George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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;i. Ehesa.

Polnische Liedergeschichte ' ; Eph. Oloff.

Histoire de la musique en Pologne' ; A. Jarzemski.

Oent illustres Polonais'; S. Starowolski.

lanociana ' ; D. JanQcki (treating of old Polish com-
j ers '.

La litt^rature musieale polonaise' ; Ig. Potocki.

Les Musicians polonais et slaves' j A. Sowinski.

ee aUo the -writinprs of Sikorski, Chodzko, Golem-
"wski, Grabowskij "Woronicz and JElsner, for further
■ ormation on Pohsh music.

61 S a, 1. II, before second musical example,
. • lesser read looser. P. 620 a, note 3,yor Olt
■frfOtt. L'^.H.W.]

5OXTAG, Henriette. Line 2 of article,
■rect date of birth to Jan. 3, 1806.
BOUNDS AND SIGNALS. P. 647 &, 1. 7,
, • such read much ; and add at end of article,
it Messrs. Potter & Co. have recently pub-
led a ' Drum, Flute, and Bugle Duty Tutor.'
SPIXET. After title add Fr. Epinette, Clavi-
'de ; Ital. Spinetta, Clavicordo ; Spanish



SPINET.



795



Claricordw. "English Spinet, Virginal. P. 651a,
footnote, add: — and the upright spinet from the
Correr collection, belonging to Mr. George
Donaldson, which had also plectra of brass. It
is therefore possible that the use of the quill
superseded that of brass. P. 651 &, 1. 36, Con-
siderable light has been thrown upon the hitherto
profoundly obscure invention of the keyboard
instrument subsequently known as the Spinet, by
that erudite searcher and scholar Mr. Edmond
Vander Straeten, in 'La Musique aux Pays Pas,'
vol. vii. (Les musiciens neerlandais en Espague,
l'« partie), Brussels, 1885. He quotes, p. 246,
from a testamentary inventory of musical instru-
ments which had belonged to Queen Isabella, at
the Alcazar of Segovia, dated 1503. ' Dos Clavi-
cinbanos viejos ' that is to say, two old clavecins
(spinets). One of her chamberlains, Sancho de
Paredes (p. 248) owned in 1500 'Dos Clabior-
ganos ' — two claviorgans or organized clavecins.
In a previous inventory, datetl 14S0 (and earlier),
the same chamberlain appears to have possessed
a manicorde or clavichord with tangents. But
Mr. Vander Straeten is enabled to give a posi-
tive date, 1387 (p. 40, et seq.), when John the
First, King of Aragon, had heard and desired to
possess an instrument called ' exaquir,' which was
certainly a keyboard stringed-instrument. He
describes it later on as resembling an organ but
sounding with strings. The name 'exaquir'
may be identified with ' I'eschuaqueil d'Angle-
terre,' which occurs in a poem entitled 'La Prise
d'Alexandrie,' written by Guillauine de Ma-
chault, in the T4th century. Mr. Vander Straeten
enquires if this appellation can be resolved by
' ^chiquier ' (chequers) from the black and white
arrangement of the keys ? The name echiquier
occurs in the romance 'Chevalier du cygne' and
in the ' Chanson sur la journee de Guinegate,' a
15th century poem, in which the poet asks to be
sounded

Orgius, harpes, naquaires, challemelles,
Bons echiquiers, guisternes, doucemellea.

