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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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particularly valuable), and received much su;|
stantial kindness from Chorley. From Engla;;
he returned to Vienna, and in 1862 accept
a small post in the U. S. Legation thei
afterwards exchanged for that of U. S. Cons
at Trieste, where he still resides. His boi
is entitled 'Ludwig van Beethoven's Lebei.'
It was written in English, translated into G(;
man by Herr H. Deiters of Bonn, and publish \
by Weber of Berlin — vol. i (i 770-1 796) in 1861
vol. 2 (1792-1806) in 1872; vol. 3 (1807-181,
in 1879. Vol. 4 is in preparation, but can harcl^
finish the work, since 11 full and complicatl
years are still left to be described. '

The quantity of new letter.-^ and facts, a),,
of rectifications of dates, contained in the be I
is very great. For the first time Beethoven's Lr
is placed on a solid basis of fact. At tlie sai '
time Mr. Thayer is no slavish biographer, I.
views his hero from a perfectly independeii
point of view, and often criticises his caprif
or harshness ^as in the cases of Malzel ai






'ohann Beethoven) very sharply. When the
kork is completed it will be a mine of accurate
aformation, indispensable for all future stu-
ients. With some condensations an English
'dition would be very welcome.

Besides the Biography, Mr. Thayer is the
uthor of countless articles in American news-
•apers ; of ' Signor Masoni ' (Berlin, Schnei-
er, 1862) ; of 'Ein kritischer Beitrag zur Bee-
'hoven-Iiteratur ' (Berlin, Weber, 1877); and
'f 'The Hebrews and the Red Sea' (Andover,
fass., Draper). [G.]

THEATRE. A terra usually employed in
Ingland for a house in which plays are acted,
I contradistinction to an opera-house, in which
lusical pieces are performed. Abroad this dis-
nction, either of house or word, does not pre-
ail to at all the same extent as here. [G.]

THEILE, JoHANN, known to his contem-
loraries as 'the father of contrapuntists,' the
i)n of a tailor, was born at Naumburg, July 29,
1546, learned music under great difficulties at
ifalle and Leipzig, and became a pupil of the
ireat Heinrich Schiitz. In 1673 he became
apellmeister to the Duke of Holstein at Got-
irp, and in 1678 produced a Singspiel, 'Adam
ud Eva,' and an opera, ' Orontes,' at Hamburg.
'1 1685 he became Capellmeister at Wolfen-
itittel, then went to Merseburg and finally back
1) his native town, where he died in 1724.
luxtehude, Hasse, and Zachau were all his
;holars. His principal works are a German
assion (Liibeck 1675) ; a Christmas Oratorio
Hamburg, 1681, MS.); ' Noviter inventura
)U8 musicalis compositionis 4 et 5 vocum,' etc.
-20 masses in Palestrina style ; Opus secundum
-instrumental ; two treatises on double counter-
)int, 1691. Korner has printed in the ' Orgel-
rtuos' No. 65 a chorale by Theile, which is
laracterised by Spitta (Bach, i. p. 98) as 'very
iientific but intolerably pedantic and stiff.'

other work of his appears to have been
'printed. [G.]

' musical works, in which, in addition to the
'.le and other particulars of each, the first few
'js — the theme — either of the whole work or of
.oh movement are given in musical notation.
' I. The earliest published list of this description
as in six parts, issued between 1762 and
;'65, and 16 supplements extending from 1766
' 1787, the whole forming a thick Svo. volume
' 792 pages. Part I is signed by Johann Gottlob
^omanuel Breitkopf, the virtual founder of the
ieatfirm. [See vol. i. p. 272.] It is mentioned
> Burney in his Musical Tour (ii. 74).
2. Haydn, towards the end of his life (1797),
aile a thematic catalogue of a large number
' his works. This has not been printed, but
•pies have been made by Dehn, Otto Jahn,
id others. It is now superseded by the com-
'ete thematic list which forms so valuable a
|irt of Mr. C. F. Pohl's ' Life of Haydn ' (i. 284,
;<;.; 317, etc.; 334; 345; ii. Anhang).

