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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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■JO his first English visit. Its publication (by Spina) appears to

t>m Mendelssohn's visit to Vienna, en roule to Italy.

VOL. IV. FT. 2.

the notation ; and Flotow has made it the leading
motif in the latter part of ' Martha.' Berlioz's
enthusiasm for the tune equals his contempt for
the opera. ' The delicious Irish air was so simply
and poetically sung by Patti, that its fragrance
alone was sufficient to disinfect the rest of the
woi'k.'3 [G.]

TITZE, or TIETZE, Ludwig, member of the
Imperial chapel and of the Tonklinstler-Societat,
and Vice-Pedell of the University of Vienna, bom
April I, 1797, died Jan. 11, 1850. Possessor of a
sjmipathetic and highl3 - trained tenor voice, with
a very pure style of execution, Titze was univer-
sally popular. He sang at the Concerts Spirituels,
and acted as choir-master, Karl Holz being leader,
and Baron Lannoy conductor. Between 1822 and
i839he appearedat 26concerts of theTonkiinstler-
Societat, singing the tenor solos in such works as
Handel's 'Solomon,' 'Athaliah,' 'Jephthah,' and
' Messiah,' and Haydn's ' Creation' and ' Seasons,'
associated in the latter with Staudigl after 1833.
From 1 82 2 he also sang at innumerable concerts
and soirees of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde.
His special claim to distinction, however, was his
production of Schubert's songs at these soirees.
He sang successively, ' Rastlose Liebe' (1S24
and 31); 'Erlkonig' (1825); 'Der Einsame'
(1826); ' Nachthelle ' (1827); 'Norman's Ge-
sang' (March 8, 1827, accompanied by Schubert
on the PF., and 1839) ! ' Gute Nacht ' (1828);
' Der blinde Knabe,' and ' Drang in die Feme'
(1829) ; ' Liebesbotschaft,' and 'Auf deni Strome'
(1832) ; 'An mein Herz,' 'Sehnsucht,' and ' Die
Sterne' (1833); besides taking his part in the
quartets 'Geist der Liebe' (1823 and 32) ; 'Die
XachtigaU' (1824) ; 'Der Gondelfahrer' (1825);
and the solo in the 'Song of Miriam' (1S32).
At the single concert given by Schubert, March
26, 1828, he sang 'Auf dem Strome,' accompanied
on the French horn by Lewj', jun., and on the
PF. by Schubert. These lists show that Schu-
bert's works were not entirely neglected in
Vienna. His name appears in the programmes
of the Gesellschaft soirees 88 times between 182 1
and 1840. [C.F.P.]

TOCCATA (Ital.), from toccare, to touch, is the
name of a kind of instrumental composition
originating in the beginning of the 17th cen-
tury. As the term Sonata is derived from the verb
suonare, to sound, and may thus be described as
a sound-piece, or Tonstiick, so the similarly formed
tei-m Toccata represents a touch-piece, or a com-
position intended to exhibit the touch and exe-
cution of the performer. In this respect it is some-
what synonymous with the prelude and fantasia ;
but it has its special characteristics, which are
so varied as to make them difficult to define
clearly. The most obvious are a very flowing
movement in notes of equal length and a homo-
phonous character, there being often indeed in
the earlier examples but one part throughout,
though occasionally full chords were employed.
There is no decided subject which is made such
by repetition, and the whole has the air of a

'Lettres intimes,' p. 233.




