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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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for a time. Similarly the fifth, or the fifth and
third, can be suspended, producing a ninth, or a
ninth and seventh, against the tonic note ; and
the dissonant effect is similarly relieved by theii
passing on to their normal position in the chord
afterwards, as in (c). In all such cases the first
occurrence of the note in the part whose motion
is suspended is called the ' Preparation,' as in




the first chord of (b) and of (c) ; the moment o!
dissonance resulting from the motion of the other
parts, is called the ' Percussion ' of the discord,
and the release of the dissonance, when the part
proceeds to its natural place in the harmony, is ,
called the ' Resolution.' I

Suspension was among the very first methods*
discovered by the early harmonists for introducing )
dissonance into their music. In the earliest times ■
composers depended chiefly upon the different
degrees and qualities of consonances — sixths,
thirds, fifths, and octaves — to obtain the necessary
effects of contrast between one musical moment
and another. Then, when, in the natural order of
things, sometliing stronger was required, it was
found in this process of suspension. But for some |



SUSPENSION.



SUSPENSION.



time it was used very sparingly, and composers
required no more than the least dissonant forms to
carry out their purposes. For a long while, more-
over, all discords appeared to the early writers
as no more than artificial manipulations of the
motion of the parts of this kind, and it was only
by the use of such means that they even learnt
to use some discords, which are at the present
day looked upon in a totally different light. About
the beginning of the 17th century they began to
realise that there was a radical difference in the
character and constitution of certain groups of dis-
cords, and to use at least one freely as an inde-
pendent or fundamental combination. From that
time discords began to be classified, instinctively,
into definite groups. Certain of the less dissonant
combinations have in course of time been grouped
into a special class, which is freed from the obli-
gation of being prepared, and thereby loses one
of the most essential characteristics of suspension.
Tliese are the Dominant discords of the minor
seventh and major and minor ninths ; certain
corresponding chromatic chords on Tonic and
Supertonic roots, which have been naturally affi-
liated upon the key; and the chord sometimes
known as that of the added sixth. Another class
has been created by some theorists, which is much
more intimately connected with the class of suspen-
sions; if indeed they are not actually suspensions
slightly disguised. These are the discords which
are arrived at by the same process of staying or
suspending the motion of a part, but which are
distinguished by further motion of the other parts
simultaneously with the resolution of the discord,
thereby condensing two motions into one ; as in
(rf) and (e). When treated in this manner the
chords are described by some theorists as ' Pre-
pared discords.' The province of suspensions




appears by this process to have been reduced,
but what was lost by the process of classification
has been amply made up by the invention of a
great variety of new forms.

About the time that composers first began to
realise the character of the dominant seventh,
they also began to use a greater variety and a
harsher description of suspensions. The earliest
experiments of note in both directions are
commonly ascribed to the same man, namely
Monteverde. Since his time the progress has
been tolerably constant in one direction ; for the
tendency to look for fresh and more vivid points
of contrast necessarily leads to the use of sus-
pensions of more complicated and harsher char-
acter. At the present time the varieties of possible
suspensions are so numerous that it would be
almost as absurd to endeavour to make a catalogue
of them, as it would be to make a list of possible



combinations of sounds. But if the principle be
properly understood, it is not necessary to give
more ttian illustrative examples; for the like
rules apply to all ; and their kinds are only
limited by the degree of harshness considered
admissible, and by the possibility of adequate
and intelligible resolution. Classical authority
not only exists for a great variety of chromatic
suspensions, often derived from no stronger basis
than a combination of chromatic passing or orna-
mental notes ; but also for remarkable degrees of
dissonance. Beethoven for instance, in the Bb
Quartet, op. 130, used the suspended fourth to-
gether with the third on which it is to resolve,
and put the latter at the top, and the former at
the bottom ( /) ; and Bach supplies many ex-
amples of similar character. Certain simple rules




are almost invariably observed — such as that the
moment of percussion shall fall upon the strong
beat of the bar ; and tbat the progression shall
not imply a violation of rules against consecutive
perfect concords, which would occur if the arti-
ficial suspension of the part were removed, as

in (a)-

Composers early discovered a means of varying
the character of the process by interpolating
notes between the sounding of the discord and
its resolution, as in (A). Instances are also to

(0) . _ ' (.h)




be found in which some such forms were used as
sufficient to constitute resolution without arriving
at the normal note, — habit and familiarity with
a particular form of motion leading to the ac-
ceptance of a conventional formula in place of the
actual solution. The following examples from
Corelli's ist Sonata of opera 2da and 5th of
opera 4ta are clear illustrations,

(^) i3_j_ I ®- . —




This particular device is characteristic rather of
the early period of harmonic music up to Corelli's
time than of a later period. The following pas-
sage from Schumann's variations for two piano-



6 SUSPENSION.

fortes is characteristic of modem uses of combined
and chromatic suspension, and also of interpola-
tion of notes between percussion and resolution.

