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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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bnss, and from Welsh, De Pinna, and Tom
Cooke in singing. In vocalisation, power, com-
pass, flexibility, richness of quality, complete
command over the different registers, Templeton
displayed the perfection of art ; though not re-
markable for fulness of tone in the lower notes,
his voice was highly so in the middle and upper
ones, sustaining the A and Bb in alt with much
ease and power. The blending of the chest
register vsdth his splendid falsetto was so perfect
as to make it difficult to detect the break. He
now resolved to abandon his prospects in Scot-
land and take to the stage. His first theatrical
appearance was made at Worthing, as Dermot
in 'The Poor Soldier,' in July 1828. This
brought about engagements at the Theatre
Royal, Brighton, Southampton and Portsmouth,
and Drury Lane. He made his first appearance
in London, Oct. 13, 1831, as Mr. Belville in
' Rosina.' Two days later he appeared as Young
Meadows in ' Love in a Village,' Mr. Wood




taking the part of Hawthorn, with Mrs. Wood
(Miss Paton) as Kosetta. After performing for
a few months in stock pieces, he created the
part of Eeimbaut in Meyerbeer's * Robert le
Diable' on its first performance in this country,
Feb. 20, 1832. He appeared as Lopez in Spohr's
' Der Alchymist' when first produced (March 20,
1832), Bishop's 'Tyrolese Peasant' (May 8,
1832), and John Bamett's 'Win her and wear
her' (Dec. 18, 1832); but the first production of
' Don Juan' at Drury Lane, Feb. 5, 1833, afforded
Templeton a great opportunity. Signer Begrez,
after studying the part of Don Ofctavio for eight
weeks, threw it up a week before the date an-
nounced for production, Templeton undertook the
character, and a brilliant success followed. Bra-
ham, who played Don Juan, highly complimented
Templeton on his execution of ' II mio tesoro,'
and Tom Cooke called him 'the tenor with the
additional keys.'

Madame Malibran, in 1833, chose him as
her tenor, and 'Malibran's tenor' he remained
throughout her brief but brilliant career. On the
production of ' La Sonnambula,' at Drury Lane,
May I, 1833, Templeton's El vino was no less
successful than Malibran's Amina. After the per-
formance Bellini embraced him, and, with many
compliments, promised to write a part that would
immortalise him. ' The Devil's Bridge,' ' The
Students of Jena' (first time June 4, 1833), 'The
Marriage of Figaro,' ' John of Paris,' etc., gave
fresh opportunities for Templeton to appear with
Malibran, and with marked success. In Auber's
'Gustavus the Third,' produced at Covent Garden,
Nov. 13, 1833, he made another great success as
Colonel Lillienhorn. During the season the opera
was repeated one hundred times. Alfred Bunn,
then manager of both theatres, so arranged that
Templeton, after playing in 'La Sonnambula' or
•Gustavus the Third' at Covent Gai-den, had
to make his way to Drury Lane to fill the rdle of
* Masaniello ' — meeting with equal success at both

On the return of Madame Malibran to England
in 1S35, t^® production of ' Fidelio' and of Balfe's
' Maid of Artois ' (May 2 7, 1 836) brought her and
Templeton again together. July 16, 1836, was
fated to be their last appearance together. At
the end of the performance Malibran removed the
jewelled betrothal ring from her finger which
she had so often worn as Amina, and presented
it to Templeton as a memento of respect for his
talents ; and it is still cherished by the veteran
tenor as a sacred treasure. Templeton sustained
the leading tenor parts in Auber's 'Bronze
Horse' (1836), in Herold's 'Corsair' (1836),
Rossini's 'Siege of Corinth' (1836), in Balfe's
'Joan of Arc' (1837) and 'Diadeste' (1838),
in Mozart's 'Magic Flute' (1838), Benedict's
'Gipsy's Warning' (1838), H. Phillips' 'Har-
vest Queen' (1838), in Donizetti's 'Love Spell'
(1839), and in 'La Favorita' (1843) on their
first performance or introduction as English
operas; altogether playing not. less than eiglity
different leading tenor characters.

