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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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to as.^emble on the first Tuesday in Septem-
ber, and unitedly to perform choral service on
the following two days. Six stewards, two
from each diocese, were appointed to superintend
the distribution of the charity. Evening con-

1 The latter did not long continue to participate In the benefits
of the charity ; the relief is supposed to have been discontinued when
their performance ceased to b^ gratuitous.



THREE CHOIRS.

certs were given, in the Shire Halls usua
on each of the two days. Purcell's Te De
and Jubilate in D, and Handel's Utrecht
Deura and Jubilate were constantly perforn
and from 1748 the Dettingen Te Deum. C
torios were given, as well as secular mu
at the evening concerts, but it was not u
1759 that they were admitted into the cat
drals, when the * Messiah ' was performed
Hereford Cathedral, and continued to be
only oratorio so performed imtil I787> '^
' Israel in Egypt ' was given in Gloucester
thedral. In 1753 the festivals were exten
to three days, and in 1836 to four days,
which they have ever since continued. It
always been the practice to hand over the
lections made at the cathedral doors after
morning performances intact to the char
the excess, if any, of expenditure over rece:
from sale of tickets being made good by
stewards. The excess became eventually
permanent that in 1837 great diflaculty •
experienced in inducing gentlemen to undert
the office of steward, and the existence of
Meeting was seriously imperilled ; but the d
culty has been since overcome by very larg
increasing the number of stewards. The festi''
are conducted by the organist of the cathedra
which they are successively held, the organ
of the other two cathedrals officiating respi
ively as organist and pianoforte accompar
Deviations from this practice have, howe
sometimes occurred. For instance, Mr. (af
wards Dr.) Boyce conducted in i737' ^^^
several subsequent years ; Dr, William Ha
(at Gloucester), in 1757 and 1760; and Dr. J
Stephens (at Gloucester) in 1766. The last o«
sion upon which a stranger was called upon
conduct was in 1S42, when, in consequenc(
the illness of the then organist of Wore©
cathedral, the baton was placed in the handi
Mr. Joseph Surman. Until 1 8 5 9 the first morr ■
of the festival was devoted to the performanc
cathedral service by the whole of the perform ■
but since that time the service has been -
formed at an early hour by the members of '
Three Choirs only, to organ accompaniment, '
an oratorio given later in the day. In 187;
attempt was made, at Worcester, to alter
character of the performances in the catbedi
by excluding oratorios and substituting chi 1
music interspersed with prayers. But this t
with decided opposition and has not been •
peated. The band at these festivals is c •
posed of the best London professors, and )
chorus comprises, in addition to the meml i
of the Three Choirs, members of the local ch 1
societies and others. The most eminent p •
cipal singers of the day are engaged for i
solo parts. The pieces usually selected for ■
formance at the Meetings were those which v
most popidar. But occasionally new and unt
compositions were introduced. For instance '
anthem by Boyce, Worcester, 1 743 ; anthemf '
Dr. Alcock and J. S. Smith, Gloucester, i?!
Clarke- Whitfeld's ' Crucifixion,' Hereford, iS i



THREE CHOIRS.



TIE.



113



, Mori's ' Fridolin,' Worcester, 1851 ; an an-
em (1852) and Jubilate (1855) by G. T. Smith,
ereford ; anthems by G. J. Elvey, Gloucester,
53, and Worcester, 1857; and Sullivan's 'Pro-
yai Son,' Worcester, 1869; Beethoven's Mass
D, Mendelssohn's Lobgesaag and Elijah,
lohr's Oratorios, and other favourite works,
later years new compositions were more fre-
ently produced, and recently scarcely a year
s passed without some new work being given.
; the Gloucester Meeting of 1883 no fewer
m three new works were performed for the
it time, viz. sacred cantatas by Drs. Stainer
d Arnold, and a secular ohoral work by Dr.
ibert Parry. This is not the place to dis-
ss, from either an artistic or a financial point
view, the desirability of such a course, but it
■y be noted that at the Gloucester Festival
18S3 the excess of expenditure over receipts
m sale of tickets exceeded 500L [W.H.H.]
FHURNAM, Edwabd, born at Warwick,
3t. 24, 1825, was organist of Reigate Parish
urch from 1849, and from 1849 to 1876 con-
;tor of the Reigate Choral Society, and also
able violinist, and the composer of a Cathedral
vice, and several songs and pieces for various
truments, of considerable merit. He died
v. 25, 1880. [W.H.H.]