(m) ist Piano.




^i^i^^^



p^



-^



=^






I



Some theorists distinguish the combinations which
resolve upwards from those that resolve down-
wards, styling the former Retardations. [See
Eetardation; Haemony.] [C.H.H.P.]

SVENDSEN, JoHAN Severin-, was born Sept.
30, 1840, at Christiania, where his father was
a military band-master. At the age of 11 he
wrote his first composition for the violin. When
15 he enlisted in the army, and soon became
band-master. Even at that age he played with
considerable skill flute, clarinet, and violin. He
soon left the army, and worked during the next
few years in the orchestra of the Christiania
theatre, and at a dancing academj% for which he
arranged some Etudes by Paganini and KJreutzer
for dancing. A strong desire to travel drove
him, at 21, on a roving tour over a great part of
Sweden and North Germany. Two years after,
being in Liibecic in extremely reduced circum-
stances, he fortunately met with the Swedish-
Norwegian Consul Herr Leche, whose interest
he gained, and who shortly after obtained a
stipend for him from Charles XV. to enable him
to perfect himself as a violinist ; but being soon
afterwards attacked with paralysis in tlie hand,
he was compelled to give up the bow for com-
position. He came to Leipzig in 1863, and his
works being already known there, he was placed
in the finishing class of the Conservatorium, re-
ceiving, however, instruction in elementary theory
of music, which he had never been taught. His
instructors were Hauptmann, David, Eichter,
and Eeinecke, of whom he considers that lie
owes most to the first. Whilst in Leipzig he
wrote a Quartet in A, an Octet and a Quintet,
all for strings ; Quartets for male voices ; and a
Symphony in D. The following anecdote of this
period is both characteristic and authentic. On
hearing that his octet had been played with
great success by the students, Eeinecke asked
to see it ; he declined, however, to suggest any
improvements in so splendid a work, but re-
marked somewhat sarcastically, ' The next thing
will be a symphony, I suppose.' Barely a week



SVENDSEN.

after Svendsen laid his Symphony in D before his
astonished instructor.

On leaving Leipzig in 1867 he received the
great honorary medal of the Academy. After
travelling in Denmark, Scotland, and Norway,
Svendsen went in 1868 to Paris. The French
Empire was then at its zenith, and his sojourn
in the capital of France influenced the com-
poser to a very great extent. Whilst there,
he plaj'ed in Musard's orchestra, and at the
Od^on, and became intimately acquainted with
Wilhelmine Szarvady, De Beriot, Vieuxtemps,
and Leonard. He arranged the incidental music
to Coppee's ' Le passant,' in which both Sarah
Bernhardt and Agar performed, but on the
whole his Paris productions were few — a Con-
certo for violin in A, and orchestral arrangements
of studies by Liszt and Schubert ; he also began
'Sigurd Slembe,' the overture to a Noirwegian
drama of that name. He left Paris at the be-
ginning of the war in 1870 for Leipzig, where
he had been off'ered the conductorship of the
well-known Euterpe concerts, which however
were discontinued, owing to the war. At a
great musical festival at Weimar, in the same
year, he first met Liszt and Tausig, and his
octet was played by a party containing David,
Helmesberger, Griitzmacher, and Hechmann, with
great approbation. Early in the following year
his Symphony in D was performed at the
Gewandhaus, and his fame as a composer esta-
blished. He composed in that year his Concerto
for cello in D. In the autumn he went to
America to be married to an American lady,
whom he had met in Paris, and returned the
same year to Leipzig, where, after the end of the
war, he undertook the leadership of the Euterpe
concerts for one year. There he finished the
overture to ' Sigurd Slembe,' which was played
at the Euterpe then, and in the following year
at the musical festival at Cassel, where Liszt
was present, and both times with great success.
This year was one of the most momentous in
Svendsen's life, since in it he met Wagner at
Bayreuth, and soon became his intimate associate.
He took the opportunity of making himself fully
acquainted with Wagner's music and ideas. In
Wagner's house he met the Countess Nesselrode,
who formed a warm friendship for the Norwegian
composer, and whose talents and experience be-
came of great benefit to him. In Bayreuth some
of his happiest days were spent, and it was
during this stay he composed his Carnaval h
Paris, a charming composition which depicts with
great force the varied aspects of the capital of
pleasure. The longing to see his country after
an interval of so many j^ears made him disregard
various tempting ofiers, and he left Bayreuth for
home. For the next five years he was conductor
of the Cliristiania Musical Association and teacher
of composition, and composed comparatively few
works, which may be explained by the unfor-
tunate want of pecuniary independence. The
pieces of this period are : — Funeral march for
Charles XV; 'Zorahayde,' a legend for orchestra;
Coronation march of Oscar II, and a Polonaise in



SVENDSEN.