The enquirer is referred to the continuance of
Mr. Vander Straeten's notes on this interesting
question, in the work above mentioned. It is
here sufficient to be enabled to prove that a kind
of organ sounding with strings was existing
in 1387 — and that clavecins were catalogued
in 1503, that could be regarded as old; also
that these dates synchronize wuth Ambros's
earliest mention of the clavicymbalum, in a
MS. of 1404. P. 652a, 1. 8, add:— In the
Bologna Exhibition, 18S8, Historical Section,
was shown a spinet bearing the inscription
•Alessandro Pasi Modenese,' and a date, 1490.
It was exhibited by Count L. Manzoni. It is a
true Italian spinet in a bad state of repair. The
date, which has been verified, does not in-
validate the evidence adduced from Scaliger
and Banchieri concerning the introduction of the
spinet, but it places it farther back and before
Scaliger, who was born in 1 484, could have
observed it. This Bologna Loan Collection
contained, as well as the earliest dated spinet,
the latest dated harpsichord (^1802, Clementi)



796



SPINET.



known to the writer. Line II, Miss Marie
Decca owns a Eosso spinet dated 1550, and
there is another by the same maker (signed
Annibali3 Mediolanesis) dated 1569, recently in
the possession of Herr H. Kohl, Hamburg, who
obtained it from the palace of the San Severino
family, at Crema, in Lombardy. These spinets
are usually made entirely of one wood, the sound-
board as well as the case. The wood appears to
be a kind of cedar, from its odour when planed
or cut, at least in some instances that have come
under the writer's notice. P. 654 a, 1. 7, The

spinet by Antonio of Padua of 1550 has dis-
tinctly -written on the lowest E key, the next
being F, etc., but although the writing is very
old, it does not follow that it was written when
the instrument was made. P. 654?), 1. 13, Han-
del's clavichord from JNIaidstone, with cut sharps,
showed by the tuning when examined in 18S5,
that the first diagram is to be accepted as right,
namely, that the nearer divisions of the cut keys
are the dominants, and the back divisions, the
chromatics. L. 24 from bottom of text, for
Mr. Amps read Dr. A. H. Mann. P. 6546
footnote : 16,^0, on Mr. W. Dale's spinet, is
not a date ; it is the maker's number. P. 655 b
1. 5, for dated read numbered. The Haward
spinet belonging to the Rev. L. K. Hilton, of
Semley, Shaftesbury, is nearly like a Hitchcock,
which proves that Howard did not remain
with the model figured 655 A. Mr. Kendrick
Pyne acquired a Haward spinet (now in Mr.
Boddington's collection) dated or numbered
16S7, that has sharps like the Hitchcocks, with
a strip of the colour of the naturals let in, in this
instance black. [A.J.H.]

SPITTA, J. A. P. P. 656 I, note i, arid
that the translation of his 'J. S. Bach,' by
Clara Bell and J. A. Fuller Maitland, was pub-
lished in three volumes, by Novello & Co. in
1884-5. -^^*i *'^^'' ^^ ^^^ edition of Schutz's
works, published by Breitkopf & Hartel, is
edited by Dr. Spitta.

SPOFFORTH, Reginalb. Line 2, for 1768
read, 1770. Line 4 from bottom, jTor Kensing-
ton read Brompton.

SPOHR, LoDiS. Line 2, for April 25 read
April 5, P. 661 a, 1. 28 from bottom, for Oct,
16 read Oct. 22. P. 664 a, in the second column
of the list of works, add that op. 97 a, ' Psalm
24,' has been published by ilessrs. Novello & Co.,
in ' The Bach Choir Magazine.'

SPONTINL P. 677 a, note \, for 'V^nus
n'avait pas tort' read ' An bruit des lourds mar-
teaux.'

STATNER, John, Mus. D. Add that in 1888
he was obliged to resign his post at St. Paul's
owing to his failing sight. In the same year he
received the honour of knighthood. Among his
more important works should be added a sacred
cantata, 'St. Mary Magdalen,' written for the
Gloucester Festival of 1883, and an oratorio,
'The Crucifixion' (18S7).



STOKES,

STANFORD, C. V, Line 10 of article,^
was appointed read had been appointed t'
years previously. Add that he received t
honorary degree of Mus. D. at Oxford in i
in 1885 he succeeded Mr. Goldschmidt as a
ductor of the Bach Choir, and in Dec. 1S87
was elected Professor of Music in the Universi
of Cambridge, on the death of Sir G. A. M;
farren. P. 689 6, bottom line.^or String Quar
read Quartet for PF. and Strings. To list
works add the following : —

Op.