1 3. A thematic catalogue has been preserved, in

which Mozart entered his works as he composed
them, from Feb. 9, 1784, to Nov. 15. 1791. This
interesting document was published by Andre in
Nov. 1828. The title, in Mozart's hand, runs as
follows :—

aller meiner Werke
vom Monath Febraio 1784 bis Monath 1.

"Wolfgang Amade Mozart.
It contains 145 works, begins with the PF. con-
certo in Et> (K. 449), ' 9te Hornung,' 1 1 784, and
ends with the ' kleine Freymaurer Kantate,'
Nov. 15, 1 79 1 — nineteen days before his death.

4. A thematic catalogue of the MSS. by Mozart
then in the hands of Andre — an octavo pamphlet
of 79 closely printed pages — was published by
him at Offenbach on May i, 1841 ; one of 172
important symphonies and overtures was issued
by HofmeLster in 1831 ; and one of Mozart's
PF. sonatas, prepared by Edward Holmes, by
Messrs. Novello & Co. in 1849.

5. In 1851, Breitkopf & Hartel published their
first thematic catalogue of Beethoven's works.
This was a thick volume of 167 pages, large
Svo, and a great advance on anything before
it. It is arranged in order of opus-numbers,
with names of dedicatees and publishers, arrange-
ments, etc. The 2nd edition, 1868, is much en-
larged (220 pages) by the addition of many
interesting particulars, dedications, dates of com-
position, etc. It is in fact a new work, and is a
model of accuracy, as may be inferred from the
name of its compiler, Gustav Nottebohm. So is
the Catalogue of Schubert by the same inde-
fatigable explorer and critic — 288 pages, pub-
lished by Schreiber, Vienna, 1874, dealing both
with the published and the unpublished works,
and extraordinarily accurate considering the im-
mense difficulties involved. Catalogues of Men-
delssohn, Schumann, Chopin, and Liszt have been
published by Breitkopf; of Moscheles by Kistner ;
and of Bach's instrumental works in Peters's
collected edition (by A. Dorffel, Aug. 1S67).

Two Catalogues stand apart from the rest
owing to the vast amount of information that
they contain, and still more to the important fact
that they are arranged in the chronological order
of the composition of the works — the only real
method of contemplating the productions of a
composer. These are Von Kochel's ' Chronolog-
isch-thematisches Verzeichniss ' of all Mozart's
works (Breitkopfs, 1862, 551 pages), and Jahns's
' Carl Maria von Weber in seinen Werken.
Chron. Them. Verzeichniss,' etc. (Schlesinger,
1 87 1 — 480 pages, and 8 pages more of facsimiles
of handwritinsr). These two works (the latter
perhaps a trifle overdone) are indispensable to
all students. [G.]

THEME— i.e. Subject, or Text (Ital. II Ttma,'
U Sorjgetto, U Motivo ; Germ, from Lat. Thema,
from Ital. 3Iotiv ; Fr. Theme, Air). A term
only to be applied, in its fullest significance, to
the principal subject of a musical composition;

' The old German term for February.

2 Used thus, with the maoculiue article, in order to distinguish it
from La Tenia (fear),





although, in general language, it is frequently
used to denote a Subject of any kind, whether
of a leading or subsidiary character. From the
time of Sebastian Bach to our own, the terms
Theme and Subject have been used with much
looseness. In his ' Musikalisches Opfer,' Bach
designates the Motivo given to him by Frederick
the Great as ' II Soggetto reale,' in one place,
and ' Thema regium ' in another ; thus proving,
conclusively, that he considered the two terms as
interchangeable. But, in another work, founded
on a Motive by Legrenzi, he calls the principal
Subject ' Thema,' and the Counter-Subject ' Sub-
jectum'; and this is unquestionably the more
correct method of using the terms. [See Sub-
ject, vol. iii. p. 749.]