THUESBY, EiriiA, bom at Brooklyn, New
rk, Nov. 17, 1857, is the daughter of an
glishman, and is descended by her mother
n an old United States family. She received
truction in singing first from Julius Meyer
I AchUle Erani, then in 1873 at Milan from
tnperti and San Giovanni, and finally com-
bed her studies in America tinder Madame
dersdorff. In 1875 she undertook a tour
ough the United States and Canada. She
le her debut in England May 22, 1878, at
Philharmonic, with such success that she was
aged at a subsequent concert of the Society
the same season. She remained in England
il the end of 1879, singing with acceptance
the Crystal Palace, the Popular Concerts,
ilie's Choir, etc., and in the summer of the
e year sang in Paris and the French pro-
;es. In 1880-81 she made an extended con-
-tour through Germany, Austria, Holland,
^um, Spain, Norway, Denmark, etc., and
lined to America at the end of 82. In 18S3
was singing in the States and Canada.
ler voice is a soprano, of remarkable compass,
ging from middle C to E b above the lines ;
large but rich ; somewhat veiled, but noble
sympathetic. 'Miss Thursbj-'s technique is
raordinary ; her legato and staccato are
iela of certainty and correctness, her respira-
is admirably managed, and her shake as
)ling as it is long enduring.' ^ [A.C.]

ICHATSCHEK, Joseph Alois, born July
1807, at Ober Weckelsdorf, in Bohemia. He
»n by studying medicine, but abandoned it for
dc, and received instruction in singing from







llastrated Sporting and Dramatic News." Oct. 18, 1S79; and
mbert, in the Xeue Berliner Musil^zeitung.
OL. IV. PT. I.



Ciccimara, a favourite Italian singing master.
In 1830 he became a chorus singer at the
Kamthnerthor theatre, was next appointed
chorus inspector, played small parts, and after-
wards, those of more importance, viz. Idreno
('Semiramide'), Alphonse ('Stamme'), and
Eaimbaud ('Robert'). He sang for two years
at Gratz, and again at Vienna, as principal
tenor. On Aug. ir, 1837, he made his debut at
Dresden as Gustavus III. (Auber), with such
success as to obtain an engagement for the fol-
lowing year. At this period he attracted the
attention of Schroeder-Devrient, who gave him
the benefit of her advice and experience, with
the result of a long and intimate friendship,
which terminated only with her death. Until
his retirement in 1870, he remained permanently
in Dresden, where, on Jan. 16, as Idomeneo,
he celebrated the 40th anniversary of his pro-
fessional career, having previously, on Jan. 17,
1863, celebrated his 25th anniversary at Dresden,
as Hernando Cortes (Spontini). His repertoire
consisted of the tenor parts in the operas of Gluck,
Mozart, Beethoven, Weber,^ Marschner, M^hul,
Boieldieu, Auber, Nicolo, Meyerbeer, Spontini,
Flotow, Spohr, etc. ; and on Oct. 20, 42, and
Oct. 19, 45 respectively, was the original Rienzi,
and Tannhauser. In 1 841 he sang for a few nights
in German at Drury Lane Theatre as Adolar,
Tamino, Robert, etc, ; also at Liverpool and
Manchester, and is thus described by a con-
temporary — ' Herr Tichatschek has proved him-
self the hit of the season ; he is young, prepossess-
ing, and a good actor ; his voice is excellent, and
his style, though not wanting in cultivation, is
more indebted to nature than art.' ^ [A.C.]