In 1836-37 Templeton made his first profes-


sional tour in Scotland and Ireland with gre;
success. Returning to London, he retained li
position for several years. In 1842 he visite
Paris with Balfe, and received marked attentic
from Auber and other musical celebrities. Tl
last twelve years of his professional career wei
chiefly devoted to thexoncert-room. In 1846 1
starred the principal cities of America with h
' Templeton Entertainments,' in which were givt
songs illustrative of England, Scotland, and Ir
land, and as a Scottish vocalist he sang himsc
into the hearts of his countrymen. With splend
voice, graceful execution, and exquisite taste, 1
excelled alike in the pathetic, the humorous, ar
the heroic ; his rendering of ' My Nannie Ci
'Had I a cave,' 'Gloomy winter,' 'Jessie, tl
Flower o' Dunblane,' 'Com Rigs,' 'The Jol
Beggar,' and ' A man's a man for a' that,' etc., kj
an impression not easily effaced. Mr. Templetd
retired in 1852, and now enjoys a well-earni
repose at New Hampton. [W. B

TEMPO (Ital.,also Movimento; Fr. Mom
ment). This word is used in both English ai
German to express the rate of speed at which
musical composition is executed. The relati
length of the notes depends upon their specii
as shown in the notation, and the arrangeme
of longer and shorter notes in bars must be
accordance with the laws of Time, but the actu
length of any given species of note depends up
whether the Tempo of the whole movement '
rapid or the reverse. The question of Tempo
a very important one, since no composition cou
suffer more than a very slight alteration of spe
without injury, while any considerable chan
would entirely destroy its character and renc
it unrecognisable. The power of rightly judgi
the tempo required by a piece of music, and
preserving an accurate recollection of it unc
the excitement caused by a public performan
is therefore not the least among the qualificatic
of a conductor or soloist.

Until about the middle of the 17th centu:
composers left the tempi of their compositi(
(as indeed they did the nuances to a great extei
entirely to the judgment of performers, a corr
rendering being no doubt in most cases assui
by the fact that the performers were the co
poser's own pupils ; so soon however as 1
number of executants increased, and tradit:
became weakened, some definite indication
the speed desired by the composer was felt to
necessary, and accordingly we find all mu
from the time of Bach * and Handel (who ui
tempo-indications but sparingly) marked w
explicit directions as to speed, either in wor
or by a reference to the Metronome, the lat
being of course by far the most accurate meth
[See vol. ii. p. 318.]

Verbal directions as to tempo are geneK
written in Italian, the great advantage of t
practice being that performers of other nati
alities, understanding that this is the cust(

1 In the 48 Preludes and Fugues there is but one tempo-to
tlon. Fugue 34, toI. i. is marlied ' Largo,' and even this is rathe
indication of st;le than of actual speed.




td having learnt the meaning of the terms in
neral use, are able to understand the directions
ven, without any further knowledge of the
oguage. Nevertheless, some composers, other
an Italians, have preferred to use their own
tive language for the purpose, at least in part.
lUfi Schumann employed German terms in by
: the greater number of his compositions, not
»ne as tempo-indications but also for directions
to expression,* and Beethoven took a fancy
one time for using German,^ though he after-
jds returned to Italian. [See vol. i. p. 193.]
The expressions used to denote degrees of
}ed may be divided into two classes, those
dch refer directly to the rate of movement, as
nto — slow ; Adagio — gently, slowly ; Moderato
oioderately; Presto — quick, etc.; and those (the
Te numerous) which rather indicate a certain
iracter or quality by which the rate of speed
influenced, such as Allegro — gay, cheerful;
mce — lively; Animato — animated; Maestoso —
jestically ; Grave — with gravity ; Largo —
>ad ; etc. To these last may be added ex-
^ssions which allude to some well-known form
composition, the general character of which
'ems the speed, such as Tempo di Minuetto —
the time of a Minuet; Alia Marcia, Alia
lacca — in the style of a march, polonaise, and
JD. Most of these words may be qualified by
addition of the terminations etto and ino,
ich diminish, or issimo, which increases, the
set of a word. Thus Allegretto, derived from
egro, signifies moderately lively. Prestissimo
jxtremely quick, and so on. The same
ieties may also be produced by the use of the
rds molto — much ; assai — very ; piii — more ;
no — less ; un poco (sometimes un pochettino ^)
I little ; non troppo — not too much, etc.
rhe employment, as indications of speed, of
rds which in their strict sense refer merely to
le and character (and therefore only indirectly
p tempo), has caused a certain conventional
^to,ning to attach to them, especially when used
other than Italian composers. Thus in most
abularies of musical terms we find Allegro
dered as 'quick,' Largo as 'slow,' etc.,
lough these are not the literal translations
the words. In the case of at least one word
) general acceptance of a conventional mean-
has brought about a misunderstanding which
af considerable importance. The word is
lante, the literal meaning of which is ' going,' *
as compositions to which it is applied are
ally of a quiet and tranquil character, it has
dually come to be vmderstood as synonymous
h ' rather slow.' In consequence of this, the
iction pill andante, which really means
ing more' i.e. faster, has frequently been
meously understood to mean slower, wliile
diminution of andante, andantino, literally

[e nsed Italian terms in op. 1-4, 7-U, 13-15. 38, 41, 44, 47, 52, 54,
il ; the rest are in German,
i'jeethoven's German directions occur chiefly from op. 81a to 101,
•»■• a few isolated instances as far on as op. VJ^.
ee Brahms, op. 34. Finale.

h» word is derived from andare, ' to go.' In bis Sonata op. 81 o,
"-n expresses Andante by the words 2n t/ehendcr Beueyung —
c movement.

