George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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clusion of each, one of the fifteen candles on the
huge triangular Candlestick by which the Chapel
is lighted is ceremoniously extinguished. The
Lessons for the First Nocturn on each of the
three days are the famous ' Lamentations,'
which have already been fully described. * The
Lessons for the Second and Third Nocturns are
simply monotoned. Music for the Responsoria
has been composed by more than one of the
greatest Polyphonic Masters ; but most of them
are now sung in unisonous Plain Chaunt. The
Third Nocturn is immediately followed by Lauds,
the Psalms for which are sung in the manner,
and with the ceremonies, already described.
Then follows the Canticle, ' Benedictus,' during
the singing of which the six Altar Lights are
extinguished, one by one. And now preparation
is made for the most awful moment of the whole
— that which introduces the first notes of the
'Miserere.'^ The fifteenth candle, at the top
of the great Candlestick, is removed from its
place, and hidden behind the Altar. The An-
tiphon, ' Christus factus est obediens,' is sung by
a single Soprano Voice ; and, after a dead silence
of considerable duration, the Miserere is sung,
in the manner, and with the Ceremonies de-
scribed in vol. ii. pp. 335-3.38. The Pope then

1 See MATIN3, and LAHDa. 2 see Lauektaticks.



says an appointed Prayer ; the Candle is brougbi i''
out from behind the Altar ; and the Servioi i"''
concludes with a trampling of feet, sometima i'''
said to represent the passage of the crowd tl ■"
Calvary, or the Jews seizing our Lord. (, in

The Services proper for Holy Week are de ^
scribed, in detail, in the 'Manuel des C^r^monifli ii'
qui ont lieu pendant la Semaine Sainte,' former^ 1 '
sold annually in Rome, but now very difiBcult ti W
obtain. The Music was first published by Di ii
Burney, in ' La Musics della Settimana Santa^ *"
now very scarce, and has since been reprinted f"
by Alfieri, in his ' Raccolta di Musica Sacra,' iw

A minute and interesting account, thougl Ij'
somewhat deformed by want of sympathy wilj im
the ancient Ritual, will be found in Mendelssohal ito
letter to Zelter, of June 16, 183 1. [W.S.Ki ^

'tenderly'; a term slightly stronger and used moil '
emphatically than dolce, but having very muchthi j.
same meaning and use in music. A good instano ;
of the distinction between the terms is found 9
the lovely second movement of Beethoven's Son^j
in E minor, op. 90, where the subject, at its nP
entry labelled dolce, is subsequently directec ^^
be played feneramente. From the whole chanB «.
ter of the movement it is evidently intended ti i,
become slightly more impassioned as it goes on
and it is generally understood that the secosi
and following entries of the subject should b
played with more feeling, and perhaps in les "
strict time, than the opening bars of the move
ment. [J.A.F.M. ^

TENOR (Fr. Taille; Ger. Tenor Stimme]
The term applied to the highest natural adnl
male voice and to some instruments of somej^
where about the same compass. Its etymolog r
is accepted to be teneo, 'I hold,' and it wajll
the voice that, in early times, held, took, g
kept the principal part (originally the oiil;| g
real part), the plainsong, subject, air, or nw f
tive of the piece that was sung. It holds th'( ({
mid-position in the musical scale. Itj i

I ql clef is the C clef on the fourth line ciL

the stave (in reality the middle line 0| ij
the great stave of eleven lines *) generally supei| |
seded in the present day by the treble or G del
which however does not represent or indicata|
the actual pitch, but gives it an octave too high;
The average compass of the tenor voice is C tf]
A or B (a), though in large rooms notes below J
(6) are usually of little avail. In primitive timfie

before true polyphony or harmony were known
it was natural that what we now call the teno
voice should hold the one real part to be sung..
should lead, in fact, the congregational singing,
for the reason that this class of voice is sweete
and more flexible than the bass voice, and als'
would most readily strike the ear, as being thi
higher voice in range, until boys were employed

* See ' A Short Treatise on the Stave ' (HuUah).