TIE. A curved line uniting two notes of the
same pitch, whereby they form a single note
which is sustained for the value of both. The
tie is also called the Bind, and by some writers
the Ligature, although this term properly refers
to certain slurred groups of notes which occur
in ancient music. [Ligature, vol. ii. p. 136.]
It has already been described under the former
heading, but to what was there stated it may be
added, that ties are occasionally met with in
pianoforte music where the note is actually
repeated. [See Bind, vol. i. p. 242.] To effect
this repetition properly some skill and care are
required ; the finger which strikes the first of the
two tied notes is drawn inwards, and the fol-
lowing finger falls over it as closely and rapidly
as possible, so as to take its place before the key
has had time to rise to its full distance, and
therefore before the damper has quite fallen.
Thus there is no actual silence between the
two sounds, the repetition takes place before
the first sound has ceased, and an effect is pro-
duced which resembles the old effect of Bebung
as nearly as the modem pianoforte can imitate
it. [See vol.i. p. 160.] The particular occasions
on which this effect is required are not indicated

2 On Oct. 13, 1S42, he sang the part of Max on the occasion of the
hundredth performance of * Der Freisch&tz,' a part he sang no lass
tlian lOS times during his career up to 1863.

3 ■ Musical World,' June 17, 1841.



114



TIE.



TIERSCH.



by any specific sign, since an experienced per-
former can always judge from the nature of the
passage. As a rule, it may be said that when-
ever two tied notes are written for which a
single longer note might have been substituted,
repetition is indicated — for the use of the tie
proper is to express a note-value which cannot
be represented by a single note, e.g. five quavers.
Thus Ex. I, which is an instance in point, might,
if no repetition had been required, have been
written in quavers, as in Ex. 2.

Beethoven. Sonata, op. 106. Adagio.









lB Z^_a _ ^ Ee^^Eq EE^E




Another instance of the employment of this
close repetition sometimes occurs when an un-
accented note is tied to an accented one, as in
Ex. 3. Here the rhythm would be entirely lost if
the tied notes were sustained instead of repeated.
Chopin. Valse, op. 31, no. i.



^^^^^pp



5



In the same sense it seems quite possible that
the subject of the scherzo of Beethoven's Sonata
for piano and violoncello, op. 69, and other
similar phrases, may have been intended to be
played with repetition; and in support of this
view it may be mentioned that an edition exists
of the Sonata Pastorale, op. 28, by Cipriani
Potter, who had opportunities of hearing Bee-
thoven and becoming acquainted with his inten-
tions, in which the analogous passage in the first
movement is printed with what is evidently
meant for a sign of separation between the tied
notes, thus: —

Ex. 4 — _



^s^



Eft



:.^^^



^



eE?



zfzi^zirjzz



[F.T.]
TIEDGE, Chbistoph August, bom 1752,
died March 8, 1841 ; a German elegiac poet
and friend of Beethoven's, who in Ehineland
dialect always called him 'Tiedsche,' and who
set some lines to Hope — 'an die HoShung'
— from his largest and best poem, ' Urania,' to
music twice, once in Eb, op. 32, and again in
G, op. 94. Both are for voice and piano ; the
former dates from 1808, the latter from 18 16.
Tiedge's name occurs in the correspondence be-
tween Beethoven and Amalie Sebald, and there
is a most interesting letter from Beethoven
to him of Sept. 11, 1811, betokening great in-
timacy, (Thayer, iii. 179, 213, etc.) [G.]



TIERCE, i. e. Tiers, third. I. A name given
the interval of the Third, whether Major or Min

II. The fourth of the series of natural h.
monies, being the Major Third in the th:
octave above the ground-tone or prime ; its
brations are five times as numerous as those '
its prime.

