, it is for voices alone without
instruments. It is, therefore, as if the composer
here wished to denounce the mere external
advantages of the newer concerted and dramatic
style for the sake of showing how the spirit of it
could be retained and applied to the purely vocal
and older polyphonic style. For what specially
distinguishes this Passions-Musik, is the series
of brief choruses of surprising dramatic energy
and truth of expression, yet never overstepjjing






the bounds of devout reverence inspired t
subject. Otherwise the work is more pdi
liturgical than later Passions, not having al
and chorales to interrupt the narrative and
that variety of interest so needed for modern com
performance. Each Passion is opened accord
to old custom with a setting of tlie title ('the I
sion etc ') and closed with a devotional cho
in motet style, the text taken from some fami
Church hymn. The rest of the work is writ
in unaccompanied recitative, though parts
may have been meant to be accompanied in
manner suggested by Schiitz liimself in his * '.
surrection.' In the ' St. Matthew ' the recita
has more of melodic expressiveness than in
other Passions. The ' St. Marie ' is peculiai
combining the greatest monotony of recita'
with the richest dramatic character in
choruses. Dr. Spitta, the editor of the new c
plete edition of Schiitz's works, is inclined, 1
this and otlier grounds, to have some doubt •
to the authenticity of the ' St. Mark Passi
(see his preface pp. xx, xxi.) But the fact
being joined with the other undoubtedly autl
tic Passions without anything to indicate i
being by a different author, is sufficient to 1 ■
weigh mere suspicions. These ' Passions,' c •
pressed, and so far adapted to the requireuii ■
of modem performance, have been repeati ;
produced with considerable success by the Piie •
sche Verein of Leipzig.

To p. 46 b, 1. 6 from end, add In his 1 1
years Schiitz's powers began to fail, especiall} «
sense of hearing ; and we are told, when £
could no longer go out, he spent tlie most of s
time in the readingof Holy Scripture and spiri J
books. His last attempts at composition \ i
settings of portions of the 119 th Psalm ; an'
verse indeed of that psahn could have been i 6
fittingl}' chosen as the motto of both his pars J
life and his art-work than that on which he a
last engaged, but left unfinished : ' Thy stat i
have been my songs in the house of my pilg •
age.' He is the true predecessor of Handel J
Bach, not so much in the mere form of his " c,
as the spirit. If in the dramatized BibUcal sc «
of his 'Symphoniae Sacrae,' he is more esi'eo \
Handel's predecessor, in his Passion Mu-
Bach's. lioth Handel and Bach simpiv 1
to perfection what lay in germ in Hi
Schiitz. His great merit consists in
that at a time when the new dramatic :
was threatening the complete overthrow of
older polyphonic style, he saw how to retair
advantages of both, and laboured to engraft
one upon the other. It was thus he prep
the way for the greater work of Handel
Bach after him. The rather singular ci >■
dence of Schiitz's birth-year being exact -".
hundred years earlier than the birth-yea
Handel and Bach, brought about on the occi ':
of the keeping of the bicentenary of the t'
latter, in 18S5, a great revival of interei n
the work of their forerunner, which has 0.
this practical result at least, the beginnir «
the pubUcation of a monumental editio »



SCHUTZ.
^orks by Messrs, Bieitkopf & Hartet of

I'he following is a list of Schutz'3 works,
|id on Eitner, Monatshefte fiir Musikge-
chte, xviii. pp. 47 if.

I. WOEKS PUBLISHED EJ LIFETIME.

tl primo libro de Mailrigali de Henrico Sagitario Alemanno.
■e. 1611. Dedicated to Landgraf Moritz of Hesse-Cassel. Con-
18 Madrigals oo, and 1 Dialugo a 8. (This work is said in
lans's 'GeschichtederMusik.M. p.115, to be lost, but Eitner says
iplete copy exists in the Library at Cassel.)
Pieces d'occasion, entitled ■ Concerte," published separately.
en, 1618.

Bsalmeu Davids sammt etlichen Moteten und Concerten mit
Ruid mehr Stimmen, nebenst andern zweien Capellen dass dero
l^e auf drei und vier Chor nach Eeliebun-t; gebraucht werdcn
;n, wie auch mit beigefiigten Basso Continuo vor die Orge!,
n, Chitaron, etc. Dresden. 1619. Contains 26 Psalms.
salm csxxiii. for 8 voices with Basso Continuo, composed for his
er's wedding. Leiizig. 1619.

rncbarma Jlusicum tribus Choris adornatum, etc. A pifece
jion for the restoration of peace in Silesia. Vratislaw, 1621 .
.isturia der frOhlichen und siegreichen .\tiferstehung uiisers
n Erlosers und Seligmachers Jesu Christi. In foistlichen
en Oder Zimmern ura die Osterliche zeit zu geistllcher Recrea-
aglichen zu gebrauchen. Dresden, 1623. An Oratorio on the
rrection of Christ.' The title shows that it was intended as
>r Chamber performance as for Church.

legy on the Death of 'FUrstin Frau Sophia. Herzogin zu
n.' Melody with Basso Cont. Text by Schiitz himseit Frei-
.623.

mtiones Sacrae quatuor vocum. cum Basso ad Organum.
rg, 1625. Contains 41 pieces a 4 with Latin words.
3 Vitae fugacitate. Aria quinque vocum supra Bassum Con-
In. Freiberg. 1625. A pi^ce d'occasion.

Il'salmen Davids, in Teutsche Keimen gebracht durch D. Cor-
■i Beckern . . . nach gemeiner Contrapunctsart in 4 Stimmen
, Freiberg, 1628. Contains 92 new melodies by Schiitz
f and 11 others harmonized by him. An edition, GUstrow,
vas published for use in Mecklenburgh-Schwerin. A later
ed edition, with melodies for all the Psalms, appeared,
n, 1661.

jmphoniae Sacrae . . . variis vocibus ac Instrumentis acco-
le a 3, 4, 5, 6. Opus ecclesiasticura secundum. Venice. 1629.
ied to the Elector of Saxony. Contains 20 settings of Latin

Das ist je gewisslich wahr.' A motet for 6 voices in memory
inn Hermann Schein. died 1631. Dedicated to Scheins widuw
lldren. Dresden. 1631.

IrsterTheil Kleiner geistlichen Concerten. mit 1. 2, 3. 4. und
men aaramt beigefugten Basso Cont. Leipzig, 1636. Contains

to German words,
(luicalische Exequien . . . mit 6, 8. und mehr Stimmen zu
Chen. Dresden, 1636. Contains 3 funeral pieces.
.nderer Theil Kleiner geistlichen Concer:en, mit 1. 2. 3, 4. und
men, sammt beigefiigten Basso Continuo vor die Orgei.
n, 1639. Contains 31 pieces, texts German and Latin.
ymphoniamm Sacrarura Secunda Pars . . . Deutsche Concerte



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 186 of 194)