A familiar appHcation of the word ' Thema ' is
found in connection with a Subject followed by
Variations ; as, ' Tema con Variazioni,' with its
equivalent in other languages. In the iSth
century, this form of composition was called
'Air et Doubles'; the substitution of the word
' Doubles ' for ' Variations,' clearly owing its origin
to the then almost universal custom of writing
the two first Variations in the Second and Third
Orders of Counterpoint — that is to say, in notes
the rapidity of which was doubled at each new
form of development. [W.S.R.]

THEORBO (Fr. Thiorle, Taorle ; Ital. Tiorha
or Tuorba, also Archi-
liutd). The large
double-neckedlute with
two sets of tuning pegs,
the lower set holding
the strings which lie
over the fretted finger-
board, while the upper
set are attached to the
bassstrings, orso-called
diapasons, which are
used as open notes.
The illustration has
been engraved from a
specimen at South
Kensington Museum,
According to Baron's
'Untersuchung des In-
struments d. Lauten'
thePaduan theorbo was
the true one. The Eng-
lish Archlute of that
time, so frequently
named as an alterna-
tive to the harpsichord
or organ for the Basso
Continue or ' Through
Base ' accompaniment,
was such a theorbo,
and we must, onBaron's
authority, allow it a
deeper register than
has been stated in the
article Akchlute [vol.
i. p. 81]. He gives

— eight notes on the fingerboard and nine
This is the old lute-tuning of Thomas M
('Musick's Monument,' London 1676), who e
(p. 207) that the theorbo is no other than
old English lute. But early in the 17th cent
many large lutes had been altered to theoi
by substituting double necks for the origi
single ones. These altered lutes, called, acct
ing to Mersenne, 'luth tdorbe' or ' liuto att
bato,' retained the double strings in the b
The theorbo engraved in Mersenne's ' Harmc
UniverseUe ' (Paris, 1636) is really a theorb
lute. He gives it the following accordance : —





The Chanterelle single. For the ' Tuorbe
practised at Rome the same authority gi
(p. 88)-



■X - *-



In the musical correspondence of Huyg-
edited by Jonckbloet and Land, and publia
(1882) at Leyden, is to be found a lettei
Huygens wherein he wishes to acquire a la
lute, to elevate it to the quality of a theo]
for which he considered it from its size m
fit. The same interesting work enables
writer to make some corrections to Lute.
vol. ii. p. 177 b.] It was Charles I who bou
a Laux Maler lute for £100 sterling, .■
gave it to his lutenist, whose name should
spelt Gaultier.^ The lute had belonged to Jel
Ballard, another famous lutenist who never wo
part with it. The Kling bought it of his herit
Two other corrections in the same article e
be here appropriately introduced. As M. Ch
quet has pointed out, the wood of old li
could not be used for repairing fiddles. What Y.
pened was, the lutes were transformed into Vie
or Hurdy-gurdies. Professor Land suggests t
Luther is a local name. Lutemaker in Gem
would be Lauter, The drawing of the Mj
lute, vol. ii. p. 1 76, shows a guitar head and sir
stringing, which became adopted before the 1
went entirely out. Following Gaultier in
Huygens correspondence, Maler's period '»
about 1500-20, later than the date given by (ll
Engel. ' '

Prtetorius ('Organographia,' Wolfenbii I
1619, p. 50), with whom Mersenne agr ■
states that the difference between lute and <•
orbo is that the lute has double and the thee )
single basses. The Paduan theorbo is about . •<.
7 ins. high. Prsetorius, in the work referrec*!

1 Huygens met Gaultier In England, In 1622 at the KllllgA|
whose musical reunions he remembered all his life.


I. 52), seems to prefer the Roman theorbo or
aiTAEROXE, which, although according to his
easurement about 6 ft. i in. in height, is not
broad in the body or so awkward to hold
id grasp as the Paduan. Baron praises espe-
dly the Roman theorbos of Buchenberg or
ackenberg, a German lute-maker, who was
dng at Rome about a.d. 1606. His instru-
nts had ' ovalround ' bodies of symmetrical
.Tn and a delicate and penetrating metallic
nbre ; a criterion of good tone in a stringed