III. An open metal organ stop of the sai
pitch as the similarly-named harmonic ; i.e.
the note CC is held down and the Tierce-st
drawn, the E above middle C will be hea:
That such a stop can only be used in combii
tion with certain other harmonics, and then 1
sparingly, will be evident when it is reme
bered that if C, E, and G be held down th<
will be heard at the same time G sharp and
Hence, the Tierce when found in a modt
organ is generally incorporated as a rank
the Sesquialtera or Mixture, in which case
is of course combined with other harmonics,
near relations. Some organ-builders, howev
altogether exclude it. A serious difficulty
now met with, if a Tierce be introduced ; it
this — modern organs are tuned to ' equal temp
ament,' whereas the Tierce (whether a separi
stop or a rank) certainly ought to be tUE
to its prime in 'just intonation,' in which C!
tempered and natural thirds would be hei
simultaneously when the Tierce is used. Mr
difference of opinion exists as to the utility
effect of this stop. [J. !

TIERCE DE PICARDIE. In Polypho
Music, it is essential that every Composit:
should end with a Major Third, even though 1
Third of the Mode in which it is written shoi
be Minor. The Third, thus made Major by
Accidental Sharp or Natural, is called the 'Tie
de Picardie.' It is not very easy to airive at 1
origin of the term ; though it may perhaps
accounted for by the proximity of Picardy
Flanders, in which country the characteris
Interval was in common use, at a very ea
period. Rousseau's explanation of the te
(Dictionnaire, 'Tierce') is a very strange 0:
viz. that it was given ' in joke, because the 1
of the interval on a final chord is an old one
church music, and therefore frequent in Picar
where there is music in many cathedrals s
other churches' ! [W.S.]

TIERSCH, Otto, bom Sept. i, 1838, at Kal
rieth in Thuringia, received instruction fr
Topfer of Weimar, Billermann, Marx, and Ei
was then teacher in Stern's Conservatorium, s
is now teacher of singing to the city of Bar!
His writings are practical, and concern th(T
selves much with an endeavour to make I'l
modern discoveries of Helmholtz and others, |
acoustics, available in teaching singing, li
principal are as follows, 'System und Metlw
df>r Harmonielehre ' (i 868) ; ' Elementarbuch ■ I
musikalischen Harmonic und Modulationsleh '
(1874); 'Kurzes praktisches generalbass Hi
monielehre' (1876); the same for Counterpu'
and Imitation (1879). The article on 'B
monielehre' in Mendel's Lexicon is by him. [<■



ft



TIETJENS.



TIGRANE.



115



TIETJENS or TITIENS, Theeese Carolike

OHANNA, the great prima donna, was born at

[amburg, of Hungarian parents, according to

)nie biographers in 1834, to others, in 1831. The

,tter date agrees best with subsequent facts, and

so with the inscription on her tombstone, which

ates that she died in 1877, aged 46.

Her voice, even in childhood, gave so much

•omise of future excellence that she was edu-

.ted for the lyric stage. She appeared for the

at time at the Hamburg Opera, in 1849, as

acrezia Borgia, and achieved an immediate

ccess. She proceeded to Frankfort, and thence,

1856, to Vienna, where, though not engaged

the leading prima donna, her performance of

alentine raised her at once to the highest rank.

The late Madame Jullien heard her at this

ne, and it was largely due to her glowing ac-

unts that Mdlle. Tietjens was quickly engaged

Mr. Lumley for his last season at Her Majesty's

eatre in London; and when, on April 13, 1858,

appeared in ' The Huguenots,' her imperson-

on of Valentine achieved a success which in-

ased with every repetition of the opera, and

.s the first Hnk in that close union between

performer and the public which was only to

severed by death.