showy improvisatiou. Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-
161 3) and Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) were the
first writers of any importance who used this
form, the Toccatas of the latter being scarcely
so brilliant as those of the former, though more
elaborate. Frescobaldi, Luigi Kossi, and Scherer
developed the idea and sometimes altered the
character of the movement, using chords freely
and even contrapuntal passages. It was Bach
however who raised the Toccata far beyond all
previous and later writers. The Toccatas to his
Fugues for Clavecin are in some cases a chain
of short movements of markedly different tempi
and styles. The fourth of those in the Peters
Volume of ' Toccatas and Fugues ' is the only one
which answers to the description given above,
the others being almost overtures. That to the
G minor Fugue in No. 211 of the same edition is
very extended. His organ Toccatas are very
grand, one of the finest being that in F on this
subject^ —

the semiquaver figure of which is treated at great
length alternately by the two hands in thirds
and sixths over a pedal bass, and then by the
pedals alone. Another in C (Dorffel, 830) is
equally brilliant. Bach sometimes begins and
ends with rapid cadenza-like passages in very
short notes divided between the two hands, as in
the well-known Toccata in D minor, with its fugue,
which Tausig has arranged as a piano solo.^

Probably from the fact of its faint individuality
the Toccata has in later times had but a flickering
vitality, and has found scant favour with com-
posers of the first rank. A collection of six
Toccatas for piano published by Mr. Pauer has
resuscitated as prominent specimens one by
F. PoUini (not the fi\mous one of his 32) in G,
and others by Czerny, Onslow, Clementi, etc.
That by Pollini is of the form and character of a
Bourree, and the others would be better named
Etudes in double notes, having all definite sub-
jects and construction. The same may be said of
Schumann's Toccata in C (op. 7), which is a
capital study for practice, and is in sonata form.
Contemporary musicians have given us two or
three specimens of real Toccatas worth mention,
prominent among them being that in G minor
by Rheinberger, which is a fiee fugue of great
boldness and power. The same composer has
useil the diminutive term Toccatina for one of
a set of short pieces ; and another instance of
the use of this term is the Toccatina in Eb by
Henselt, a short but very showy and difficult
piece. Dupont has published a little PF. piece
■entitled Toccatella. Toccatas by Walter Mac-
farren and A. H. Jackson may close our list of
modern pieces bearing that name. [See Touch ;
Tdcket.] [F.C]

1 (DBrffers Cat. KI6). In the old editions of this. Schumann has
pointed out a host of errors. See ' Gesammelte Schriften.' Iv. 50.

2 Both these— in D and F— are entitled ' Prteludium (Toccata).'
Three Toccatas— in F with a fugue, in D minor, and in E with two
fugues-are printed io yol. 15 of the Bachgesvllschaft edition.


TODI, Makia (or Luigia, ace i
ing to a contemporary Berlin opera-book, an it
the inscription on some of her portraits), w is
famous mezzo-soprano singer, bom in Port ji
about the year 1 748. She received her mus
education from David Perez, at Lisbon. W
in her seventeenth year, she first appearer
public, she at once attracted notice by
beautiful, though somewhat veiled, quality of fte
voice. She made her debut in London in i
in Paisiello's ' Due Contesse,' but was not
cessful. Her voice and style were unsuite'
comic opera, which, from that time, she a
doned. At Madrid, in the same year, her
formance of Paisiello's ' Olimpiade ' won w
admiration, but her European fame dates i
1778, when her singing at Paris and Versa
created a lasting sensation. She returned for
year to Lisbon, but in 1781 was at Paris ag
In 1782 she engaged herself for several y
to the Berlin Opera, at a yearly salary of ;
thalers. But the Prussian public thought
affected and over-French in manner, and at
end of a year she gave up her engagement
returned to Paris, where she always foun(|ii
enthusiastic welcome. Madame Mara was
in Paris, and the two queens of song appe;
together at the Concert Spirituel. The pi|ir
was divided into 'Maratistes' and 'Todis
and ]3arty spirit ran as high as between
'Gluckistes ' and ' Piccinnistes,' or the adher
of Cuzzoni and Faustina. The well-known n i
shows that the contest was not conducted w
out wit : — ' Laquelle etoit la meilleure ? (
Mara. C'est bien Todi (bientot dit).'

Mara excelled in bravura, but Todi w<
seem to have been the more pathetic. T
rivalry gave rise to the following stanza —

Todi, par sa voix touchante,
Do doux pleurs raouille mes j-eux ;
Mara, plus vive, plus brillante,
M'etonne, me transporte aux cieus.
Ij'une ravit et I'autre enchante,
Mais celle qui plait le mieux
Est toujours celle qui chante.








