George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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we use the unbarred Semicircle to indicate
four Crotchet beats in a bar ; the barred Semi-
circle to indicate four Minim beats, in the Time
called Alia breve, and two Minim beats in Alia
Cappella. Some German writers once used the
doubled Semicircle, barred, (( | )) for Alia ireve
—which they called the Grosse AllabrevetaU,
and the ordinary single form, barred, for Alia Cap-
pella — Eleine Allabrevetalt : but this distinction
has long since fallen into disuse.

The Circle is no longer used; all other forms
of Ehythm than those already mentioned being
distinguished by fractions, the denominators of
which refer to the aliquot parts of a Semibreve,
and the numerators, to the number of them con-
tained in a bar, as 4 ( = ^ ), § ( = 1^ ), etc. And

even in this we only follow the mediteval cus-
tom, which used the fraction § to denote Triple
Time, with three Minims in a bar, exactly as
we denote it at the present day.

A complete list of all the fractions now used as
Time-Signatures will be found in the article
Time, together with a detailed explanation of the
peculiarities of each, [W.S.E.]

TIME TABLE. A Table denoting the forms
and proportionate duration of all the notes used
in measured Music.

The earliest known indication of a Time Table
is to be found in the well-known work on Can-
tus mensurahilis, written by Franco of Cologne
about the middle of the nth century. Franco
mentions only four kinds of notes, the Large (or
Double Long), the Long, the Breve, and the
Semibreve. Franchinus Gafurius, in his 'Practica
musicse,' first printed at Milan in 1496, de-
scribes the same four forms, with the addition of
the Minim, These were afterwards supplemented
by the Greater Semiminim, now called the
Crotchet, and the Lesser Semiminim, or Quaver ;
and, later still, by the Semiquaver, the Demi-
semiquaver, and the Half-Demisemiquaver,

The modern Time Table, denoting the pro-
portionate value of all these notes, is too well
known in our schoolrooms to need a word of de-
scription here, [W.S.E.]

TIMID AMENTE. The indication written by
Beethoven in his MS. of the Mass in D at the
well-known passage in the ' Agnus ' where the
trumpets produce their thrilling effect — ' Ah
Miserere ! ' etc. ; but changed by the engravers of
the first score and subsequent editions to ' Tra-
midamente.' The mistake was corrected in
Breitkopf's critical edition. [G.]

TIMPANI is the Italian word for kettle-
drums. Printers and copyists often substitute
y for i in this word, which is a great fault, as
the letter y does not exist in the Italian lan-
guage. [V. de P.]

TINCTOEIS, Joannes de, known in Italy
as Giovanni del Tintore, and in England as
John Tinctor, was born at Nivelle in Brabant



128



TINCTORIS.



in the year 1434 or 1435.^ The peculiar form
of his name has led to the supposition that he
was the son of a dyer ; but the custom of using
the genitive case, when translating proper names
into Latin, was so common in Flanders during
the Middle Ages, that it cannot, in this instance,
be accepted as a proof of the fact. All we really
know of his social status is, that his profound-
learning and varied attainments were rewarded
with honourable appointments, both in his own
country and in Italy. In early youth he studied
the Law; took the Degree of Doctor, first in
Jurisprudence, and afterwards in Theology ; was
admitted to the Priesthood, and eventually ob-
tained a Canonry in his native town. He after-
wards entered the service of Ferdinand of
Arragon, King of Naples, who appointed him
his Chaplain and Cantor, and treated him
with marked consideration and respect. At
Naples he founded a public Music-School, com-
posed much Music, and wrote the greater
number of his theoretical works. He returned
to Nivelle in 1490, and died there, as nearly
as can be ascertained, in 1520. Franchinus
Gafurius makes honourable mention of him
in several places. None of his Compositions
have been printed, but several exist in MS.
among the Archives of the Pontifical Chapel.
One of these, a 'Missa I'homme arme,' k 5, is
remarkable for the number of extraneous sentences
interpolated into the text. In the 'Sanctus'
the Tenor is made to sing ' Ciierubim ac Sera-
phim, caeterique spiritus angelici Deo in altissi-
mis incessabili voce proclamant ' ; in the first
'Osanna,' the Altus sings 'Pueri Hebraeorum
sternentes vestimenta ramos palmarum lesu filio
David, clamabant ' ; and in the ' Benedictus,' the
Tenor interpolates ' Benedictus semper sit filius
Altissimi, qui de ccelis hue venit '; while, in each
case, the other Voices sing the usual words of the
Mass.'-^ This senseless corruption of the authorised
text, it will be remembered, was one of the
abuses which induced the Council of Trent to
issue the decree which resulted in the composition
of the ' Missa PapEB Marcelli.' ^