'going a little,' together with meno andante —
'going less' — both of which should indicate a
slower tempo than andante — have been held to
denote the reverse. This view, though certainly
incorrect, is found to be maintained by various
authorities, including even Koch's 'Musikal-
isches Lexicon,' where piu andante is distinctly
stated to be slower, and andanttJio quicker,
than andante. In a recent edition of Schumann's
' Kreisleriana ' we find the composer's own in-
dication for the middle movement of No. 3,
'Etwas langsamer,' incorrectly translated by
the editor poco piii andante, which coming im-
mediately after animato has a very odd effect.
Schubert also appears to prefer the conventional
use of the word, since he marks the first move-
ment of his Fantasia for Piano and Violin, op. 1 59,
Andante molto. But it seems clear that, with
the exception just noted, the great composers
generally intended the words to bear their literal
interpretation. Beethoven, for instance, places his
intentions on the subject beyond a doubt, for the
4th variation in the Finale of the Sonata op. 109
is inscribed in Italian ' Un poco meno andante, cio
h, un poco pill adagio come il tema ' — a little less
andante, that is, a little more slowly like (than ?)
the theme,' and also in German Etwas langsamer
ah das Thema — somewhat slower than the theme.
Instances of the use of piii, andante occur in
Var. 6 of Beethoven's Trio op. i, no. 3, in
Brahms's Violin Sonata op. 78, where it follows
(of course with the object of quickening) the
tempo of Adagio, etc. Handel, in the air
' Revenge, Timotheus cries ! ' and in the choruses
'For unto us' and 'The Lord gave the word,'
gives the direction Andante allegro, which may
be translated ' going along merrily.'

When in the course of a composition the
tempo alters, but stiU bears a definite relation to
the original speed, the proportion in which the
new tempo stands to the other may be expressed
in various ways. When the speed of notes of
the same species is to be exactly doubled, the
words doppio movimento are used to denote the
change, thus the quick portion of Ex. i would
be played precisely as though it were written
as in Ex. 2.

Another way of expressing proportional tempi is
by the arithmetical sign for equality ( = ), placed
between two notes of different values. Thi;s
^ = W would mean that a crochet in the one
movement must have the same duration as a

5 Beethoven's Italian, however, does not appear to have been
faultless, for the German translation above shows him to have used
the word comt to express ' than ' instead of ' like.'




minim in the other, and so on. But this method
is subject to the serious drawback that it is
possible to understand the sign in two opposed
senses, according as the first of the two note-
values is taken to refer to the new tempo or to
that just quitted. On this point composers are
by no means agreed, nor are they even always
consistent, for Brahms, in his ' Variations on a
Theme by Paganini,' uses the same sign in
opposite senses, first in passing from Var. 3 to
Var. 4, where a ^^ of Var. 4 equals a J of Var.
3 (Ex. 3), and afterwards from Var. 9 to Var.
10, a J of Var. 10 being equal to a „'*• of Var. 9
(E.K. 4).
Kx. 3. Var. 3. {^




A far safer means of expressing proportion is by
a definite verbal direction, a method frequently
adopted by Schumann, as for instance in the
' Faust' music, where he says Ein Takt wie vorher
zwei — one bar equal to two of the preceding move-
ment; and Um die HdJfte langsamer (by which is
to be understood tivice as slow, not half as slow
again), and so in numerous other instances.

When there is a change of rhythm, as from
common to triple time, while the total length of
a bar remains unaltered, the words Vistesso tempo,
signifying ' the same speed,' are written where the
change takes place, as in the following example,
where the crotchet of the 2-4 movement is equal
to the dotted crotchet of that in 6-8, and so, bar
for bar, the tempo is unchanged.

Beethoven, Basatelle, op. 119, No. 6.

A et to.

The same words are occasionally used when
there is no alteration of rhythm, as a warning
against a possible change of speed, as in Var. 3


of Beethoven's Variations, op. 120, and
though less correctly, when the notes of §
given species remain of the same length, wJ
tlie total value of the bar is changed, as in
following example, where the value of each qui
remains the same, altiiough the bar of the
movement is only equal to two-thirds of on(
the foregoing bars.