Todi returned to Berlin in 1 7S3, where she!
the part of Cleofide in 'Lucio Papirio.'
king wished her to remain, but she had aire K
signed an engagement for St. Petersburg. Tl ^
her performance of Sarti's 'Armida' was
immense success. She was overwhelmed v
presents and favours by the Empress Gather
between whom and the prima donna tl^
sprang up a strange intimacy. Todi acqi^
over Catherine an almost unbounded influa
which she abused by her injustice to Sarti,
imijerial Chapelmaster, whom she dislil s
Seeing that she was undermining his positioi
court, Sarti revenged himself by bringing TA
chesi to St. Petersburg, whose wonderful vt
powers diverted some part of the public adm:
tion from Todi. Todi retorted by procuring Sai
dismissal. This ugly episode apart, she is asser
to have been amiable and generous.

Meanwhile the king of Prussia was tempt
her back to Berlin, and, as the Russian climate 1
telling on hervoice, she, ini786,accepted his off iil



I was far more warmly received than upon her
t visit. "With the exception of six months in
ssia, she remained at Berlin till 1 7S9, achiev-
her greatest triumphs in Eeichardt's ' Andro-
ia' and Neumann's 'Medea.' InlMarch 1789
reappeared in Paris, and among other things
g a scena composed for her by Cherubini,
,rete alfin content!,' eliciting much enthusiasm.
«r a year's visit to Hanover she proceeded to
ly, and sang with great success. In 1792 she
jmed to Lisbon, where, in the following year,


t is strange that Todi should have made no
3ression in this country, for there seems no
ibt that she was one of the best singers of

time, equal in many respects, superior in
le, to Mara, who was much admired here,
rd Mount-Edgecuinbe speaks of her as having
iled to please here,' and Burney, later in her
eer, writes of her, ' she must have improved
y much since she was in England, or we
ited her very vmworthily, for, though her voice
3 thought to be feeble and seldom in tune
ile she was here, she has since been extremely
nired in France, Spain, Russia, and Germany,
% most touching and exquisite performer.'
rhere is a pretty and scarce portrait of her in
.racter, singing, called 'L'Euterpe del Secolo
nil' (1791). She was twice married, and left
her husband and her eight children, who suv-
ed her, a sum of 400,000 francs, besides jewels
I trinkets worth a fortune. [F.A.M.]

rOD JESU, DEE, i. e. the Death of Jesus—

'Messiah' of Germany, a ' Passions-Cantate,'
rda by Eamler, music by Graun. It was
t performed in the Catliedral of Berlin, on
idnesday before Easter, March 26, 1755, and
k such hold as to become an essential part of

Passion week at Berlin. It is still given
re at least twice a year. In England I can
I no record of its complete performance. There

three editions of the full score — 1760, 1766,
o; and PP. arrangements without number,
inning with one by J. Adam Hiller, 1 783, and
ing with one in Novello's 8vo. series. [G.]
'OFTS, Mks. Catheriite, 'Uttle inferior,
ler for her voice or her manner, to the best
lian women,'' was the first of English birth
) sang Italian Opera in England. A sub-
ption concert was instituted in November
3 at tlie Theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields,
ire Mrs. Tofts sang several songs, both
ian and English.^ In the following year

continued to sing at the ' Subscription
sic' On January 29, Margherita de I'Epine
y for the first time, at Drury Lane. On the
ind appearance of this, Tofts's fiiture rival, a

urbance occurred at the Theatre, while she

singing, which 'was siispected- to have been

,ted by her emissaries,' a suggestion which

denied in the ' Daily Courant,' Feb. 8, 1 704.

lie same year she sang and played the part
I'allas in Weldon's 'Judgment of Paris.'
ja 1 705 came the first attempt to plant Italian,