England from that time became her home,
e remained at Her Majesty's Theatre during
successive managements of Mr. E. T. Smith
i Mr. Mapleson, and after the burning of the
iatre in 1867 followed the fortunes of the com-
ly to Drury Lane. She sang at Covent Gar-
i during the two years' coalition of the rival
ises in 69 and 70, returning to Drury Lane in
and finally, just before her death, to the new
ise in the Haymarket.

ler performances are still fresh in the memory
ill opera and concert goers. Never was so
;hty a soprano voice so sweet and luscious in
tone : like a serene, full, light, without dazzle
;lare, it filled the largest arena without appear-
to penetrate. It had none of a soprano's
Jlness or of that peculiar clearness called
7ery ' ; when it declined, as it eventually did,
"Ower, it never became wiry. It had a mezzo-
rano quality extending to the highest register,
ectly even throughout, and softer than velvet.
: acting in no way detracted from her singing ;
was earnest, animated, forcible, in all she
conscientious and hearty, but not electric.
• style of singing was noble and pure. When
first came to England her rapid execution left
sh to be desired ; it was heavy and imperfect,
ency and flexibility were not hers by nature,
B by dint of hard work she overcame all diffi-
C ies, so as to sing with success in the florid
B ic of Rossini and Bellini. Indeed she at-
t«pted almost everything, and is perhaps the
singer, not even excepting Malibran, who
sung in such completely opposite roles as
1" e of Semiramide and Fides. But her perform-
.*5j of light or comic parts was a mere tour
d^'orce; her true field was grand opera. As
irezia, Semiramide, Countess Almaviva, she
* great ; as Donna Anna and Valentine she



was greater ; best of all as Fidelio, and as Medea
in Cherubini's opera, revived for her and not
likely to be forgotten by any who heard it.

In the ' Freischiitz,' as in 'Fidelio,' her ap-
pearance was unsuited to her part, but she sang
the music as no one else could sing it. In her
later years she set a good example by undertaking
the role of Ortrud in ' Lohengrin.' The music
however did not show her voice to advantage,
and this was still more the case with the music
of Fides, although her acting in both parts was
very fine. Her repertoire also included Leonora
('Trovatore'), the Favorita, Alice, Lucia, Amalia
('Un Ballo in Maschera'), Norma, Pamina,
Margherita, Marta, Elvira ('Ernani') Reiza
(' Oberon '), and Iphigenia in Tauris,

Her voice was as well suited to sacred as to
dramatic music, and she applied herself as-
siduously to the study of oratorio, for which her
services were in perpetual request. Perhaps the
hardest worked singer who ever appeared, she
was also the most faithful and conscientious of
artists, never disappointing her public, who knew
that her name on the bills was a guarantee against
change of programme, or apology for absence
through indisposition. No doubt her splendid
physique enabled her often to sing with impunity
when others could not have done so, but her
ceaseless efforts must have tended to break up
her constitution at last. This great conscien-
tiousness, as well as her genial sympathetic nature,
endeared her to the whole nation, and, though
there never was a ' Tietjens fever,' her popularity
steadily increased and never waned. Her kind-
ness and generosity to young and struggling
artists and to her distressed countrymen knew no
bounds and became proverbial.

The first symptoms of the internal disorder
which proved fatal to her appeared in 1875, but
yielded to treatment. They recurred during a
visit to America in the next year, but were again
warded off for the time, and throughout a sub-
sequent provincial tour in this country she sang
' as well as she had ever done in her life.' In
1876 she had her last benefit concert, at the
Albert Hall. In April 1877 her illness increased
to an alarming extent, and her last stage-ap-
pearance was on May 19, as Lucrezia. 'She
fainted twice during the performance, in her
dressing-room; but she would appear, though
she had to undergo a painful operation on the
following Tuesday. ' If I am to die,' she said
to a friend, ' I will play Lucrezia once more.'
Those who then heard her will always recall her
rendering of the despairing cry after Gennaro's
death. She died Oct. 3, 1877, and was buried
in Kensal Green Cemetery. On the day before,
a messenger had arrived from the Queen and
Princesses with special enquiries, which had
greatly pleased her. Her death was felt as a
national loss, and it may be long before any
artist arises who can fill the place she filled so
worthily and so well. {F.A.M.]

TIETZE. [See Titze.]

TIGRANE, IL. An Italian opera, composed
by Righini, 1800, the overture of which was at

12



116



TIGEANE.



one time a favourite in London. The discovery
of the parts of this overture in his father's
warehouse gave Schumann his first opportunity
of conducting.^ It has been lately re-scored,
and published by Aibl of Munich. [G.]