1 even then boys could not have either the
i>wledge or authority to enable them to lead
i: singing, more especially as the chants or
inns were at first transmitted by oral tra-
ion ; and females were not officially engaged
the work. The boys probably sang in unison
,;h, at times an octave higher than, the tenor,
1 the basses in unison with, or an octave
ow, the tenor, as suited them respectively.
An elaborate classification of voices was not
;in necessary. Indeed it is most probable that
fipst the only distinction was between the
ces of boys and men, alius and bassus {high
I low), the very limited scales then in use
ming easily within the compass of the lower
•t of tenors and the higher part of basses ; and
liviU have been only observed that some men
dd sing higher or lower than others, while
! different qualities of voices will not have
jn taken into account. If a very low bass
ind a note rather high, he may have howled
as he best could, or it would perhaps itself
ve cracked up into falsetto, or he will have
ae down instinctively to the octave below,

remained where he was until the melody
me again within his reach— ears being not yet
.tically cultivated. Even now, towards the end
the 19th century, it is not at all unusual to
ar amongst a congregation basses singing the
r of a hymn below the actual bass part, or
prani singing in the tenor-compass for con-
nience sake. In a few village churches, and

many Scotch kirks, an after-taste of such
rly singing is still to be had. But with the
;tension of the scale and the introduction of
system of notation, and the consequent gradual
placement of the empirical mode of practice
T more scientific study, the first rude attempts

harmony and polyphony, diaphony or or-
uram (which see), would necessitate a more
act classification of voices.
The term Baritone is of comparatively late intro-
iction. This voice is called by the French basse-
ille, or low tenor, iaille being the true French
ord for tenor, and it is not impossible that,
I this word signifies also the waist or middle of
te human figure, it may have been adopted to ex-
ress the middle voice. The addition of a second
irt, a fourth or fifth above or below the Canto
ermo or plain-chant, would also so much in-
:ease the compass of music to be sung, that the
arieties and capacities of different voices would
aturally begin to be recognised, and with the
ddition of a third part, triplum (treble), there
'ould at once be three parts, altus, medius,
ad bassus,— high, middle, and low; and as the
ledius, for reasons already given, would natu-
lUy be the leader who held (tenuit) the plam-
Dng, the term tenor would replace that of medius.
"hen, as the science and practice of music ad-
anced, and opera or musical drama became more
nd more elaborated, the sub-classification of each
ndividual type of voice in accordance with its
aried capacities of expression would be a matter
f course. Hence we have tenore robusto (which
ised to be of about the compass of a modern



high* baritone), tenore di forza, tenore di mezzo
carattere, tenore di grazut, and tenore legijiero,
one type of which is sometimes called tenore
eontraltino. These terms, though used very
generally in Italy, are somewhat fantastic, and
the different qualifications that have called them
forth are not unfrequently as much part of the
morale as of the physique. Although not only
a question of compass but of quality, the word
' tenor ' has come to be adopted as a generic term
to express that special type of voice which is so
much and so justly admired, and cannot now be
indicated in any other way.

The counter-tenor, or natural male alto, is a
hicfhly developed falsetto, whose so-called chest
voice is, in most cases, a limited bass. Singers
of this class down to the beginning of the 1 7th
century came principally from Spain, they being
afterward chiefly superseded by artificial male
alti. One of the finest examples of counter-tenor
known in London at the time of writing this
article is an amateur distinguished for his excel-
lent part-singing. Donzelli was a tenore robusto
with a voice of beautiful quality. It has been
the custom to call Duprez, Tamberlik, Wa,chtel,
Mongini, and Mierzwinski tenori roiusti, but
they belong more properly to the tenori di forza.
The tenore robusto had a very large tenor quality
throughout his vocal compass.

It is not easy to classify precisely such a voice
as that of Mario,^ except by calling it the per-
fection of a tenor voice. Mario possessed, in
a remarkable degree, compass, volume, richness,
grace, and flexibility (not agility, with which
the word is often confounded in this country,
but the general power of inflecting the voice
and of producing with facility nice gradations of
colour). Historical singers are generally out of
the usual category, being in so many cases gifted
with exceptional physical powers. Rubini, a
tenore di- grazia, physically considered, was en-
dowed with an extraordinary capacity of pathetic
expression, and could at times throw great force
into his singing, which was the more striking
as being somewhat unusual, but he indulged too
much perhaps in the vibrato, and may not im-
probably be answerable for the vicious use of this
(^legitimate in its place) means of expression, which
has prevailed for some years past, but which, be-
ing now a mannerism, ceases to express more than
the so-called ' expression stop ' on a barrel organ.
But it must be said of Rubini that the vibrato
beincr natural to him, had not the nauseous effect
thatlt has with his would-be imitators.