[' 1 HaTvUios,

3 Bomey.

or pseudo-Italian, Opera in England ; and to
the success of this endeavour Mrs. Tofts and
her rival were the chief contributors, the
former playing successively the chief parts in
' Arsinoe,' ' Camilla,' ' Eosamond,' ' Thomyris,*
and 'Love's Triumph.' 'Mrs. Tofts,' who took
her first grounds of musick here in her own
country, before the Italian taste had so highly
prevailed, was then not an adept in it ; yet
whatever defect the fashionably skilful might
find in her manner, she had, in the general
sense of her spectators, charms that few of
the most learned singers ever arrive at. The
beauty of her fine proportioned figure, and
the exquisitely sweet, silver tone of her voice,
with that peculiar rapid swiftness of her
throat, were perfections not to be imitated
by art or iabour.' At a very early stage of
]jer short but brilliant career, she drew a salary
of £500,* higher than that which was paid to
any other member of the company, — a sure
test of the estimation in which she was held
by the management and the public : at the
same time, Valentini and de I'Epine only drew
£400 apiece, and the Baroness, £200. At
another time, this salary was commuted* into a
share' in the profits of the theatre. Again, we
find her* offering to sing for 20 guineas a night,
or 'in consideration the year is so far advanced*
for 400 guineas till the 1st of July, provided
she was allowed to sing in another play, to be
produced elsewhere, if not on an opera night.
These were high terms in 1 708. She sang also
at the concerts at Court. Meanwhile, she was
no stranger to the quarrels and disputes which
seem to have prevailed at the Opera then as in
later times. There was a warm correspondence *
about a bill of 80 guineas, for Camilla's dress,
whichEich declined to pay; butCamilla refused to
appear in 'Thomyris' till it was paid; and Eich
then compromised the matter. She further de-
manded* an allowance for 'locks for hair, Jewells,
ribbons, muslin for vails, gloves, shoes, washing
of vails, etc.,' for which she modestly affirmed
that '£100 was not sufficient for the season.'

Were it not that similar complaints and
demands were common from other singers, there
would seem to be here some foundation for the
charge brought against Mrs. Tofts in the epigram,
attributed to Pope : —

So bright is thy beauty, so charming thy song,

As had drawn both the beasts and their Orpheus along ;

But such is thy avarice, and such is thy pride.

That the beasts must have starved, and the poet have diedl

.She must however have had a great passion
for money, and a great disregard of the means
of raising it, if Lady Wentworth's contemporary
account may be trusted. 'Mrs. Taufs,' says
that delightful writer and most eccentric speller,
' was on Sunday last at the Duke of Somerset's,
where there were about thirty gentlemen, and
every kiss was one guinea; some took three,
others four, others five at that rate, but none
less than one.'^

» Cibber's Apology. 4 Coke Papers, in the writer's possession.
6 Letter, March 17, 1709, ia ' Weutworth Papers,' p. 66.





This unfortunate singer, the first English-
woman distinguished in Italian Opera, lost her
reason early in 1709. In a most ungenerous
vein Steele alludes to her affliction,' and
attributes it to the habit she had acquired of
regarding herself as really a queen, as she
appeared on the stage, a habit from which she
could not free herself. Burney supposes that
this was an exaggeration, by means of which
the writer intended only to ' throw a ridicule on
opera quarrels in general, and on her particular
disputes at that time with the Margarita or
other female singers.' Hawkins says that she
was cured, temporarily at least, and 'in the
meridian of her beauty, and possessed of a large
sum of money, which she had acquu-ed by
singing, quitted the stage (1709), and was
married to Mr. Joseph Smith, afterwards Eng-
lish consul at Venice. Here she lived in great
state and magnificence, with her husband, for a
time ; but her disorder returning' (which, if true,
upsets Burney's theory), 'she dwelt sequestered
from the world in a remote part of the house,
and had a large garden to range in, in which
she would frequently walk, singing and giving
way to that innocent frenzy which had seizetl
her in the earlier part of her life.' She was
still living about the year 1735.^

Her voice did not exceed in compass^ that of
an ordinary soprano, and her execution, as shown
by the printed airs which sbe sang, 'chiefly
consisted in such passages as are comprised in
the shake, as indeed did that of most other
singers at this time.' It may be observed,
however, that all singers 'at this time' added a
good deal to that which was ' set down for them'
to execute ; and probably she did so too.

