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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 191 of 194)
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' Renaud d'Ast' (produced at the Comedie Ita-
lienne, July 19, 17S7). The song, which bears
the sub-title of ' Chant de Libert^,' was one of



the first lyrical utterances suggested
French Revolution, and it is a great e
suppose that it was adapted for use und
first Empire, for the democratic ideas expi
in Roy's verses were absolutely interdicted
the first Napoleon. The word ' Empire,'
has given rise to this widely-spread impn
refers here to the State, not to the imi
Government. The success of the sonj
enormous, and it required nothing less th
' Marseillaise ' to drive it out of popular fi
The first three verses alone are by Roy_
fourth was added in 1840, when the song
for a time rescued from the oblivion into wk
it had fallen. \A-

Sequence, sung, in the Roman Church, on Wl
Sunday, and during the Octave of Pentecc
between the Epistle and Gospel. The text.
Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic, arranged in sti
of three verses, the two first of which rh;
gether, while the third verse in every _ _
ends in the syllable ' um,' was written in 1
tenth century, by King Robert of France, ai
in graceful and touching simplicity, has nei
been surpassed. Whether or not King Robi
also composed the old Ecclesiastical Melodj
a very fine example of the use of ISIode I. — ^it
impossible to say. It is, however, quite wort
of the text, both in sentiment and in grace.
freedom of construction.

Veni Sancte Spiritus has not been so frequen'
treated by the Polyphonic Composers as some
the other Sequences. Palestrina has, howev.
treated it more than once, in settings of t
highest order of excellence. [W.S.I

VENICE. The frequent and laudatory ref< ^
ences made by foreigners to the Conservatori |
of Venice abundantly prove the reputation whi f
they enjoyed during the 1 7th and i8th centurii %
The President de Brosses, in his ' Lettres H «
toriques ' (Tom. i.), speaks in the highest ten
of the pleasure he received from Venetian mxa
generally. ' The passion of the nation for this a
is,' he says, 'inconceivable'; but ' the music p
excellence is the music of the Hospitals ; . . . ti
girls sing like angels ; they play the violin, t.
flute, the organ, the hautboy, the violonoeU
the bassoon, in short no instrument is lar,

enough to frighten them Nothing can

more delightful than to see a young and pret
novice dressed in white with a bunch of pom r
granate flowers behind her ear, conductmg .'
orchestra and beating the time.' Casotti (Letter
July 29, 171 3), assures us that at Vespers m t!
Incurabili they do not chant they enchant (n(
cantano ma incantano). Rousseau (Conte .
sions, vii.) bears similar testimony to the char .
of the singing in the Venetian Conservatoire:
and readers of Dr. Bumey's letters wUl n^
have forgotten his extreme delight at the mus
which he heard at the Incurabili under Galuppi
direction ; ' I ran away,' he says, 'from tl
music at Santa Maria Maggiore, to the Incu i
abili, where Buranello and his nightingales ...


[•ed balm into my wounded ears.' Finally,
lie close of the last century, Mancini wi-ote
I , ' I am of opinion that in all Italy there are
iichools of music worthy the name, save the
Iservatoires of Venice and Naples and the
jol conducted by Bartolommeo Nucci of

he Venetians were always a music-loving
Not only did the people display a natural
ity for the art in the popular music of the
ets and the songs of the gondoliers, but the

long possessed schools of cultivated music
the choir of St. Mark's, in the theatres,

above all in the four great Scuole or Con-
■atoires, which were attached to the pious
idations of the Pieta, the Mendicanti, the
edaletto, and the Incurabili. So famous did
e schools become that the greatest masters
baly, and even of Europe, applied for the post
lirector, and were proud to write oratorios,
ets, and cantatas for the pupils. The
tea of Lotti, Galuppi, Scarlatti, Hasse, Por-
i, Jomelli, Cimarosa, to take a few only,
it always shed a lustre upon the Conserva-
es over which they presided ; and there is a
lition that Mozart, when under contract to
luce an opera for the Fenice, promised an
iorio for the Incurabili choir.
'he four hospitals were not, in their origin,
gned as schools of music. They were built

endowed by the munificence of private citi-
), to receive the poor and infirm : their position
conservatoires was only gradually developed.