Mace regards the lute as a solo instrument,
d the theorbo as a concert or accompanying
trument : the name theorbo, however it origin-
d, certainly became fixed to the double-necked
:« ; which first appeared with the introduction
opera and oratorio, when real part-playing was
changed for the chords of the figured bass.
!r8enne('Harmonicorum,'lib. xii. Paris, 1636)
Is it ' Cithara bijuga.' One account credits
invention of the double neck to a Signor
)rba about 1600. Athanasius Kircher ('Mu-
•gia,' Rome 1650, cap. ii. p. 476) attributes
introduction of the theoi'bo to a Neapolitan
,rket follower, who gave it the name in a joke.
B idea, says the same authority, was brought
perfection by a noble German, Hieronjnnus
psberger. M. Victor Mahillon, in his catalogue
the Brussels Museum (1880, p. 249), names as
inventor, a Roman called Bardella (properly
.tonio Naldi) who was in the service of the
dicis, and was much praised by Caccini in
preface to 'Nuove Musiche' (a.d. 1601).
ese attributions all centre in the same epoch,
t of the rise of accompaniment. The theorbo
3 last written for by Handel, as late as 1732,
;he oratorio of ' Esther,' in combination with
arp, to accompany the song ' Breathe soft, ye
ds,' a fact which would seem to suj^port
ce's view of its being an orchestral instrument.
i Archiliuto also appears in 'Deborah,' 1733,
Gentle Airs.' It remained in occasional use
11 the end of the iSth century. Breitkopf's
jmatic Catalogue for 1769 contains eight pages
Partite per il Liuto solo.'
'he drawing to Akchlute and Chitareone
old be referred to. [A.J.H.]

'HEORY. A term often used in England to
ress the knowledge of Harmony, Counter-
it, Thorough-bass, etc., as distinguished from
art of playing, which is in the same way called
actice.' 'The theory and practice of music' is
expression often heard, and to be interpreted
bove. [G.]

'HESIS (from 9(ais, a putting down), an an-

.t musical term, the opposite of Aesis. [See
i. p. 956]. It is now only occasionally

iloyed for the down-beat of the bar in con-
'^'iing. [G.]

€ lie opera in 2 acts ; words by W. S. Gilbert,
>ii ic by Arthur Sullivan. Produced at the Gaiety
Tatre, Dec. 23, 1871, the tenor part being
fcin by Mr. Toole. It ran 80 nights con-



secutively, but has not been revived, Thespis
was the first of the series of Gilbert-Sullivan
pieces which have proved so popular, [G.]

THIBAUT, Anton Feiedeich Justus, born
Jan. 4, 1772, at Hameln on the Weser, studied
law at Gottingen, became tutor at Konigsberg,
and law-professor at the University of Kiel,
then at Jena, and in 1805 at Heidelberg, where
he remained till his death, March 25, 1840. The
Archduke of Baden made him Geheimrath. He
was an ardent admirer of the old Italian church-
composers, especially of Palestrina, and founded
a society for the practice of such music at his
own house. ^ The performances took place be-
fore a select circle of invited guests, and were
distinguished for their variety, Thibaut placing
at their disposal the whole of his valuable and
scarce collection of music. After his death
Heidelberg no longer took the same interest in
the Palestrina school, but in the meantime a
large proportion of the professors and amateurs
of Germany had become familiarised with one
of the noblest and most elevating branches of
the art. Mendelssohn for instance writes with
the greatest enthusiasm about Thibaut, 'There
is but one Thibaut,' he says, 'but he is as good
as half a dozen. He is a man.' Again, in a
letter to his mother from Heidelberg, dated
Sept. 20, 1827, is the following characteristic
passage. 'It is very singular, the man knows
little of music, not much even of the history of
it, he goes almost entirely by instinct ; I know
more about it than he does, and yet I have
learned a great deal from him, and feel I owe
him much. He has thrown quite a new light
on the old Italian church musiC) and has fired
me with his lava-stream. He talks of it all
with such glow and enthusiasm that one might
say his speech blossoms. I have just come from
taking leave of him, and as I was saying that
he did not yet know the highest and best of
all, for that in John Sebastian Bach the best of
everything was to be found, he said Good-
bye, we will knit our friendship in Luis da
Vittoria (Palestrina's favourite pupil, and the
best exponent of his traditions) and then we
shall be like two lovers, each looking at the full
moon, and in that act no longer feeling their
separation.' '