Davide, who sang in the last half of the i8th
century, must have been very great, with a beau-
tiful voice and a thorough knowledge of his art.
rSee vol. i. p. 434.] His son is said to have been
endowed with a voice of three octaves, comprised
within four B flats. This doubtless included
something like an octave of falsetto, which must
have remained to him, instead of in great part
disappearing with the development of the rest of

1 Baritone may etymologically be considered to mean a heavy
voice, and as the principal voice was the tenor, it may be taken to
mean heavy tenor, almost equivalent to Baase-taiUe,

2 Died at Borne Dec. 11, 1883.





the voice, as is usually tlie case. In connection with
this may be mentioned the writer's experience
of a tenor, that is to say a voice of decided tenor

tone, with a compass of "^

z , that of

a limited bass only, thus showing how the word
' tenor' has come to express quality quite as much
as compass. — Eoger (French), another celebrity,
and a cultivated man, overtaxed his powers, as
many others have done, and shortened his active
artistic career. — Campanini is a strong tenore dl
mezzo cavattere. This class of tenor can on oc-
casions take parti dl forza or di grazia.

If the Germans would only be so good as to
cultivate more thoroughly the art of vocalisation,
we should have from them many fine taiori di
forza, with voices like that of Vogel.

A tenore di grazia of modern times must
not be passed without special mention. Italo
Gardoni possessed what might be called only
a moderate voice, but so well, so easily and
naturally produced, that it was heard almost to
the same advantage in a theatre as in a room.
This was especially noticeable when he sang the
part of Florestan, in ' Eidelio,' at Covent Garden,
after an absence of some duration from the stage.
The unaffected grace of his style rendered him
as perfect a model for vocal artists as could well
be found. Giuglini was another tenore di grazia,
with more actual power than Gardoni. Had it
not been for a certain mawkisliness which after
a time made itself felt, he might have been
classed amongst the tenori di mezzo carattere.
In this country Braham and Sims Reeves have
tlieir place as historical tenori, and Edward
Lloyd, with not so large a voice as either of
these, will leave behind him a considerable repu-
tation as an artist.

Of the tenore Icggiero, a voice that can generally
execute fioritura with facility, it is not easy to
point out a good example. The light tenor,
sometimes called tenore contraltino, has usually
a somewhat extended register of open notes, and
if the singer is not seen, it is quite possible to
imagine that one is hearing a female contralto.
The converse of this is the case when a so-called
female tenor sings. One of these, Signora Mela,
appeared at concerts in London in the year 1868.
A favourite manifestation of her powers was the
tenor part in Rossini's Terzetto buffo 'Pappataci.'
Barlani-DIni is another female tenor, singing at
present in Italy. These exhibitions are, however,
decidedly inartistic and inelegant, and may easily
become repulsive. A list of tenor singers will be
found in the article Singing. [Seevol. iii. p. 511.]

Tenor is also the English name of the viola.
[See Texor Violin.] The second of the usual
three trombones in a full orchestra is a tenor
instrument both in compass and clef.

The Tenor Bell is the lowest in a peal of bells,
and is possibly so called because it is the bell
ujion which the ringers hold or rest. The Tenor-
drum (without snares) is between the ordinary
side-drum and the bass-drum, and, worn as a
side drum, is used in foot-regiments for rolls. \

There are various opinions as to the advia* «■
bility of continuing, or not, the use of the teotg i
clef. There is something to be said on b
sides. It undoubtedly expresses a positive posii
in the musical scale ; and the power to n
it, and the other G clef, is essential to aO ,
musicians who have to play from the musit •' '
printed for choirs and for orchestra up to tia ^
present day. But as a question of general utilii| **
a simplification in the means of expressing iniii *
sical ideas can sciircely be other than a benefilj ^'
else why not continue the use of all the sevet ^.
clefs? The fact that the compass of the malt ^l.
voice is, in round terms, an octave lower thad f',
the female (though from the point of view tl "/
mechanism the one is by no means a meiie '^
re-production of the other), renders it very eaqi^ ' ''
indeed almost natural, for a male voice to si^ "=
music in the treble clef an octave below ill *
actual pitch, or musical position in the scal^ J*
and as a matter of fact, no difficulty is found up J*
so doing. In violoncello or bassoon-music thf
change from bass to tenor clef is made an. an> ^
count of the number of ledger lines that mun
be used for remaining in the lower clef. This*
objection does not exist in expressing tenor musict'-"
in the treble clef. On the contrary, if it exists''"
at all it is against the tenor. — A kind of com-!''
promise is made by Mr. Otto Goldschmidt ioj :
the 'Bach Choir Magazine' (Novello), where ai| '
double soprano clef is used for thai '■
tenor part. This method was proposed
and used by the late Mr. Oliphant.