Pietk at San Giovanni in Bragola, was
ided in the year 1348, by Fra Pierazzo
ssissi as a succursal to the Foundling Hos-
il at San Francesco della Vigna. After the
th of Pierazzo both hospitals were united
5an Giovanni, and placed under the Ducal
ervision. The institution was supplied with
id and corn free of charge, and enjoyed a
tal of nearly three hundred thousand ducats.

children of the hospital were taught singing,
)ng other accomplishments, and the school
nusic gradually developed until it came to
>y the highest reputation in Venice. At the

of de Presses' visit the Pietk possessed the
at orchestra in the city. The Hospital of

Pietk was the only one of the Conserva-
es which survived the downfall of the Re-
lic and escaped the financial collapse which
rtook so many pious foundations of Venice.
"he Hospital of the Mendicanti was first
xded in the 13th century, for the reception
epers. In the year 1225 these unfortunates
aU collected at SS. Gervasio e Protasio;
in 1262 they were removed to the island of

Lazaro in the lagoon. As the leprosy
iually disappeared from Venice, the institu-
. and its funds were devoted to the assistance
nendicants and impotent persons. In the
century Bartolommeo Bontempelli and
nenico Biava, two wealthy citizens, built

endowed the Hospital at SS. Giovanni e
lo. — The School of ISIusic at the Mendicanti
ing up in the same way as the school at the



Pieta had grown ; and, towards the close of the
18th century, it had acquired a high repute. In
the year 1 775, on May 28, the Emperor Joseph II.
was entertained at the Mendicanti, and a new
oratorio was performed in his honour. The
contemporary account of the visit describes how
' the whole party betook themselves to hear the
new oratorio sung by the girls of tlie Mendicanti
orphanage. The Emperor's suite occupied places
reserved for them in the tribune opposite the
grille which enclosed the choir where the girls
sang. But the Emperor and liis brother, the
Grand Duke of Tuscany, attempted to enter the
choir. They were not recognized at first by the
lady guardians of that door, forbidden to all men
without distinction of person, and admittance
was refused. The Emperor, however, was pre-
sently recognized and admitted. He amused
himself by turning over the leaves of the music,
and by taking part in a full chorus with his own
well modulated voice.' In the year 1777, owing
to financial difficulties and mismanagement, the
hospital of the Mendicanti was closed, though
the clioir continued to take part in concerts and
oratorios for some time longer. The buildings
of the Mendicanti now form part of the great
Civic Hospital of Venice.

The Ospedaletto was founded in 1527, at SS.
Giovanni e Paolo, as a poorhouse and orphan-
age. S. Girolamo Miani was among its early
benefactors, and so too, by report, was Ignatius
Loyola. The Conservatoire of the Ospedaletto
seems to have been the least renowned of the
four Venetian Schools, though Dr. Burney ex-
j^resses himself much satisfied with the singing
which he heard there, ranking it after the

The Incurabili, on the Zattere, an hospital
for incurables, was founded in 1522, by two
noble ladies, Maria Malipiero and Maria Grimani,
under the inspiration of San GaetanoThiene. The
first building was of wood ; but the new church
was begun in 1566 and finished iu 1600. The
education of the girls who were admitted to the
hospital was supervised by a committee of
twelve noble ladies. Dr. Burney gives the palm
to the orchestra and choir of the Incurabili.
This Conservatoire was raised to its high position
by the labours of the two famous masters Lotti
and Galuppi. Galuppi, called II Buranello, was
the last maestro of the Incurabili choir, and
wrote for it the last oratorio performed before
the closing of the institution in 1776, the ' Moyses
de Sinai revertens.' Six years later the concert-
room of the Incurabili was opened once more
for a performance ofGaluppi's 'Tobias,' in honour
of Pope Pius IV. The Procurator Manin, at
his own charges, caused the hall to be painted
with scenes fi-om the life of Tobias, and decorated
with mirrors. The oratorio was given by a
picked choir and orchestra chosen from the four
Conservatoires ; and the performers were all
dressed in black silk.