It is somewhat strange that, of a singer so
much admired as Mrs. Tofts undoubtedly was, no
portrait should be known to exist, either painted
or engraved. [J.M.]

TOLBECQUE, a family of Belgian musicians,
who settled in France after the Eestoration.
The original members were four brothers: — the
eldest, Isidore Joseph (born at Hanzinne Ap. 1 7,
1 794, died at Vichy May 10,1871), was a good con-
ductor of dance-music. Jean Baptists Joseph
(born at Hanzinne in 1797, died in Paris, Oct. 23,
i869),violinist,composer, and excellent conductor,
directed the music of the court balls during
Louis Philippe's reign, and also those at Tivoli
when those public gardens were the height of
the fashion. He composed a quantity of dance-
music — quadrilles, valses, and galops — above the
average in merit ; an optJra-comique in one act
'Charles V. et Duguesclin ' (Odeon, 1827), with
GUbert and Guiraud ; and with Deldevez, ' Vert-
Vert ' (Opera, 1851), a 3-act ballet, his most
important work. He was a member of the
Society des Concerts du Conservatoire from its
foundation in 1859. The third brother, Auguste
Joseph, also born at Hanzinne, Feb. 28, 1801,
died in Paris, May 2 7, 1 869. A pupil of Eudolph

1 Tatler, No. 20, May 26, 1709,

2 Hawkins. Bumey says (probably a muprint) In 1736.

3 Bumey.

Kreutzer, he took the first violin prize at th
Conservatoire in 1821, made some mark as
virtuoso, was an original member of the Soci^tj
des Concerts, and one of the best violinists
the Op^ra, and for several seasons was we]
known in London, where he played first violin
Her Majesty's Theatre. The youngest, Chablb
Joseph, born May 27, 1806, in Paris, where h
died Dec. 29, 1835, was also a pupil of R, Kreut
zer, and an original member of the Societe de
Concerts. He took a prize at the Conservatoir
in 1S24, and became conductor at the Variet^s ii
1 830, In this capacity he composed pretty song
and pieces for interpolation in the plays, seveia
of which attained some amount of popularity.

The Tolbecque family is at this moment re
presented by Auguste, son of Auguste Joseph
a distinguished cellist, born in Paris, March 3c
1830. He took the first cello prize at the Con
sei-vatoire in 1849, and has published some i,
works of various kinds for his instrument, in
eluding 'La Gymnastique du Violoncelle' (op
14), an excellent collection of exercises ant
mechanical studies. He is also a clever restore:
of old instruments, and formed a collection
which he sold to the Brussels Conservatoiri
in 1879. His son, Jean, born at Niort, Oct, 7
1857, took the first cello prize at the Paris Con
servatoire in 1873, and has studied the orgai
with Cesar Franck. [G.C

TOLLET, Thomas, composed and publishe<
about 1694, in conjunction with John Lenton
' A Consort of Musick in three pai-ts,' and wai
author of * Directions to play on the Frenclk
flageolet.' He was also a composer of act tuneia,
for the theatre, but is best known as compose]' t
of ' Toilet's Ground,' printed in the A]ipendi.\ t(
Hawkins's History. [W. H.H.;, ,