The theoretical works of J. de Tinctoris are
more numerous and important, by far, than his
Compositions. Tlieir titles are ' Expositio manus,'
• Liber de natura et proprietate tenorum,' ' De
notis ac pausis,' ' De regular! valore notarum,'
' Liber imperfectionum notarum,' ' Tractatus
alterationum,' 'Super punctismusicalibus,' 'Liber
de arte contrapuncti,' ' Proportionale musices,'
' Complexus effectuuin musices,' and ' Termino-
rum musicte diffinitorinm.'

This last-named work wiU, we imagine, be
invested with special interest for our readers,
since it is undoubtedly the first Musical Diction-
ary that ever was printed. It is of such extreme
rarity, that, until Forkel discovered a copy in the
Library of the Duke of Gotha, in the latter half
of the last century, it was altogether unknown.
About the same time. Dr. Burney discovered an-

1 Not, as some historians have supposed, ia 1450.

2 See vol. ii. pp. aas 6, 223 a.

3 See vol. iii. p. 263.



TIEAESI.

other copy, in the Library of King George II
now in the British Museum.* The work is ui
dated, and the place of publication is not mei
tioned ; but there is reason for believing that
was printed at Naples about the year 1474.
contains 291 definitions of musical terms, arrangt
in alphabetical order, exactly in the form of i
ordinary Dictionary. The language is terse ai
vigorous, and, in most cases, very much to tl
purpose. Indeed it would be difficult to ove
estimate the value of the light thrown, by sod
of the. definitions, upon the Musical Terminolo|
of the Middle Ages. Some of the explanation
however, involve rather curious anomalies,
for instance, ' Melodia idem est quod armonia

Forkel reprinted the entire work in his 'Lite
atur der Musik,' p. 204 etc.; and his repru
has been republished, in the original Latin, und
the editorship of Mr. John Bishop, of Chelte:
ham, by Messrs. Cocks & Co.^

No other work by J. de Tinctoris has ev
been printed ; though both Fetis and Choron a
said to have once contemplated the publicatii
of the entire series. [W.S.B

TIRABOSCHI, GiEOLAMO, a well-knoTi
writer on Italian literature, born at Bergam
Dec. 28, i73i» and educated by the Jesuits,
which order he at one time belonged. He w
librarian of the Brera in Milan for some yeai
and in 1 7 70 removed to a similar post at Modei
His 'Storia della Letteratura Italiana' (13 vd
quarto, 1772 to 1782) includes the history
Italian music. He published besides 'Bibliote
Modenese ' (6 vols. 1781 to 86) the last volume
which, ' Notizie de' pittori, scultori, incisori,
architetti, nati degli Stati del Sig. Duca
Modena,' has an appendix of musicians. Tb
boschi died June 3, 1797, at Modena. [F.C

TIRANA. An Andalusian dance of a ve
graceful description, danced to an extrem*
rhythmical air in 6-8 time. The words whi
accompany the music are written in ' coplas
stanzas of four lines, without any 'estrevill
[See Seguidilla, vol. iii. p. 457 a.] There a
several of them in Preciso's 'CoUeccion de Copla
etc. (Madrid,. 1 799), whence the following examj
is derived : —