SWEELINCK.



E for the same occasion ; ' Romeo and Juliet,' a
fantasie for orchestra; four Norwegian rhapsodies;
arrangements of some Norwegian, Swedish and
Icelandic ballads for orchestra ; and his chef-
cCoeuvre, a symphony in Bb. In 1S74 his labours
found some appreciation from bis countrymen ia
the shape of an annuity granted by the Storthing,
and several decorations conferred on him by the
king. After five years of hard work, he was
enabled once more to proceed abroad. In 1877
he revisited Leipzig, and conducted a new work
at the Gewandhaus ; went thence to Munich,
and eventually to Rome, where he spent the
winter. In 1878 he visited London for the first
time, and there met Sarasate, who assisted him
in the performance of his quartet, quintet, and
octet. From London he went to Paris, where
he stayed until 1880, during which time his
works were several times performed — as also at
Angers, where the post of conductor was offered
him by the Musical Association. But Svendsen,
true to his resolution to return home, refused
this lucrative appointment, and in the autumn
of that year we again find him in his old post
as conductor of the Musical Association in Chris-
tiania, in which capacity he has since acted.
During the last few years he has produced only
some minor compositions, besides arranging for
orchestra several studies by foreign composers.

Svendsen's music is all of very high character,
remarkable for strong individuality, conciseness,
aod the absence of anything national or Scandi-
navian ; as well as for an elaborate finish strictly
in harmony with the traditions of the great
masters. Of these there is, however, only one
whose influence can be traced in his compositions,
namely Beethoven. He is one of the most cosmo-
politan composers of the age.

His printed works are as follow : —

A minor.



Op. 1. String quartet.

2. Songs for men's voices.

3. Octet for strings in A minor.

4. Symphony in D.

5. String quintet in C.

6. Concerto for violin and

orch. in A.

7. Do. for cello and orch. in D

minor.

8. Orertore in C to BjSmson's

drama of ' Sigurd Slem-
l)e.'

9. Camaval i Paris, for orch.

10. Funeral march for Charles

XV.

11. Zorahayde. legend for orch.

12. Polonaise for orch.

13. Coronation march for Oscar

U.

14. Marriage Cantata, for chor.

and orch.



15. Symphony no. 2 in Bb.

16. Camaval des artistes Xor-

vegiens.

17. Ehapsodie Xorvegienne no.

1, for orch.

18. Overture to Borneo and

Juliet.

19. Ehapsodie Nory^gienne no.

2.

20. Scandinavian airs arranged

for string quartet.

21. 22. EhapsodiesNorvegiennes
nos. 3, i.

23. Five songs, French and Ger-
man, for voice and PF.

21. Four do., French and Nor-

wegian, do.

25. Eomance by Popper, ar-
ranged for cello and PF.

2C. Eomance for violin and
orch. in G.



[C.S.]

SVENDSEN, Olcf, a distinguished flute-
player, bom in Christiania April 19, 1832. He
learnt the rudiments of playing from his father,
a musician ; when 1 2 years old played the flute
in small orchestras ; and at 1 4 was engaged as
first flute in the Christiania theatre. In 1S51
he went to Copenhagen, and took lessons from
Nils Petersen, then a flute-player there. In
1853 he entered the Conservatoire at Brussels,
where he studied for two year?, after which he
was engaged by JuUien for his Concerts in Lon-
don. In September, 1856, he joined the Band



of the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, where he re-
mained tiU the end of 1S58. In 1861 Svendsen
was appointed first flute in the Queen's private
band, and the same year joined the Philharmonic
orchestra. He was ten years in the orchestra
at Her Majesty's Theatre; and since 1867 has
been professor of his instrument at the Royal
Academy of Music. He is well known as a solo-
player throughout Belgium, Norway, Sweden,
Denmark, and France. [G.]