18. Three ' Cavalier Songs ' (Browning), for baritone and chonu.

19. Six Songs.

20. PF. Sonata, in Dt> (MS.).

21. Elegiac Ode (Walt Whitman), for soli and chorus. Norwich, 1
13.. Oratorio, • The Three Holy Children." Birmingham Festival,!

23. Incidental Music to the ' Eumenides.' Cambridge, r"*5.

24. ' The Kevenge ' (Tennyson), choral ballad. Leeds Festival, 18

25. Quintet for FF. and Strings, in D minor.
2G. Carmen Saeculare (Tennyson), for soprano solo, and cboi

Composed for Her Majesty's Jubilee, \Wl.

27. Psalm cl. for soprano and chorus. Opening of Manchester Bi

bition, 1887.

28. ' Irish ' Symphony in F minor. Kichter, 1S?7.

29. Incidental music to the 'Oedipus Tyraunus." Cambridge, UBf)

30. Songs (unpublished. 1S8«).

31. Symphony in F (Berlin. Jan. 14, and Crystal Palace, Feb. 23. IP

32. Suite for violin and orchestra (Berlin. Jan. 14, l!»9, and Y \K\

harmonic, March 28).
S3. Oyerture, ' Queen of the Seas' (Armada Tercentenary),




iKtl

ipl
Dti)ii

%''

litn
ischi
■ili






Add that the opera ' Savonarola,' in three a<
and a prologue, was produced at Hambtu
April 1 8, 1884, and at Co vent Garden, July 9
the same year. On April 28 of that year, ]
' Canterbury Pilgrims,' in three acts (words
Gilbert A'Beckett), was produced by the Ci
Rosa company at Drury Lane, Other wor
without opus-numbers are a Festival Overtui
Gloucester, 1S77 ; Elegiac Symphony, in D mini
Cambridge, and Gloucester Festival, 1883; Cc
certos for PF. and for violoncello, with orchesfc
A collection of ' Fifty Irish Melodies ' (Boose;
with accompaniments, etc., edited by him, anc
• Song Book for Schools ' (National Society), m
also be mentioned. (Ik y

STARK, LuDWicj, Add date of death, Mar^
22, 18S4, Add that Dr. S. Lebert died in D
1884.

STEIN. P. 708 I, line 12 from bottom of tej
add dates of J. A. Streicher, 1 761-1833. P. 709
1, II, /(?r 1795 read 1796. Line 25,/or Ja
16, 1835, read Jan. 10, 1833. For correction
the next sentence (lines 26, 27) see SlBElOH)
in vol. iii. p, 739 &.

STEPHENS, John, Mus.D, Line 2 firo
end of article /o;- Dec. 15 read Dec. i,

STEVENS, R. J. S. Line 2 of article, /<
in read March 27.

STIEHL, H. Add that he died in May 188

STIGELLI, G. Add that he died at Mom
July 3, 1 868. fSi

STOCKFLOTE. See Czakan. it

STOCKHATJSEN, Julius, Add that his;
Method of Singing has lately been translated in fe
English by Mme. Sophie Lowe (Novello & Co.|j,

STOKES, Charles. Line 8 from end jk
article, for now read then, and add date < pi
death, April 14, 1839, !*'



STOXARD.

ITOXABD, William, Mus. D. Add that an
ining Service by him is printed in the Motet
iety's publications, vol. ii. p. 78.