Beethoven, Bagatelle, op. 126, No. 1.
Andante con moin. L'istesso tempo. i

— *-•*-* — I I ^ 1 i » ' • M l-«

~ii " — H-«* 1) *H •t-

A gradual increase of speed is indicated ■
the word accelerando or strincjendo, a gra^
slackening by rallentando or ritardando. |
such effects being proportional, every bar ^
indeed every note should as a rule take its si
of the general increase or diminution, ex(
in cases where an accelerando extends <
many bars, or even through a whole composil
In such cases the increase of speed is obt: '
by means of frequent slight but definite chai
of tempo (the exact points at which they
place being left to the judgment of perform(
conductor) much as though the words piii
were repeated at intervals throughout. Insi
of an extended accelerando occur in Me:
sohn's chorus, ' ! great is the depth,' froi
Paul' (26 bars), and in his Fugue in E
op. 35, no. I (63 bars). On returning to !
original tempo after either a gradual or a pm
change the words tempo prima are usually*
ployed, or sometimes Tempo del Tema, at
Var. 1 2 of Mendelssohn's ' Variations S6rieu4

The actual speed of a movement in whichjl
composer has given merely one of the lU
tempo indications, without any reference to
metronome, depends of course upon the j
raent of the executant, assisted in many cai
tradition. But there are one or two con^
tions which are of material influence in o
to a conclusion on the subject. In tin
place, it would appear that the meaning <
various terms has somewhat changed il
course of time, and in opposite directioni
words which express a quick movement noW;
fying a yet more rapid rate, at least in il
mental music, and those denoting slow tei
still slower movement, than formerly. Th
no absolute proof that this is the case, 1
comparison of movements similarly marki
of different periods, seems to remove all d«JI
For instance, the Presto of Beethoven's Som
op. 10, no. 3, might be expressed by M
<si = 144, while the Finale of Bach's ItaJ
Concerto, also marked Presto, could scarcelj
played quicker than <5)=i26 without dii
vantage. Again, the commencement of Hand [■
Overture to the ' Messiah ' is marked Grave, ; »
is played about J = 60, while the Grave of 1
thoven's Sonata Pathetique requires a tempi j^
only ^"^ = 60, exactly twice as slow. The cai
of these differences are probably on the one h
the greatly increased powers of execution ]



3d by modem instrumentalists, which have
iced composers to write quicker music, and
he other, at least in the case of the piano-

:, the superior sostenuto possible on modern
raments as compared with those of former
!8. The period to which the music be-
3 must therefore be taken into account in
rmining the exact tempo. But besides this,
general character of a composition, especially
jgards harmonic progression, exercises a very
ded influence on the tempo. For the appa-

speed of a movement does not depend so

h upon the actual duration of the beats, as

1 the rate at which the changes of harmony

eed each other. If, therefore, the harmonies

composition change frequently, the tempo

appear quicker than it would if unvaried
lonies were continued for whole bars, even
gh the metronome-time, beat for beat, might
he same. On this account it is necessary, in
r to give effect to a composer's indication

mpo, to study the general structure of the
ement, and if the changes of harmony are
frequent, to choose a quicker rate of speed
I would be necessary if the harmonies were
3 varied. For example, the first movement
eethoven's Sonata, op. 2 2, marked Allegro,

be played at the rate of about ^ = 72, but
first movement of op. 31, no. 2, though also
ked Allegro, will require a tempo of at least

120, on account of the changes of harmony
g less frequent, and the same may be ob-
ed of the two adagio movements, both in

time, of op. 22 and op. 31, no. i ; in the
nd of these most bars are founded upon a
le harmony, and a suitable speed would be
it ,N = 116, a rate which would be too quick
the Adagio of op. 22, where the harmonies
more numerous.'

nother cause of greater actual speed in the
iering of the same tempo is the use of the
!-8ignature (^ or alia hreve, which requires
composition to be executed at about double

speed of the Common or C Time. The
on of this is explained in the article Beeve,

i. p. 274.

portion of a composition is sometimes
ked a piacere, or ad libitum, at 'pleasure,' sig-
ing that the tempo is left entirely to the per-
ler's discretion. Passages so marked however
jar almost always to demand a slower, rather
I a quicker tempo — at least, the writer is ac-
inted with no instance to the contrary. [F.T.]
EMPO DI BALLO is the indication at the
1 of Sullivan's Overture composed for the
ningham Festival 1870, and seems less to in-
te a particular speed than that the whole work
. a dance style and in dance measures. [G.]