SWEELINCK or SWELINCK,» Jan Pie-
TEESZOON, the greatest of Dutch organists, was
born of a Deventer family in the summer of 1562.
His father, ' Mr. Pieter,' was organist of the Old
Church at Amsterdam, which place disputes with
Deventer the honour of having given the son
birth.^ Of Sweelinck's boyhood we know nothing,
except that he was taught by Jacob Buyck
(Buchius) the pastor of the Old Church. There
is a tradition that he was sent to Venice to
study music under Zarlino and Gabrieli ; but
with this is connected a mi.stake of old stand-
ing, which places his birth in 1540, 22 years
too early.3 Now, a.s we know that he was in
Holland from 1577, at latest, onwards, it be-
comes barely credible that the lad of 15 could
have followed the instruction of the Venetian
masters to any important extent ; and it is likely
that the whole story is based upon the close study
which his works prove him to have devoted to
those of ' the apostle of musical ''science,' whose
' Istituzioni harmoniche ' he translated.^ Some
time between 1577 and 1581 Sweelinck was ap-
pointed to the organistship previously held by
his father (who died in 1573); and this post he
fiUed until his death, Oct. 16, 1621. For a
generation he was the glory of Amsterdam.
When he played the organ there, says a contem-
porary, ' there was a wonderful concourse every
day ; every one was proud to have known, seen,
heard the *man.' And when he died it was
the greatest of Dutch poets, Vondel, who WTote
his epitaph, and surnamed him ' Phoenix of
Music' He must also have been a distinguished
figure in the society of Amsterdam, then in its

J of the seven or more ways in which the name is spelled, these
two have the warrant of the musician's own signature. The Germans
of the time seem to have naturalised him as Schweling ; in Amster-
dam he was linown as plain Jan Pietersz.

2 Deventer is consistently mentioned by Sweelinck's later bio-
graphers ; but the Amsterdam claim has the support of the official
entry of his marriage there in 1590, in which his birthplace is not
stated. The omission was the rule when the person was a native of
the city. Else documentary evidence is equally wantiug on bothsides.

3 The correction of this and the rest of the mistalfes which confuse
every single date in Sweelinclt's life is due to the essay of F. H. J.
Tiedeman, ' J. P. Sweelinclc. een bio-bibliografische Schets,' published
by the Vereeniging voor Nederlandsche Muzielcgeschiedenis (Amster-
dam, 1S76), which supersedes a shorter slsetch published by the same
writer as an introduction to the 'Eegina Coeli' in 1869. Both are
based upon a biography, which remains in MS. in the possession of
the Vereeniging, by Eobert Eitner, who has done good service by
rescuing the works of Sweelinck from the obscurity of the Graue
Kioster at Berlin.

* So Zarlino is entitled by his modern biographer. F. CafH. ' Delia
Vita e delle Opere del Prete G, Zarlino ' (Venice 1^36). Neither here
nor in the chapters on Zarlino and Andrea Gabrieli contained in his
' Storia della Musica Sacra," vol. i. p. 129 etc. (Venice 1854), does Caffl
take any notice of the Dutch scholar. Nor have I been able to di.s-
cover any trace of his residence at Venice in the MS. collections of
S Marco.

5 MS. at Hamburg, formerly belonging to the great organistEeincke.

6 Sweertius. iu Tiedeman, p. 16. Sweelinck's portrait at Darmstadt
gives his strong irregular features a kindly expression, with a touch
of sadness in them. It is reproduced in photograph by Mr. Tiedemau.



8 SWEELINCK.

greatest brilliancy, not only for his umnatclieJ
powers as an organist, but also for his skill,
fancy, and charming versatility on the clavi-
cyinbel.* The town bought him for public service
a new ' clavecimpbel ' from Antwerp at a cost of
200 gulden ; and the instrument seems to have
travelled with him all over the country.''^

What was published however by Sweelinck in
his life-time was entirely vocal music, and in-
cludes — besides occasional canons, marriage-
songs, etc., his 'Chansons fran9aises' (3 parts,
Antwerp, 1592-4"), 'Rimes fran9aises et itali-
ennes ' (Leyden 16 12), and the great collections
of sacred music on which, with his organ works,
his fame chiefly rests. These are the ' Pseaumes
mis en musique ' for 4-8 voices (published in
several editions at Leyden, Amsterdam, and
Berlin), and the ' Cantiones SacKe ' (Antwerp
1619). A Regina Coeli from the latter, 3 Chan-
sons, and 8 Psalms in 6 parts have been lately
reprinted, in organ-score, by the Association fcir
the History of Dutch Music (pts. 1, v, vii, and vi;
Utrecht and Amsterdam, 1S69-1877); which has
also published for the fii-st time seven of Swee-
linck's organ works ^ (pt. iii.) [Vereeniging.]