(TOPPING is the term used for the action of
fingers of the left hand in playing instruments
h strings stretched over a fingerboard, in
er to produce the intermediate sounds lying
ween the notes sounded by the ' open ' strings.
len a higher note than the fundamental sound
the string is required, the vibrating part of
t: string must be shortened by sto)3ping the

1 ration at a certain point between nut and
dge, i. e. by using one of the fingers of the
; hand as an artificial nut or stopping-point.
e nearer this point is to the bridge, the shorter
; vibrating part of the strings, and the higher
jitch therefore the sound produced. A correct
onation or playing in perfect tune obviously
)ends entirely on exactness of stopping. See
imder Double Stops and Harmonics. [P.D.]

sTRADELLA, Alessandbo. P. 723 h, 1. 17
m bottom, add that internal evidence makes
/ery probable that Francesco Rossi was the
nposer of ' Pieta, Signore ! ' although the
;horship is still doubtful. Line 5 from bottom
same column, add to references, vol. i. p. 654 J.
724 a, 1. 6, for i^jSread 167S.
3TRAK0SCH. Adddateofdeathof Maubice,
fc. 9, 1887.

STRAUS, LcDwiG. Line 1 2 of article, for
ince Czartoryski read Ober-Finanzrath Baron

2 Heintl. Line 9 from end of article, for
tling after a time at Manchester, read divid-
r his time between London and Manchester,
ne 7 from end add He now lives in London,
lid that in the spring of 188S he resigned his
\it as leader of Mr. Hallo's orchestra.
STRAUSS, JoHANN. Add to list of operas,
iHindekuh' (1878), 'Das Spitzentuch der
i>nigin ' (1S80), 'Eine Nacht in Venedig '
|383\ 'Der Zigeunerbaron ' (1885), ' Sim-
cius' (1887). Add that Eduaed Stkatjss
)ught his orchestra to the Inventions Exhibi-
n in 1885, when the daily concerts created a
•ore in London.

3TREICHER, J. A. Line 7 of article, for
read Dec. 13. Line 11 of article for in 1794
i(/ Jan. 3, 1796. Line 12, for in 1S32 rtad
ay 25, 1833. Line i^for in read March 28.
STRING. Line i of article for Fr. Chord,
zd Fr. Corde.

STROHFIEDEL. Add that the instrument
more usually called by its other names, Xylo-
one or Gigelira. A fourth name for the
Jtrument is Ligneum Psalterium.
STROHilEYER, Carl. Line 4 from end of
ticle,/ar 1870 read 1780.
SUCHER. Add that Fran Sucher gained
eat renown by her singing of Isolde at Bay-
uth in l886. In 18S7 her husband was ap-
■inted to the post of conductor at the Hofoper
Berlin, she remaining at Hamburg to fulfil
T engagement.



SWELL- ORGAN.



797



SUSSMAYER. See also Mozart in Appendix.

SULLIVAN. P, 762 a, 1. 24, add that he
conducted the Leeds Festivals of 1883 and 18S6,
composing for the latter ' The Golden Legend,'
to words selected from Longfellow's poem.
P. 764 in list of works, add among the dra-
matic works, 'Princess Ida,' 18S4; ' The Mi-
kado,' 1885; Rudiligore,' 1887; 'The Yeomen
of the Guard,' 1888; all published by Chappell.
Among the vocal works add the cantata ' The
Golden Legend,' produced at the Leeds Festix^tl
of 1886, and published by Novello ; and the trio
' Morn, happy morn,' for soprano, alto and tenor,
with flute obbligato, written for the play of
' Olivia,' by W. G. WiUs. Among the incidental
music to plays acW Overture and incidental music
to Macbeth, produced Dec. 29, 1S8S.