The girls who were admitted to the four great
Conservatories of Venice, were by rule required
to prove poverty, ill-health, and Venetian birth.



This rule was sometimes relaxed in favour of ex-
ceptionally promising voices. The state dowered
the girls either for marriage or for the convent.
The pupils were divided into two classes, the
novices and the provette or pupil teachers, whose
duty it was to instruct the novices in the rudi-
meuts of music under the guidance of the maes-
tro. The number of scholars in each Conserva-
toire varied from sixty to eighty. Every Saturday
and Sunday evening the choirs pei-formed full
musical Vespers or a motet, usually wi'itten by
their own maestro. The churches were crowded,
and the town divided into factions which dis-
cussed, criticized, and supported this or that
favourite singer. The opera-singers attended in
large numbers to study the method of the more
famous voices. On great festivals an oratorio
was usually given. The words of the libretto
were originally written in Italian ; but for
greater decorum Latin was subsequently adopted.
The libretto was divided into two parts, and
printed with a fancy border surrounding the
title-page, which contained the names of the
singers and sometimes a sonnet in their piraise.
The libretto was distributed gratis at the door
of the church ; and each of the audience was
supplied with a wooden stool or chair. The choir
sang behind a screen, and was invisible. Ad-
mission to the choir was forbidden to all men
except the maestro ; but Rousseau, by the hel25
of M. le Blond, French Consul, succeeded ia
evading this rule, and was enabled to visit the
choir of the Mendicant! and to make the ac-
quaintance of the young singers whose voices
had so delighted him. Special tribunes, called
Coretti, were reserved for ambassadors and
high state officials. Inside the church applause
was forbidden, but the audience marked their
approval by drawing in the breath and by
shuffling their chairs on the ground.

P. Canal. ' Delia Musica in Veuezia.' Printed in ' Ve-
rezia e le sue Lagune,' vol. i. part 2, p. 471.

Francesco Oatti. Letter to E. Cicogna. Printed in
Cicogna, ' Iscrizioni Veneziane,' vol. v. p. 326.

E. Cicogna. ' Iscrizioni Veneziane,' vol. v. p. 297,
■where a full list of all the Oratorios performed at the
Incurabili will be found.

Dr. Barney. 'The Present State of Musie in France
and Italy.'

Dr. Burney. ' History of Music'

De Brosses. 'Lettres historiques,' Tom. i.

Kousseau. ' Confessions,' Lib. vii.

Fetis. 'Biographic Uuiverselle des Musiciens.'

Bournet. ' Venise, Notes prises dans la Bibliothfeq^ue
d'un vieux Venitien,' p. 275.

Molmenti. 'La Storia di Venezia nella vita privata,'
cap. X.

Tassini. 'Curiosita Veneziane.' s. v. Pieta, Mendi-
caati, Ospedaletto, Incurabili. [H. F.B.I

VENTADOUR-. P. 238 h, 1. 32,/or Dec. 2S
read Dec. 8.

VERDELOT, Philipp. Add that Antonio
Gardano, the publisher, when introducing in
1541 a collection of six-part madrigals by Ver-
delot, describes them on the title-page as the
most divine and most beautiful music ever heard
('la piti divina e piti bella musica che se udisse
giammai'). It has long been the question who
ia the real creator of the madrigal as a musical