One of Thibaut's greatest services to the cause
of art was his collection of music, which included
a very valuable series of Volkslieder of all nations.
The catalogue was published in 1 847 (Heidelberg)
and Thibaut's widow endeavoured to sell it to
one of the public libraries of Germany, but was
unable to do so till i8.;o, when it was acquired
for the court library of Munich. Of still greater
value is his book ' Ueber Reinheit der Tonkunst '
(Heidelberg 1825, with portrait of Palestrina ;
2nd edition 1826). The title does not indicate
(as his friend Bahr observes in the preface to
the 3rd edition, 1853) purity either of con-
struction or execution, but purity of the art

1 From this. Gervinus seems to have taken the idea of his Society
for the cultivation of Handel's music.

2 See The MeDdelssobn Famil;,' vol. i. p. 138.



itself. Music was to him an elevating, I might
say a moral, art, and this treatise may justly
claim to have exercised a moral influence. Thibaut
maintains that as there is music which acts
as a powerful agent in purifying and cultivating
the mind, so there is music which has as de-
j)raving an influence as that exercised by im-
moral literature. From this point of view he
urges the necessity of purity in music, and sets
himself firmly against all that is shallow, com-
mon, unhealthy or frivolous. But this is diffi-
cult ground. His idea of impurity may be
gathered from the fact that in the essay on instru-
mentation he unhesitatingly condemns the flutes,
clarinets, and bassoons, added by Mozart to 'The
people that walked in darkness,' urging that they
entirely change the character of the piece. He also
strongly censures the frequent changes of tempo
and expression by which Mozart gives colour
to his splendid motet 'Misericordias Domine.'
The remaining articles are on the following
topics : — The Chorale ; Church-music outside the
Chorale ; Volksgesiinge ; The study of models as
a means of culture ; Instrumentation as a means of
effect ; the great masters compared ; Versatility ;
Corruptions of the text ; and Choral unions. It
is not too much to say that this book, dealing as
it does in a spirit of great earnestness with
questions which are at this moment agitating
the musical world, will always be of interest.
The last German edition came out in iS6i.
The English version ('Purity in Musical Art,'
John Murray 1877) is by Mr. W. H. Gladstone,
son of the Premier. [F.G.]

THILLON, Anna, was born in 1S19 iti Lon-
don. Her father's name was Hunt. At the age
of fourteen she left England for France with her
mother and sister, and received instruction from
Bordogni, Tadolini, and M. Thillon, conductor of
the Havre Philharmonic Society, whom she mar-
ried at the early age of fifteen. She appeared at
Havre, Clermont, and Nantes, with such success
as to obtain an engagement at the Theatre de la
Renaissance, Paris (Salle Ventadour), where she
made her dehut Nov. le, 1838, as the heroine, on
the production of Grisar's ' Lady Melvil.' She
was very popular in that and several new operas,
as Argentine in 'L'Eau Merveilleuse,' Grisar ;
Denise in 'La Chasse Royale,' Godefroid; La
chaste Suzanne, Monpou; etc. Her voice was
a 'soprano sfogato' of marvellous timbre, from
Bb below the stave to Eb in alt., and, combined
with her personal charms, it obtained for her the
favour of the public in a remarkable degree. In
August 1840 she first appeared at the Op^ra
Couiique as Mathilde in 'La Neige.' She next
jilayed Elizabeth in 'Lestocq,' and became a
great favourite with Auber, who gave her in-
struction, and composed ' Les Diamans de la
Couronne' (produced March 6, 1S41) expressly
for her. She also sustained the parts of Bianca
di Molina and Casilda in his 'Due d'Olonne'
and 'Part du Diable' on their production.
Mme. Thillon also created Gerakiine (' Les Puits
d' Amour'), Balfe; Gorilla ('Cagliostro'), Adam ;
Marquise de Gfevres ('Sainte Cecile'); Montfort;