SUNDERLAND, Mrs., whose maiden name
was Stkes, was born at Brighouse, Yorkshire,
in 1819. It was as a member of the Halifax
Choral Society that her voice first attracted at-
tention, and she was taken in hand first by
Luke Settle, a blacksmith of Brighouse, and
then by Dan Sugden of Halifax, both renowned
local musicians. Under their training she
became a very prominent member of the old-
fashioned quartet choirs, which then existed in
Yorkshire churches. Her first appearance as a
solo singer was on Feb. 19, 183S, at a concert given
in the Exchange Rooms, Bradford. She at once
became a local celebrity, was styled the ' York-
shire Queen of Song,' and for more than a quarter
of a century was the leading vocalist in the
North of England. She was physically robust,
and her voice was a high soprano of great force
and volume, which she managed with much ex-
pression. Her repertoire was chiefly composed
of the principal songs in the Messiah, Judas, and
the Creation ; but she had also some secular
songs, mostly of a popular kind. Her first
appearance in London was in the Messiah
at Exeter Hall, Nov. 2, 1S49, and she con-
tinued to sing first soprano for the Sacred
Harmonic Society and other bodies in the Mes-
siah, Creation, Elijah, etc., until 1856. The
directors of the Antient Concerts esteemed her .
voice and expression so much that they oflFered -1
to send her abroad for further tuition. Indeed -'
had her early training equalled the quality of '®
her voice and her natural feeling, there can be '^^
little doubt that she would have risen to very^.'"-
great general eminence. Her last appearance in }^
public was in the Messiah, at Huddersfield, June 3 ^'^.'
1S64. Mrs. Sunderland married at tlie age of ic "•-
and now lives at Calder View, Brighouse. [Gcil 7

SVENDSEN, J. S. Add that in 1888 ' •^<''
visited England, conducting his Symphony in
at the Philharmonic Concert of May 31, as \\rticle,
as the last concert of the season on June 16.

SVENDSEN, Oluf. Add date of -infonie;
May 15, 1888. .^J^onie Bur-

SWELL-ORGAN. The sentence i-''^I'.^°^''*f'°
»,.,.,, , J , . adition wliicn

of article is to be corrected, as tlu, , ,.

Swell was not named from the Venetia. ,t,frumMits at



798



SWELL-ORGAlSr.



the Venetian blind so called because it was worked
ou the same principle as the harpsichord swell.

SWEETLAND, W., established an organ
factory at Bath, in 1847. The Church of St.
Cuthbert (Wells, Somerset) and the Wesleyan
Chapel in Cardiff contain instruments of his
making. He also built a chamber organ in his
own house, for which he has invented amechanisra
whereby the Voix celeste, or tremulant, can be
applied to, or withdrawn at pleasure from, a solo
Btop. [V. de P.]

SWINNERTON HEAP, C. Add to list of
works a sonata for violin and pianoforte, and a
cantata ' The Maid of Astolat,'



TESTORE.

SYMPHONY. P. 29 a, I. 9 from bottom,
an Ambrosianischer Lobgesang read the
Deum. P. 42 h, 1. 17 from bottom, ybr K
wegian read Scandinavian.

SYMPHONY CONCERTS. Eor conti
ation see Boston in Appendix, and add thai
the winter seasons from 1886 to 1S89, ]
Henschel organized a series of orchestral S]
phony Concerts in St. James's Hall, on much
same footing as that of the concerts descril
in the Dictionary.

SYNCOPATION. The first note of
musical example should be E, not C (i. e, on
highest space of the treble stave).



f



T.



id



TACCHINARDT, N. Line 2, for Florence
in September 1776, read Leghorn, Sept. 3,
1772. Last line of article, ybr in i860 read
at Florence, March 14, 1859.

TALLYS, T. P. 54 a, 1. 25, omit the words
sung upside down. P. 54c, under 'Let the
wicked ' add that ' Calvert's list ' refers to his
anthem book, published 1844. P. 54 rf, 1. 4
omit the anthem ' thou God Almighty ' as it
occurs again in its right place in the list. For
further information see Byed in Appendix.

TAMBERLIK. Add date of death. Mar. 1 3,
1S89.

TANNHAUSER. Line 4 of article,/or Oct.
20 read Oct 19.

TANS'UR, W. Add that he was the son of
Edward and Joan Tanzer of Dunchurch, and was
baptized Nov. 6, 1706.

TARANTELLA. To the list of works on the
bite of the tarantula given in vol. iv. p. 59 b,
add J. Miiller, De Tarentula et vi musicae in
ejus curatione. Hafniae, 1679.