form. Adrian VVillaert has often been rep
sented as the first composer of madrigals. ]
more recent investigation would seem to pr(
that Verdelot has a better claim than ^^
laert to this position. Besides the fact
sisted on by Eitner (' Monatshefte fiir Mu8
Geschichte,' xix. 85) that only a very i
of Willaert's secular compositions are prope
madrigals, the most of them being rather
the lighter style of vilanellas, his first comp(
tion of the kind appeared only in 1538, wl
as early as 1536 Willaert himself had
ranged in lute tablature for solo voice and 1
accompaniment twenty-two madrigals by V
delot (' Intavolatura degli Madrigali di Veri
lotto da cantare et sonare nel lauto . . . ;
Messer Adriano,' Venice, 1536). Apart fr
the early mention of the name in the 14th o
tury, the earliest known volume of musical pie
described as madrigals bears the date 1533, a
Verdelot is the chief contributor. It is entit
' Madrigali Novi de diversi excellentissimi 1(
sici.' (See Eitner, 'Bibliographic der Samns
werke,' p. 27.) If any one might dispute t
claim of Verdelot to be the first real madrigal
perhaps it is Costanzo Festa, who also appe
as a contributor to this volume, and whose na
otherwise as a composer appears earlier in pr
than that of Verdelot. (It should be mentioi
that this first book of madrigals is not perfec
preserved, two part-books only existing
the Konigl. Staatsbibliothek at Munich.) Fr
1537 onwards various collections of Verdel(
madrigals for four, five, and six voices were mi
by enterprising publishers, such as Scotto £
Gardano, but always mixed up with the wo:
of other composers. Eitner says that no in
pendent collection of Yerdelot's madrigals
known to exist. Out of the miscellaneous (
lections he reckons up about 100 as compoi
by Verdelot, although with regard to many
them some uncertainty prevails, from the ca
lessness of the publishers in affixing names, J
perhaps also their wish to pass off inferior cc
positions as the work of the more celebra
masters. The feat of adding a fifth part
Jannequin's 'Bataille ' first appeared in Tylii
Susato's tenth ' Book of Chansons,' published
Antwerp in 1545, and has been reprinted
modern times by Commer. Besides madrigi
Verdelot appeal's as composer of motets in l
various collections made by publishers from If
onwards. Forty are enumerated in Eitn(
'Bibliographic,' several of them imperfectly p
served. Of the complete works which Amb
examined, he praises the masterly constri
tion, and the finely developed sense for beat
and pleasing harmony. — Only one Mass
Verdelot is known, one entitled ' Philomena,'
a volume of five Masses published by Soot
Venice, in 1544. Fetis and Ambros say tl
several exist in manuscript in the archives of 1
Sistine Chapel at Rome ; but Codex 38, to whi
Fetis refers, is shown by Haberl's Catalog
('Katalog der Musik-werke im papstliob
Archiv,' pp. iS und 171, 2) to contain only tin




Itets by Verdelot. (See also Van der Straeten,
Lusique de Pays-Bas,' vi. 473.) [J.B.M.]

VERDI. Line 3 of article, for Oct. 9 read
t. 10. P. 24O 6, omit note i, as there is no-
Dg in the mention of ' leather ' and ' pedals '
!ch militates against the instrument having
a spinet, as stated in the text. P. 247 6,

6 from bottom, jfor Roger read Royer. P. 24S a,

7 from bottom, _/or March 17 read March 14.
348 S, 1. 26, for Oct. 26 read Oct. 25. P. 250a,
J9, for April 12 read March 24; 1'. 3 from
ttom, for II read Un. P. 250 t, 1. 18, /or

27 read Dec. 24 ; 1. 31, for in read
ay 24. P. 251, add that Verdi's latest work,
►tello,' set to a poem founded on Shakespeare
Boito, was produced at the Scala, under
wcio's direction, on Feb. 6, 1887. P. 252 b,
, /or Mini read Nini; 1. ^, for Bouchenon
id Boucheron ; 1. 8, for Mabollini read Mabel-
P. 254 6, in list of works, for date of
lacbeth' read March 14. For 'Stifellio' in
,6 I of second column and in note 3 read ' Stif-
For date of ' Un ballo in Maschera ' read

VERDONCK, CoENELiTJS, bom at Turnhout
Belgium in 1563, belongs to the later school
Flemish composers, influenced from Italy, as
aly had earlier been influenced from Flanders.
e lived chiefly at Antwerp, in the ser\"ice of
rivate patrons, and died there Jnly 4, 1625.
a musician, he must have been higlily ap-
reciated by his contemporaries, as the following
pitaph, inscribed to his memory in the Car-
lelite Church at Antwerp shows ; a copy of
hich we owe to the obliging kindness of M.
oovaerts, keeper of the Public Archives at
irussels : —