Tii eres mi primer amor,
Tii me ensenaste 5, querer
No me ensefies & olvidar,
Que no lo quiero aprender.^

Tiranas are generally danced and sung to
guitar accompaniment. The music of one ('
la mar fuera de tinta') will be found in 'Ari
y Canciones Nacionales Espanoles' (Londc
Lonsdale, 18 71). [W.B.S

TIRARSI, DA, Ho draw out.' Trombe,
Corni, da tirarsi, i.e. Trumpets or Horns wi
slides, are found mentioned in the scores
Bach's Kirchencantatas, usually for strengthc
ing the voices. See the Bachgesellschaffc volumi
ii. pp. 293, 317, 327 ; X. 189, etc. etc. [C

4 King's Lib. 66. e. 121.

6 At the end of ' Hamilton's Dictionary of 2000 Musical TemM.
6 Translation :— Thou art my first love. Thou taughtest me tO 1<
Teach me not to forget, Tor I do not wish to learn it.



A DICTIONARY

OF

MUSIC AND MUSICIANS

(A.D. 1450 — 1884).

LIST OP CONTRIBUTORS.

Sir Julius Benedict B.

Joseph Bennett, Esq J. B.

James E.. Stekndale-Bennett, Esq J. R. S.-B.

David Baptie, Esq., Glasgow D. B.

Mrs. Walter Cake M. C. C.

William Chappell, Esq., F.S.A. W. C.

Alexis Chittt, Esq A.C,

M. GusTAVE Chouquet, Keeper of the Museum of the Conservatoire

de Musique, Paris ... ... ... ... ... ... G. C.

Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq., Barrister-at-Law A. D. C.

Frederick CoRDER, Esq., Mendelssohn Scholar, 1875-79 F. C.

George Arthur Crawford, Major G. A. C.

William H. Cummings, Esq W. H. C.

W. G. CusiNS, Esq., late Conductor of the Philharmonic Society ; Master

of the Music to the Queen W. G. C.

Edward Dannreuther, Esq E. D.

Herr Paul David P. D.

James W. Davison, Esq J. W. D.

Harry Collins Deacon, Esq H. C. D.

Edward H. Donkin, Esq. E. H. D.

H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq H. S. E.

Louis Engel, Esq L. E.

Henry Frederick Frost, Esq., Organist of the Chapel Royal, Savoy H. F. F.

J. A. Fuller-Maitland, Esq J. A. F.-M.

John T. Fyfe, Esq J. T. F.

Charles Allan Fyfpe, Esq., Barrister-at-Law C. A. F.

Dr. Franz Gehring, Vienna F. G.

J. C. Griffith, Esq. J. C. G.

Eev. Thomas Helmorb, Master of the Children of the Chapels Royal T. H.

William Henderson, Esq. W. H.

George Herbert, Esq G. H.

Dr. Ferdinand HiLLER, Cologne H.

A. J. Hipkins, Esq A. J. H.

Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Organist to the Temple E. J. H.

Rev. Canon Percy Hudson T. P. H.

Francis HuEFFER, Esq F. H.

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. J. H.

William H. Husk, Esq., Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society... W. H. H.

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, Mass., U. S. A F.H.J.

James Lecky, Esq. J.Ij-

Henry J. Lincoln, Esq H. J. L.

Stanley Lucas, Esq., late Secretary to the Philharmonic Society ... S. L.

Hercules Mac Donnell, Esq H. M. D.

Sir George Alexander Macfarren, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music in

the University of Cambridge, &c., &c. ... ... G. A. M.

Charles Mackeson, Esq., F.S.S. C. M.



Hebr a. Maczewski, late Concert-director, Kaiseislautern

Julian Marshall, Esq

Mrs. Julian Marshall

KussELL Maetineau, Esq.