and played Laurctte on the revival of Gr^tr
' Richard Coeur de Lion.' On May 2, 1844, shefii
appeared in public in England at the Princes
in the 'Crown Diamonds,' and met with exti
ordinarj' success, both on account of her voii
her charming acting and attractive mannei
and the opera, then first produced in Englar
ran to the end of the season. She was also w
received at the Philharmonic and other concei
Slie afterwards appeared in England in 45 a
46 at Drury Lane, playing Stella in the *I
chantress,' on its production May 14, 45, a pi
composed expressly for her by BaUe ; in 46
the Haymarket in ' Le Domino noir ' and ' L'E
merveilleuse'; and in 48 at the Princess's
'La Fille du Regiment.' She also played \
Brussels and in the French and English pro^'inc P
and from 51 to 54 in America, first introduci|»
opera at San Francisco. She reappeared r
54 at Jullien's concerts, after which she m«
only heard at intervals, on account of a sevin
throat attack. Her last appearances in opil
were in 1856 at the Lyceum as La Catarina. T]
performances ended abruptly on account of Ij
illnes?!. She was last heard in public at Kuh
Festival of 1867. She and her husband now resi]
at Torquay. [■^•'lO

THIRD. One of the most important interv:
in modern music, since, by one or other of
])rincipal forms, it supplies the means of (|^
finition in all the most characteristic chorji
Three forms are met with in modern music|r
major, minor, and diminished. The first of thtMi
occurs most characteristically in the major aciji
between the Tonic and the Mediant — as betweK
C and E in the key of C (a). It is also an i>
portant factor in the Dominant chord, whether-
the major or minor mode — as between G and
in the I)ominant of the key of C (6). The mil ,
third occurs most charactei istically in the mir
scale as the converse to the principal major thi
in the major scale ; that is, between Tonic a
Mediant ; as C and Eb in C minor (c). It a
makes its appearance characteristically in f
chord of the subdominant — as F-Ab in C mir
{d) ; but both this minor third and the ma

third of the dominant chord are sometimes si
planted by major and minor thirds respectivi
for the convenience of melodic progression
the minor mode. In all fundamental discor
such as the Dominant seventh and Domins
major and minor ninths, the first interval fri ,1
the root-note in the original position of t ,
chord is a major third.

The major third is well represented in i'^^
series of partial tones or harmonics, by the tc 1.
which comes fourth in order, and stands in t |
second octave from the prime tone or generate i

The ratio of the sounds of the major third ♦
4 : 5, and that of the minor third 5 : 6. Thii-
were not accepted by the ancients as consonanc i«






. nd when they began to come into use in the
[arly middle ages as so-called imperfect con-
onances the major third used was that commonly
nown as the Pythagorean third, which is ar-
ived at by taking four fifths from the lower
.ote. The ratio of this interval is 64: 8i, and
'i is therefore considerably sharper than the just
r natural third ; while the major third of equal
■ emperament generally used in modem music lies
etween the two, but a little nearer to the
'ythagorean third.

[ The resultant tones of thirds are strong. That
rf the major third is two octaves lower than the
)west of the two notes, and that of the minor
bird two octaves and a major third.

Diminished thirds are rough dissonances ; they
':cur in modem music as the inversions of aug-
mented sixths, as Fj — Ab (e) ; and their ratio
li 225 : 256. They are of powerful effect, but are
Saringly used by great masters of the art. They
arely appear in the position of actual thirds, but
'lore commonly in the extended position as dimin-
ished tenths. [C.H.H.P.]
, THIRLWALL, JoHir Wade, born Jan. 11,
1809, at a Northumbrian village named Shil-
; ottle. was the son of an engineer who had been
lie playmate of George Stephenson. He ap-
peared in public before he was 8 years old, at
I he Newcastle Theatre, afterwards became music

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