The psalms make an interesting link between
the tranquillity of the old polyphonists and the
rhythm of modern music. Formally they stand
nearest to tbe earlier style, but the strictness of
their counterpoint, the abundance of imitation
and fugue in them, dues not hinder a general
Ireedom of effect, very pure and full of melody',
to a greater degree than is common in works of
the time. The organ pieces are also historically
of signal importance. Though they may nr)t
justify the claim made for Sweelinck as 'the
founder of instrumental music,' * they at all
events present the first known example of an in-
dependent use of the pedal (entrusting it with a
real part in a fugue), if not with the first example
of a completely developed organ-fugue.

It is as an organist and the founder of a school
of organists that Sweelinck had most influence,
an influence which made itself felt through the
whole length of northern Germany.^ In the next
generation nearly all the leading organists there
had been his scholars : his learning and method
were carried by them from Hamburg to Danzig.
His pupil Scheidemann handed down the tradition
to the great Reincke ^ — himself a Dutchman —
from whom, if we accept a statement supported
alike by unanimous testimony and by exhaustive
analysis of their works, it turned to find its
consummation in Sebastian Bach.' [R.L.P.]



1 On this he was the master of Christina van Erp. the famous
luteiiist, and wife of the more famous poet. Pieter Corneliszuon
llooft. See the 'fSoawsteenen' of the Vereeniging, vol. i. pp. 13 f.

2 See an anecdote in BauJartius, 'Memorjren,' xiii. p. 163; cited
by Tiedeman, p. 10.

3 Tbe bibliography of Sweelinck is given at length by Tiedeman,
pp. 43—75. To this should be added some supplementary particulars
communicated by Dr. J. P. Ue.je iu the 'Bouwsteeneu,' vol. i. pp.
a9— 46.

i See Eitner's preface to the edition, and Tiedeman, pp. 54 ff.

:> The wiJe distribulion of his works is shown by early transcripts
e.visting in the British Sluseum. and by copies of the extremely rare
printed works preserved in the Bibl.oth^que Xationale. Curiously
enough not a single MS. of Sweelinck remains in UollwUd.

« Often erroneous'y known as Reinkeu.

'< Spitta. ' J. £. Each/ i. 96, 13:-::iU.



SWEET.

SWELL (HARPSICHORD). The desire for
a power of increase and decrease on keyboard
instruments like the harpsichord and organ, so as
to emulate the bow instruments, and even the
human voice, in that flow and ebb which are at
the foundation of form no less than of expression,
has led to the contrivance of mechanical swells
as the only possible approach to it. A swell was
first attempted on the Organ ; the harpsichord
swell was introduced by Robert Pleuius in a
sosteaente variety of the instrument, named by
him ' Lyrichord,' and is described (in 1755) as
the raising of a portion of the lid or cover of the
instrument by means of a pedal. Kirkman
adopted this very simple swell, and we find it
also in many small square pianos of the last cen-
tury. About 1 765 Shudi introduced the Venetian
swell, and patented it in 1769. This beautiful
piece of joinery is a framing of louvres which
open or close gradually by means of a pedal (the
right foot one) and thus cause a swell, which
may be as gradual as the performer pleases.
Shudi bequeathed this patent to John Broad-
wood, who inherited it on the death of Shudi in
177.V When the patent expired, Kirkman and
others adopted it, and it was fitted to many old
harpsichords, and even to pianos, but was soon
proved unnecessary in an instrument where
power of nuance was the very first principle.

The English organ-builders perceived the great
advantage of Shudi's Venetian swell over the
rude contrivance they had been using [see Organ,
vol. ii. p. 596 a], and it became generally adopted
for organs, and has since been constantly retained
in them as an important means of efiect. [ A. J.H.]

SWELL-ORGAN. The clavier or manual of
an organ which acts upon pipes enclosed in a
box, such box having shutters, by the opening of
which, by means of a pedal, a crescendo is pro-
duced. The shutters are made to fold over each
otlier like the woodwork of a Venetian blind,
hence the expressions * Venetian Swell ' and
'Venetian Shutters' sometimes found in specifi-
cations. To the swell-organ a larger number of
reed-stops is assigned than to other manuals.

The first attempt at a 'swelling organ' wa.s
made by Jordan in 171 2. The crescendo was
obtained by raising one large sliding shutter
vvhich formed the fiont of the box. The early
swell-organs were of very limited compass, some-
times only from middle C upwards, but more
generally taken a fourth lower, namely, to fiddle
G. For many years the compass did not extend



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