D. o. M. s.














lis compositions consist chiefly of madrigals for
our, six, and up to nine voices, many of which
,ppear in the miscellaneous collections published
it Antwerp by Hubert Waelrant and Peter
'halese between 15S5 and 1610. For details,
ee Goovaerts' ' Histoire et Bibliographie de la
rypographie Musicale dans les Pays-Bas ' ; also
llitner's ' Bibliographie der Sammelwerke.' One
(f his madrigals was received into Young's
English collection entitled ' Musica Transal-
)ina,' published in London, 1588. A few sacred
:ompositions also appear among the published
vorks of Verdonck. An Ave Maria of his for
[ voices is printed in the Ratisbon ' Musica Di-
^ina,' Annus, ii. Liber ii, 1874. [J.R.M.]


_ VEREENIGING, etc. The list of publica-
tions issued by this society is to be continued as
follows : —

11. Const. Huygens. ' Pathodia

Sacra et Profana ' (ed. W. J.
A. Jonckbloet and J. P. Jf.
Land. If63).

12. Six Psalms by Sweelinck, in

4 parts (ed. K. £itner, 18?4).

13. J. A. Eeinken's 'Hortus Musi-

cus ' (ed. J. 0. M. van Biems-
dijk. 18S6J.

U. J. A. Reinken, ' Partite diverse
sopral'Aria: 'Scliweiget mir
voa Weiber nehmen' (ly&7.),

(Without No.) J. P. Sweelinck,
' Sacrum Convivium,' 5-
part motet.

15. J. P. Sweelinck. Cantio sacra,
' Hodie Cliristus natus est '
5 parts.

The second volume of the society's 'Tijd-
schrift' was completed in 1887.

TION. Two highly characteristic and expressive
terms, used by modern critics for the purpose
of distinguishing the method of writing culti-
vated by modern Composers from that practised
by the older Polyphonists.

The modern Composer constructs his passages,
for the most part, upon a succession of Funda-
mental or Inverted Chords, each of which is
built perpendiculaidy upwards, from the bass
note which forms its harmonic support, as in
the example on p. 520 of the present Ap-

The Polyphonic Composer, on the other hand,
thinking but little of the Harmonies upon which
his passages are based, forms them by weaving
together, horizontally, two or more Melodies,
arranged in contrapuntal form — that is to say, in
obedience to a code of laws which simply provides
for the simultaneous progression of the Parts, with
the certainty that, if they are artistically woven
together, the resulting Harmony cannot fail to
be pure and correct ; as in the example on pp.
580 and 581 of this Appendix. [W.S.R.]

born of a noble family of Belgian origin, July 23,
1803, at Opole, the residence of Prince Alexander
Lubomirski. His parents went to live in Vienna
in 1S04, and at 12 years old he was sent to
the Lowenbiirgische Convict there for about a
year. He began his musical studies in 181 6,
learning successively from Leidesdorf, Moscheles,
and Worzischek. In 1822 he went to the Uni-
versity of Vienna in order to study for the civil
service, which he entered in 1827. As early as
1830 he completed an opera, on the libretto of
Rossini's ' Donna del Lago,' which was per-
formed by amateurs in a private house. In 1833
he studied counterpoint, etc., with Sechter, and
in Oct. 1838 a 2-act opera, ' Turandot,' was
given with success at the Kiirnthnerthor Theatre.
In this and his other musical compositions he
adopted the pseudonym of ' J. Hoven.' Two
years later a third opera, ' Jeanne d'Arc,' in

3 acts, was given in Vienna. The work was
considered worthy of being performed at Dresden
in 1845, with Johanna Wagner in the principal
part. His other operas are ' Der Liebeszauber,'

4 acts, 1845; ' Ein Abenteuer Carl des II,'
I act, 1850; 'Burg Thayer,' 3 acts, apparently
not performed ; ' Der lustige Rath,' 2 acts,
1852, produced at Weimar by Liszt; 'Lips