TILMANT, Theophile, French conductor,
born at Valenciennes July 8, 1799, and educated
at the Paris Conservatoire, where he took the
first violin prize in E. Kreutzer's class in 18 1 8.
He played with great fire and brilliancy, and
had a wonderful instinct for harmony, though
without much scientific knowledge. On the
formation of the Society des Concerts in 1S28 he
was appointed vice-conductor, and also played
solo in a concerto of Mayseder's. In 1834 he
became vice- and in 1838 chief-conductor at the
Theatre Italien, where he remained till 1849.
In 1838, with his brother Alexandre, a distin-
guished cellist (bom at Valenciennes Oct. 2, 1808,
died in Paris June 1 3, i S8o),he founded a quartet-
society, which maintained its popularity for some
ten years or so. In 1849 ^^® succeeded Labarre
as conductor of the Opera Comique, an enviable
and responsible post, which he held for nearly
20 years. The composers whose operas he mounted
found him earnest and conscientious, and he con-
ducted with a fire and a dash perfectly irresistible,
both there and at the Concerts du Conservatoire,
which he directed from i860 to 1863. In 1868 he
left the Op^ra Comique, and retired to Asniferes,
where he died May 7, 1878. He received the
Legion of Honour in 1861. [G.C.]

TIMANOFF, Veea, a native of Eussia, re-
ceived pianoforte instruction in music from Liszt,
and for a long time past has enjoyed a wide
continental reputation. She made her debut in
England, August 28, 1880, at the Promenade
Concerts, Covent Garden, where she fulfilled six
nights' engagement under the conductorship of
Mr. F. H. Cowen, and made a lively impression
by her brilliant rendering of the works of her
master and other pieces of the same school. On
May 19, 1881, she played Chopin's Concerto in
F minor at the Philharmonic, and ' by her bril-
liant execution of the florid passages, by the
delicacy with which she rendered the fairylike
fancies of the composer, and by the marked
character resulting from her strong feeling for
rhythm and accent, gave the concerto an ad-
ventitious interest.'^ On May 13, 18S2, she
played at the Crystal Palace Liszt's ' Fantasia
on the Euins of Athens,' and on June 6 of the
same year she gave a recital and was heard with
pleasure in light pieces of Moskowski, Liszt, and
Eubinstein. [A.C.]

TIMBALES is the French word for Kettle-
drums. [See Drdm 2 ; vol. i. p. 463.] In that
article, at p. 464 h, it is mentioned that Meyer-
beer used 3 drums, G, C, and D, in No. 17 of
the score of ' Robert le Diable ' ; but it was reaUy
written for 4 drums, in G, C, D, and E, and was
so played at the Paris Academie, where it was
produced. This real kettle-drum solo begins



TIMBEE,

thus, and is probably a unique example of
kind : —



1 Wasielewski, p. 14.



2 Dai'y Telegrarh.




The printed score has only 3 drums, G, C, a
D, to facilitate the performance in ordinE
orchestras, the E being then played by the c(
trabasso. [V. de

TIMBEE. A French word, originally signi
ing a bell, or other resonant metallic instrume
of which the sense was subsequently extended
denote peculiar ringing tones, and lastly emploj
by the older writers on Acoustics to indicate
difference between notes which, though of id' ,1
tical pitch, produce dissimilar effects upon
ear. The cause of this variety not being ttl
understood, the vagueness which characteriL
the expression was hardly misplaced. But C
researches of Helmholtz put an end to ' ^
ambiguity, by showing that difference of tim j
was due to change in the upper-partial tones, ^
harmonics, which accompany the foundation-to j,
or ground-tone, of a note or sound. >

A somewhat better, but rather metaphor jj
phrase was afterwards suggested in Germai 5,
by which varieties of timbre were tenned Kla |>
fdrhe or Sound-colours. This term, in the c |
landish shape of ' Clangtint,' was adopted j
Tyndall and other writers as an English equi ^



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