GlANN ANDREA MaZZUCATO, EsQ

Eev. John Henry Mee, Mus. Bac, M.A

Miss Louisa M. Middleton

Edwin G. Monk, Esq., Mus. Doc, Organist of York Cathedral

Rev. J. R. Mylne

Sib Herbert S. Oakeley, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music in the Uni-
versity of Edinburgh

Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Mus. Doc, Professor
of Music in the University of Oxford

Walter Parratt, Esq., Mus. Bac.

C. Hubert H. Parry, Esq., Mus. Doc, Choragus of the University of
Oxford

Here Ernst Paueb

Edward John Payne, Esq., Barrister-at-Law

Rev. Hugh Pearson, late Canon of Windsor

Edward H. Pember, Esq., Q.C

Miss Phillimore

Hebr C. Ferdinand Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der Musik-
freunde, Vienna ...

William Pole, Esq., F.R.S., Mus. Doc

Victor de Pontigny, Esq. ...

Ebenezer Prout, Esq

Rev. William Pulling

Charles H. Purday, Esq. ^

Edward F. Rimbault, Esq., LL.D

LuiGi Ricci, Esq

W. S. RocKSTRO, Esq

Desmond Lumley Ryan, Esq.,

Carl Siewers, Esq.

Dr. Philipp Spitta, Berlin; Professor in the University; Secretary to
the Royal Academy of Arts ; and Managing- Director of the
Royal High-School for Music

W. Barclay Squire, Esq.

John Stainer, Esq., Mus. Doc, Oxon ...

H. H. Statham, Esq

Sir Robeet P. Stewart, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music in Dublin
University ...

T. L. Stillie, Esq., Glasgow

William H. Stone, Esq., M.B

Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan, Mus. Doc, late Principal of the
National Training School of Music

Franklin Taylor, Esq

Alexander W. Thayer, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste, Author
of the Life of Beethoven ...

Miss Bertha Thomas

C. A. W. Troyte, Esq

Colonel H. Ware, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U. S. A

Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse

J. MuiB Wood, Esq., Glasgow

The Editor



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C. A. W. T.
H. W.

A. H. W.
J. M. W.
G.



29 Bedford Street, Covent Garden,
July 8, 1884.



THE HISTOKY



JORMAN CONaUEST OF ENGLAND,

ITS CAUSES AND RESULTS.



BY

EDWARD A. FREEMAN, M.A., Hon. D.C.L..

LATE ITEIXOW OF TRINITV COLLEGE, OXFOBD.



W AND CHEAPER EDITION. SPECIALLY REVISED BY THE AUTHOR FOR
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SIX VOLUMES. 8vo. CLOTH, GILT TOPS. $20.

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is Work the London Saturday liexiew says:—

tL"L' hls\C^X\Vt'o V^tor^^^^^^^^^ fairly borne down his competitors,

Ulustration of the Conquest which SescaDedt^^^^^^^^^ ^""^ discovered materials'^for the

the story whollv novel hrhas at anvr-,tP^?rpni^,^!if^^*^^ ?^ Palgrave. If it is Impossible to make
use of the detaL preserved fnoSdav^LrfrthXli'^ ''•°1?''' every part of it by his remarkable
the lack of military interest is aTonpdVrhy.n^^^^^^ towns, while

immensely above hf^twopredecesso^.^? ^ constitutional dissertations in which he stands

ritish Quarterly Review says:—
ibScTtt^Hgte'S ^f ?^^^^^^

henmim says:—
Mton Spectator says:—



STEINWAY & SONS'

Grand, Square and Upright Pianos
INVARIABLY VICTORIOUS I



In order to protect the public against imposition and as a rebuke to
unscrupulous advertisers, the Judges on Pianos at the Centennial Exhibition,
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CERTIFICATE : '

^^Tliis is to certify, tliat tlie piano-fortes of 3Iessrs. Steimvay dt Sons,
comprising Concert and Parlor Grand, Square and Upright, exhibited
hy them at tlie Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876, pre-
sented the greatest totality of excellent qualities ami novelty of
construction, and in all points of excellence tJiey received our highest
average of points, and accordingly our tvnanimous opinion concedes to __.
Messrs. Steinway & Sons' '^HigJiest degree of excellence in all their
styles''.'' — Bated July 28tb, 1877.