Tullian,' i act, not performed. In 1872 he
retired from the civil service, and in 1879 re-
ceived the title of ' Geheimrath.' He died at
Vienna, Oct. 29, 1883. He enjoyed the friend-
ship of nearly all the musicians of his time ; he
corresponded with Mendelssohn, Schumann,
Berlioz, Liszt, and many other distinguished
men. His compositions of various kinds reach
the opus-number 58, besides two masses, and
other works unpublished. The above infor-
mation is obtained from a sketch of his life
published by Holder of Vienna, 1887, bearing
no author's name. [M.]

VESTALE, LA. Line 3 of article, for Dec.
16 read Dec. 15. The date given by Clement,
Eiemann, etc., was the date at first announced
for the performance.

VESTEIS, Mme. Add that during her en-
gagements with EUiston, Charles Kemble, etc.,
with their permission, she re-appeared at the
King's Theatre, and played in Rossini's opei'as on
their production in England, viz. as Pippo (in ' La
Gazza'), March 10, 1821 ; Malcolm Grsme (in
'Donna del Lago'), Feb. 18, 1823; Zamira (in
'Eicardo e Zoraide'), June 5, 1823; Edoardo
(in 'Matilde di Shabran'), July 3, 1S23 ; Emma
(in ' Zelmira '), at Mme. Colbran-Eossini's d^but,
Jan. 24, 1824 ; and Arsace, with Pasta as Semi-
ramide, July 15, 1824. She played there also in
1825, and as Pippo at Eanny Ay ton's debut in
1827. This last year she played in English at
Covent Garden, George Bro^vn in 'The White
Maid' ('La Dame Blanche'), Jan. 2, a part
])layed in Paris by the tenor Ponchard, and
Blonde in ' The Seraglio,' a mutilated version of
Mozart's ' Entfiihrung,' ISTov. 24. [A.C.]

VIADANA, LoDOVico. Corrections as to
his name and place of birth will be found in
vol. iv. p. 314, note 2.

VIANESI, AuGUSTE Chaeles Leonaed
EEANfOis, bom at Leghorn Nov. 2, 1837, na-
turalized a Frenchman in 1885, had been for
many years the conductor of various Italian opera
companies before finally becoming first conductor
at the Op^ra in Paris. He is the son of a mu-
sician, and was taught music by the advice of
Pacini and Dohler, and became a chorus master
in Italy. In 1857 he came to Paris furnished
with a letter of introduction to Rossini from
Pasta, and in Paris he completed his musical
education. In 1859 ^^ ^'^^ called to London to
conduct the orchestra at Drury Lane. He then
went to New York, and was afterwards engaged
at the Imperial Theatre at LIoscow. He made
a short stay in St. Petersburg, and then for
twelve years conducted the Italian opera at
Covent Garden. Besides this he has wielded
his baton in many other towns, as Vienna,
Trieste, Barcelona, Madrid, Manchester, Liver-
pool, Glasgow, Dublin, Chicago, Philadelphia,
etc. He has a talent for conducting those Ita-
lian opera companies which are got together for
a nionth or six weeks, where the singers have
neither time to rehearse nor to become ac-
quainted with each other's methods. On July


1, 1887, M. Vianesi, who was naturalized ji
time, was chosen by the directors of the C
to replace Altfes [see Altes in Appendix] j
ductor. He fiUs the post with much exubi
of gesture, but with scarcely more authority
his predecessor. [.

VIARD-LOUIS, Jenny. See vol. iv. pfl
where, last line of article,yor 1844 read 18

quence, sung, in the Roman Church, on B
Sunday and during its Octave, immediately
the Gradual, which intervenes between
Epistle and Gospel. The text, written in
very irregular metre, with unexpected rhyn
marking the caesura and close of verses
constantly varying rhythm, is attributed, '
Rambachius, to the nth century. The c
Ecclesiastical Melody, in Modes I. and II.,
probably of equal antiquity, and may well ha
been composed by the author of the text, since

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