TAUSIG, Carl. P. 64 S, last line but one, add
that his father, AloysTausig,died March 24, 1885.

TEDESCA, ALLA. P. 67 a, after the musical
example, add that in one of the sketches for tliis
movement (in B b) it is inscribed ' Allemande
Allegro.'

TE DEUM. P. 68 5, 1. 21 from bottom, add
that Berlioz's work was performed at the Crystal
Palace, April 18, 1885, and by the Bach Choir,
jMay 17, 1887. The latter body sang the work
xgain, with several anthems, etc., in West-
nnster Abbey June 28, 18S8, the Jubilee of
^Lcr Majesty's coronation.
^'^'TELFORD & TELFORD'S organ factory in

UbHn was established in 1830 by William Tel-
he '. His first work was to add German pedals
owing\en unknown in Ireland) to the organ of
received hurch Cathedral, Dublin. Since then
more impt built organs for Limerick and Lismore
cantata, ' (, and many others in England, Ireland,
Gloucesterlonies. |V de P 1

'TheCrr '' " '"'



TEMPERAMENT. P. 70 h, 1. 7, omit
words see Appendix.

TEMPUS PERFECTUM, TEMPUS I
PERFECTUM. See articles Mode, Notatk
Prolation, Time.

TENOR. Line 10 from end of article.j
soprano clef read treble, or G clef.

TENOR VIOLIN. P. 91 a, 1. 12 from botto
for quintet read sextet.

TESTORE, a family of ^^[olin-makers
Milan in the first half of the iSth century, ci
sisting of a father, Carlo Giuseppe (1690-1 71
and two sons, Carlo Antonio and Paolo A
TONio (1715-1745). Carlo Giuseppe was 1
best of the three. His instruments have oft
passed for the work of his master, Giovar
Grancino. In 18S4 t^^^ well-known violence
called the ' Lindley Grancino' being under;
pair, the removal of its spurious Cremona lal
revealed the fact that it is the work of the c
Testore, the original label, which was fou:
well preserved, running thus: 'Carlo Giusep
Testore allievo di Gio. Granzino in Contra
Larga di Milano, 1690.' ' Sig. Bottesini's fame
double-bass is another well-known specimen oft
old Testore's work. His instruments are strong
made, and often irregular in design. The moc
is generally of medium height, and the fini
varies considerably, many being left very roug
and extremely plain in appearance. The tor
howevei', is usually good, and in exceptioE
cases very powerful and telling. The varnish.
brownish-yellow, sparingly applied, adds litt i\
to the attractions of these instruments, aijij
vigorous hands are necessary to develop the '■ '[
tone. The instruments of the sons are le ,
esteemed : they are lighter in colour, and , (
tendency to imitate Joseph Guarnerius is ol j ,
servable. The Testores worked at the sign • |,
the Eagle in the same narrow street where ti l|
Grancinos worked at the sign of the Crow j
Alberti, Landolfi, Tanegia, Man tegazza, Giusep]
1 Communicated hj Messra. W, E.^Qill and Sons.



TESTOEE.

Jnadagnini, Mezzadri, Lavazza, and otliers,
omplete the group of Milanese makers who
bllowed the Testores in general plainness of
tyle, aiming at producing instruments rather
iseful and lasting than ornamental. [E.J. P.]

THALBERG, S. P. 966, at the top of
he column, the story concerning Schumann and
lis wife occurs in Schumann's ' Gesammelte
jchriften,' i. 199, where it is told, not as an
ictual occurrence, but as having happened to the
maginary characters Florestan and Zilia. It
nay or may not have had its foundation in fact.

THEATRES IN LONDON. See Vaude-
HLLE Thkatee, Vol. iv. p. 232 and the same
leading in Appendix..

THESPIS. Line 4 of article, for Dec. 23
'ead Dec. 26.