TOMASCHEK, Wenzel, composer, bori
April 17, 1774, at Skutsch in Bohemia. H<i
was the youngest of a large family, and hiii
father, a well-to-do linen-weaver, having beer,
suddenly reduced to poverty, two of his brothersftj
a priest and a public official, had him educatedl i
He early showed talent for music, and was placeCi >
at Chrudim with Wolf, a well-known teacher! ;
who taught him singing and the violin, H<)
next wished to learn the piano and organ, ancfc
his brother the priest sent him a spinet, oif
which he practised day and night. The MinoritJ 1
fathers of Iglan offered him a choristership, witl
instruction in theory. On the breaking of hif
voice in 1 790, he went to Prague to study philo-
sophy and law, supporting himself the while bj
giving lessons. All his spare time, even the
hours of rest, was spent in studying the works
of Marpurg, Kirnberger, Matheson, Tiirk, and
Vogler, and he thus laid a solid foundation of
scientific knowledge. Neither did he neglect
practical music, but made himself familiar with
the works of Mozart and Pleyel, and became ac-
quainted with Winter, Kozeluch, and above all,
Beethoven, who exercised a life-long influence
over him. In his autobiography, published in a
volume called 'Libussa' (1845, etc), Tomaschek
writes, *It was in 1798, when I was studying


w, that Beethoven, that giant among players,
me to Prague. At a crowded concert in the
mvict-hall he played his Concerto in C (op. 15),
e Adagio and Eondo grazioso from the Sonata
A (op. 2), and extemporised on a theme from
ozart's Clemenza di Tito, "Ah tu fosti il primo
■getto." His grand style of playing, and
pecially his bold improvisation, had an extva-
dinary effect upon me. I felt so shaken that
r several days I could not bring myself to touch
6 piano ; indeed it was only my inextinguishable
ve for the art, that, after much reasoning with
^self, drove me back to the instrument with
en increased industry.' Before long, however,
e critical faculty returned. After hearing Bee-
oven twice more, he says, 'This time I was
le to listen with greater calmness of mind, and
ough I admired as much as ever the power
d brilliancy of his playing, I could not help
ticing the frequent jumps from subject to
bject which destroyed the continuity and
adual development of his ideas. Defects of
is kind often marred those most magnificent
eations of his superabundant fancy.' 'Had
jethoven's compositions (only a few of which
3re then printed) claimed to be classical
mdard works as regards rhythm, harmony,
id counterpoint, I should perhaps have been
scouraged from carrying on my self-cultivation ;
it as it was, I felt nerved to further effort.'
iree years later Tomaschek declared Beethoven
have still further perfected his playing. He
mself about this time published some ' Un-
.rische Tanze' (without ever having Ijeard a
ungarian air) and Holty's ' Elegie auf eine
Dse,' an early specimen of programme-music,
welve waltzes had a great success at the
•ague Carnival of 1797; but these he burnt.
e was known as a pianist, and esteemed as
teacher by the principal nobility, but hesi-
ted between the profession of music and an
icial career. Meantime Count Bucquoi von
mgueval offered him the post of composer in
3 household, with such a salary as to place
m at ease in money-matters ; and this he
cepted. Prague continued to be his home,
it he made occasional journeys, especially to
ienna. In November 1S14 he paid Bee-
oven a visit, of which he has left an account
Libussa,' 1846) in the form of a conversation.
e tells us that Meyerbeer and other artists
id put themselves at Beethoven's disposal, for
e performance of the ' Battle of Vittoria,' and
at Meyerbeer played the big drum. ' Ha ! ha !
k ! ' exclaims Beethoven, 'I was not at all pleased
ith him ; he could not keep time, was always
ming in too late, and I had to scold him well.^
a ! ha ! ha ! I dare say he was put out. He
no good. He has not pluck enough to keep
ne.' Pluck was a quality which Meyerbeer
iver possessed, even at the time of his greatest
iccesses. A fortnight later Tomaschek repeated
e visit, and describes it in even greater detail
Libussa' 1847). Meyerbeer's 'Two Caliphs'

This looks as if Beethoven, eTen in 1814, could hear pretty well on



was then being performed, and on Tomaschek
saying that it began with a Hallelujah and ended
with a Eequiem, Beethoven remarked, 'Yes, it
is all up with his playing.' And again, 'He
knows nothing of instrumental music; singing
he does understand, and that he should stick to.
Besides, he knows but little of composition. I
tell you he will come to no good.' Beethoven's
prophecy was not fulfilled ; but these notes are

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