Signed :

William Thomson, Henry K. Oliver,

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Ed. Fayre Perret James C. Watson,

J. SCHIEDMAYER, JoSEPH HENRY,

J. E. HiLGARD, F. A. P. Barnard.



The public is respectfully cautioned against tables of figures advertised b;^
several unprincipled pianoforte manufacturers, for which no authority whatever
can be produced, and which have been contradicted and declared false and
fraudulent by the Judges themselves. The ratings on the instruments of the
diflferent exhibitors, as originally made and copied by the Judges from theii^
note-books, reveal the significant fact that the Steinway Pianofortes, in eac" '
and every style, were rated far above all other competing instruments, and reached

GRAND TOTAL AVERAGE OF
95H OUT OF A POSSIBLE 96!!



The next highest exhibitor reached
90'4 ONLY OUT OF A POSSIBLE 96!!!

The certificates above mentioned can be seen at the Steinway Warerooms.



Every Steinway Piano is fully warranted for Five Years.
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['TIS THE LAST ROSE to VER.]



A



DICTIONARY



MUSIC AND MUSICIA^^S.



(A.D. 1450-1880.)



BY EMINENT WRITERS, RNGLISH AXD FOEEIGX.



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND WOODCUTS.



EDITED BY



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IN FOUR VOLUMES.



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1885.



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WEITSMAN'S MANUAL OF MUSICAL THEORY.

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SECHTER'S FUNDAMENTAL HARMONIES.

Compiled by C. C. MULLER.

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Translated firom the German, with an added i" hapter on the Hygiene of the Voic
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Attest, [seal.] J. L. CAMPBELL, Secretary.



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riS THE LAST ROSE OF SUMMER.



TOCCATA.



129



riS THE LAST ROSE OF SUMMER.
ong written by Thomas Moore to the tune
The Groves of Blarney'; this again being
iibly a variation of an older air called ' The
mg Man's dream,' which Moore has adapted
the words ' As a beam on the i'ace of the
ers may glow.' Blarney, near Cork, be-
16 popular in 178S or 17S9, and it was then
; the words of 'The Groves of Blarney' were
;ten by R. A. Millikin, an attorney of Cork.
! tune m;iy be older, though this is not at
certain : it is at all events a very beautiful
characteristic Irish melody. We give it in
1 its forms, as it is a good example of the
' in which Moore, with all his taste, often
xoyed the peculiar character of the melodies
adapted.'

Tlie Crrovcs of Blarney.



Slow. •



=iq!tZ3t:





• ''■




. a..






















' i 1 •■


^^M


^-^sT-f-^-













The Last Rose of Summer.



Feelingly,






<^!^-s («-


-n * »m.


\ 1 1 »T


^^ i N. .^


1-J ' l^ -


1 ; J . 1^


'Tis the


last rose of


sum-mer. Left




— '■ :;: — 5"


-1 * •«•. -








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lone; All her love - ly



gone ; Ko



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kin-dretl, No






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gj^* 7 — r — !«-— 1 — — ■» • - -i — ^= — r^-


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To re - fleet back her blush -es



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3:



sigh for sigh.

aethoven (20 Irische Lieder, No. 6) has set
I E b, to the words ' Sad and luckless was the
m.' Mendelssohn wrote a fantasia on the
published as op. 15," considerably altering

e writer is indebted to Mr. T. W. Joyce for the above informa-

8ee too Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall's 'Ireland.' i. 49, and Lover's

s of Ireland.'

tile date of this piece no trace is forthcoming. It probably be-



Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 29 of 194)