While on the subject of clefs, passing reference "
may be made to Neukomm's somewhat erratic '"'
idea of putting the whole of the tenor part in h
his edition of Haydn's ' Creation ' in the bass clet T
It was an attempt to make the desired simplifi-*'
cation, and at the same time denote the actual""
pitch of the voice. [H. C. D.] '

TENOROON, a name sometimes given to "
the Tenor Bassoon or Alto Fagotto in F. It is _
obviously a modification of the word Bassoon, ;
for which little authority can be found. The
identity of this instrument with the Oboe di
Caccia of Bach has already been adverted to,
and the error of assigning parts written for it
by that composer, Beethoven, and others, to the
Como Inglese or Alto Oboe in the same key ha?
been corrected. At the present time it hst ,.
entirely gone out of use. A fine specimen, now ft
in the writer's possession, was until lately in ■►
the boys' band at the Foundling Hospital: {
supposed to be intended, from its smaller size, i^
for the diminutive hands of young players.

Its tone is characteristic, somewhat more reedy
than that of the Bassoon. The word survives as
that of a reed-stop in some Organs. [W.H.S.]

TENOR VIOLIN (Alto, Contkalto, Quintb,
Taille, Bbatsche, Viola, etc.) A violin usually
about one-seventh larger in its general dimen-
sions than the ordinary vioUn, and having its
compass a fifth lower, or an octave above the
violoncello. As its name implies, it corresponds
in the string quartet to the tenor voice in the





cal quartet. Its part is written in the C alto
jf, thus —

1st string.
2nd String.
3rd String.
"27" 4th String.

le three uppermost strings of the Tenor are
sntical in pitch with the three lowest strings
the violin; but their greater length requires
em to be proportionately stouter. The fourth
■ing, like the third, is covered with wire. The
lyer holds the Tenor like the violin ; but the
)p is somewhat longer, the bow used for it is
newhat heavier, and it requires greater mus-
lar force in both hands. The method of execu-
n in other respects is identical with that on
3 violin. The tone of the Tenor however,
■ing to the disproportion between the size and
;<ih. of its strings on the one hand, and the
inparatively small size of its body on the other,
of a different quality from that of the violin. It
less powerful and brilliant, having a muffled
iracter, but is nevertheless sympathetic and
aetrating. Bad Tenors are worse than bad vio-
they are unequal and ' wolfish,' and have
netimes a decided nasal twang. The instrument
lumorously described by Schnyder von Warten-
i, in his 'Birthday Ode* addressed to Gruhr : —

Mann nennt mich Frau Base, (Aunt)
Denn etwas sprech' ich durcli die Xase,

Doch ehrlich mein' ich es, und treu :
Altmodisch bin ich : meine Sitte
1st stets zu bleiben in der Jlitte,

Und nie mach' ich ein gross' Gescl.rei.

[n this article, following common usage, the
ird ' Tenor ' is used to denote the intermediate
smber of the quartet to the exclusion of ' Alto ' :

the fact is that the Tenor and Alto were
3e distinct instruments, and the instrument
ich we call 'Tenor' is really the Alto, the
le Tenor, which was a size larger, though of

same pitch, being practically obsolete.
Fhe Tenor is an earlier instrument than the
>lin, and is in fact the oldest instrument of

quartet. Both 'Violino' in Italian and
iolon' in French appear to have originally
ignated the Tenor. In the first piece of
bic in which 'Violino' occurs, a double quar-
in the church style, published in 1597,' this
trument has a part written in the alto clef,
ax which the following is an extract : —







i I J J


- B


is could not be played on the violin, and was
dously written for the Tenor : and an instru-
nt of such a compass capable of holding its
a against a cornet and six trumpets, however
htly voiced the latter may have been, can
^e been no ordinary fiddle. The large and
id Tenors of this period made by Gaspar di

ilovanni Gabrieli, Senate Plane Forte alia quartabassa. Printed
I le Musical Appendix to Wasielewski's ' Die Violine im xvu .lahr-
\ rlerti.' The lowest parts in each quartet are assigned to trum-
I Ti'umboui), the other soprano part to the cornet (Ziuken).