THOMAS, Aethur Goking. Add that his
'our-act opera ' Nadesclida,' set to a libretto by
Julian Sturgis, was produced by the Carl Rosa
Company at Drury Lane, April 16, 1885. An
orchestral ' Suite de ballet ' was ])erfoi-med by
the Cambridge University Musical Society on
June 9, 1887.

THOMAS, Chaeles Ambeoise. Correct the
statement in 1. 5-6 from end of article, by a
reference to Gounod in Appendix.

THOMAS, Hakold. Add date of death,
July 29, 1885.

THOMAS, Theodore. Add that the famous
srchestra formed by him was disbanded in 18S8.

THOMASSCHULE. See vol. ii. p. 114 6,
md vol. iv. p. 198 a.

THOMSON, GEOEfiE. Line 2 of article,/or
Edinburgh read Dunfermline, and omit the words

THORNDIKE, Herbert Elltot. Was born
A.pril 7, 1S51, at Liverpool, and educated
it Woolwich Academy and Cambridge. As an
undergiaduate of the University he competed
successfully at the Crystal Palace National
Music meetings, and gained the first prize.
Ee then went to Milan, to Francesco Lam-
Derti, under whom he studied for four years,
since his return to England he has studied
>ratorio and English singing with Signor Ran-
legger and Mr. Deacon. He made his first
ippearance in public March 26, 1878, at the
liambridge University Musical Society, and has
iince then been steadily rising in favour. His
roice is a good full bass of unusual compass, and
le sings with taste and intelligence. Mr. Thorn-
like has frequently sung at the concerts of the
Bach Clioir, the Popular Concerts, the Nor-
vich Festival, etc. At these he has introduced
"or the first time in England Schubert's noble
;ongs, ' Waldesnacht ' and ' Wehmuth.' He
ippeared on the boards of Drury Lane in July
:887. [G.]

THOROUGHBASS. P. 108 b, add that the
Srst use of a thoroughbass appears to be in a
BFork by an English composer, Richard Dering,
IV ho published a set of 'Cantiones Sacrae' at



TOY SYMPHONY.



799



Antwerp in 1597, in which a figured ba'3S is em-
ployed. See Dering in A ppendix, vol. i v. p. 6 1 2 6.

THREE CHOIRS. The following is a list of
the new works produced at these festivals since
the article was written : —

Worcester, l,?f4, Dr. J. F. Bridge's 'Hymn of St. Francis,' and
Mr. C. H. Lloyd's 'Hero and Leander."

Hereford, ISS5, Dr. Joseph Smith's 'St. Kevin,' and Mr. Lloyd's
'Song of Balder.'

Gloucester. 1886, Mr. W. S. Rockstro's 'Good Shepherd,' and
Mr. Lloyd's 'Andromeda.'

Worcester. 1S87, Mr. Cowen's 'Ruth.'

Hereford. 1888. No new work of importance.

THREE-QUARTER FIDDLE. SeeVioLiNO
Piccolo.

TICHATSCHEK, J. A. Line 15 from end of
article,^or Hernando read Fernando. Add date
of death, Jan. 18, 1886.

TOEPFER, GoTTLOB, was born in 1792 near
Weimar, received a good education, and be-
came organist of that city. He wrote two
works on organ-building in 1833 and 1843
respectively. [V. de P.]

TONAL FUGUE. From a passage in Arthur
Bedford's 'Great Abuse of Musick' (1711) it
may be inferred that the invention of tunal
fugue was commonly ascribed, though of course
wrongly, to Purcell. He gives an example in
his appendix of a ' Cnnon of four parts in one,
according to Mr. Purceil's rule of Fuging, viz.
that where the Treble and Tenor leaps a fourth,
there the Counter and Bass leaps a fifth.' [M.]

TONIC. The name given in modern music
to the Ket-note, i. e. the note from which tire
key is named. The functions of the tonic are in
all respects identical with those of the final of the
ancient modes. The tonic harmony is the com-
mon chord or triad, major or minor as the case
may be, which is built upon the key-note as its
bass. The rule that every composition must end



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