ammel, in his 'Pianoforte School,' spealiing in praise of the
mome, gives a list of instances of the variety of meanings
led to the same words by different composers, in which we find
> Tarying from d=72 to cJ = 2a4, Allegro from = 50 to
72, AttdanU from J^= 52 to J* = 152 etc But Hummel does
lecify the particular movements he quotes, and it seems prob-
hat, regard being had to their varieties of harmonic structure,
screpancies may not really have been so great as at first sight



TEMPO OEDINAEIO (Ttal,), common time,
rhythm of four crotchets in a bar. The time-
signature is an unbarred semicircle C , or in
modem form C, in contradistinction to the barred
semicircle (^ or 0, which denotes a diminished
value of the notes, i. e. a double rate of movement.
[SeeBKEVE; Common Time.] In consequence of
the notes in tempo ordinario being of full value
(absolutely as well as relatively), the term is
understood to indicate a moderate degree of
speed. It is in this sense that Handel employs
it as an indication for the choruses ' Lift up your
heads,' ' Their sound is gone out,' etc. [F.T.]

TEMPO EUBATO (Ital., literally roUed or
stolen time). This expression is used in two differ-
ent senses ; first, to denote the insertion of a short
passage in duple time into a movement the
prevailing rhythm of which is triple, or vice versa,
the change being effected without altering the
time-signature, by means of false accents, or
accents falling on other than the ordinary places
in the bar. Thus the rhythm of the following
example is distinctly that of two in a bar, al-
though the whole movement is 3-4 time.

Schumann, Xovellette, Op. 21, No. 4.



I Ml

2. In the other and more usual sense the term
expresses the opposite of strict time, and indicates
a style of performance in which some portion of
the bar is executed at a quicker or slower tempo
than the general rate of movement, the balance
being restored by a corresponding slackening or
quickening of the remainder. [Rubato.] Perhaps
the most striking instances of the employment of
tempo rubato are found in the rendering of Hun-
garian national melodies by native artists, [F.T.]

TENDUCCI, GiosTO Ferdinando, a cele-
brated sopranist singer, very popular in this
country, w^as bom at Siena, about 1 736, whence
(like a still greater singer) he was sometimes
called Senesino. His earliest stage-appearances
in Italy were made at about twenty years of age,
and in 1758 he came to London, where he first
sang in a pasticcio called 'Attalo.' But it was
in the ' Ciro riconosciuto ' of Cocchi that he first
attracted special notice. Although he had only
a subordinate part, he quite eclipsed, by his voice
and style, the principal singer, Portenza, and
from that time was established as tlie successor
of Guadagni. In company with Dr. Ame, in
whose ' Artaxerxes ' he sang with great success,
he travelled to Scotland and Ireland, returning to
London in 1765, where he was the idol of the
fashionable world, and received enormous sums
for his performances. In spite of this, his vanity
and extravagance were so unbounded that in


1776 he was forced to leave England for debt.
Ill a year, however, he found means to return,
and remained in London many years longer,
singing with success as long as his voice lasted,
and even when it had almost disappeared. In
17S5 he took part in a revival of Gluck's 'Orfeo,'
and appeared at Drury Lane Theatre as late as
1790. He also sang at the Handel Commemo-
ration Festivals at Westminster Abbey, in 1784
and 1 791. Ultimately he returned to Italy, and
died there early in this century.

Tenducci was on friendly terms with the
Mozart family during their visit to I^ondon in
1764. In 1778, at Paris, he again met Mozart,
who, remembering their former intercourse, wrote
a song for him, which has been lost. He was the
author of a Treatise on Singing, and the composer
of an overture for full band (Preston, London),
and of ' Eanelagh Songs,' which he sang at con-
certs. [F.A.M.]

TENEBR^ (Literally, Darkness). The
name of a Service appointed, in the Roman
Breviary, for the three most solemn days in
Holy Week, and consisting of the conjoined
Matins and Lauds,* for the Thursday, Friday,
and Saturday, which are sung ' by anticipation '
on the afternoons of the Wednesday, Thursday
and Friday. The name is taken from the open-
ing sentence of the Responsorium which follows
the Fifth Lesson on Good Friday, Tenebrce
facia; sunt — There was darkness.

The Service begins with three Nocturns, each
consisting of three Psalms, with their doubled
Antiphons, a Versicle and Response, and three
Lessons, each followed by its appropriate Re-
sponsorium. The Psalms and Antiphons are
sung in unisonous Plain Chaunt ; and, at the con-

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