Salo, the earlier Amatis, Peregrino Zanetto, etc.,
many of which are still in e.vistence, appear to
represent the original 'Violino.' These Tenors
when new, must have had a powerful tone, and
they were probably invented in order to produce
a stringed instrument which should compete in
church music with the cornet and trumpet. Being
smaller than the ordinary bass viola, which was
the form of viol chiefly in use, they obtained the
name 'Violino.' This name was however soon
transferred to the ordinary violin. When the latter
first made its appearance in Italian music,^ it
was called ' Piccolo Violino alia Francese ' ; indi-
cating that this smaller ' Violino,' to which the
name has been since appropriated, though not
generally employed in Italy, had come into use
in France. It accords with this that the original
French name of the violin is ' Pardessus ' or
' dessus ' ' de Violon,' or ' treble of the Violon,'
Violon being the old French diminutive of Viole,^
and exactly equivalent to 'Violino.' Again, the
very old French name ' Quinte ' for the Tenor,
and its diminutive ' Quinton,' used for the violin,
seems to indicate that the latter was a diminutive
of some larger instrument in general use. We
have therefore good ground for concluding that
the Tenor is somewhat older than tlie treble or
common violin, and is in fact its archetype.

Very soon after the ' Orfeo ' of Monteverde,
which is dated 1608, we find the above-mentioned
composer, Gabrieli, writing regularviolin passages
in a sonata for three common violins and a Bass,
the former being designated ' Violini.' * We may
therefore fairly suppose that the early years of
the 17th century saw the introduction of the
violin into general use in Italy, and the transfer
of the name ' Violino ' to the smaller instrument.
In the same 5'ear (1615) we have a 'Canzon k
6 ' by the same writer, with two treble violins
(Violini), a comet, a tenor violin (called Tenore)
and two trumpets.* In Gregorio AUegri's ' Sym-
phonia k 4'* (before 1650) the Tenor is deno-
minated 'Alto,' and the Bass is assigned to the
' Basso di Viola ' or Viola da Gamba. Massi-
miliano Neri (1644), in his 'Canzone del terzo
tuono ' '' has a Tenor part in which the Tenor is
called for the first time 'viola,' a name which
has clung to it ever since.

Shortly after this (1663) we have a string
quintet with two viola parts, the upper of which
is assigned to the ' Viola Alto,' the lower, written
in the Taille or true tenor clef, to the ' Viola
Tenore.'^ It appears from the parts that the
compass of the two violas was identical, nor
is any distinction observable in the treatment.
This use of the two violas is common in the
Italian chamber music of the end of the 17th
century, a remarkable instance being the ' Se-
nate Varie' of the Cremonese composer Vitali
(Modena, 16S4) : and Handel's employment of
the two instruments, mentioned lower down, is

2 In the ' Orfeo ' of Monteverde.

3 So vaUe, vallon ; jupe, jupon, etc.

^ Sonata con tre Violini, 1615. Wasielewski, Appendix, p, 13.

5 Ibid. p. 15. 6 Ibid. p. 26. ' Ibid. p. 32.

8 Sonata a cinque, da Giovanni Legrenzi. Wasielewsici. Appendix,
p. 43. The treble parts are assigued to violins, the bass to the ' Viola
da braz2o.'





probably based on reminiscences of this class of
music. But the compass and general effect of the
instruments being the same, the disappearance
of the great viola was only a matter of time.
Though the fiddle-makers continued for some
time to make violas of two sizes, alto and
tenor [see Stradivabi], the two instruments
coalesced for practical purposes, and the superior
facility with which the smaller viola (Alto) was
handled caused the true Tenor to drop out of use.
From about the end of the century the Alto
viola appears to have assumed the place in the
orchestra which it still occupies, and to have
had substantially the same characteristics.

The Tenor has been made of all sizes, ranging
from the huge instruments of Caspar di Salo
and his contemporaries to the diminutive ones,
scarcely an inch longer than the standard violin,
commonly made for orchestral use a century or
so ago : and its normal size of one-seventh larger
than the violin is the result of a compromise.
The explanation is that it is radically an ano-
malous instrument. Its compass is fixed by
strictly musical requirements: but when the
instrument is built large enough to answer
acoustically to its compass, that is, so as to
produce the notes required of it as powerfully as
the corresponding notes on the violin, it conies
out too large for the average human being to play
it fiddle-wise, and only fit to be played cello-
wise between the knees. If, however, the Tenor
is to be played like the violin, and no one has
seriously proposed to play it otherwise, it follows
that its size must be limited by the length of the
human arm when bent at an angle of about 1 20
degrees. But even the violin is already big

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