George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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interesting records of his opinions, and show a high
esteem for Tomaschek.

Tomaschek's house became the centre of mu-
sical life in Prague, and the list of his pupils in-
cludes Dreyschock, Kittl, Kuhe, Schulhoff, Bock-
let, Dessauer, Worzischek, and Wurffel. In
1823 he married Wilhelmine Ebert, remaining
in Count Bucquoi's service, though with a house
of his own, where he was much visited by
strangers, especially by English. He was hos-
pitable and pleasant except on the subject of
music, on which he was given to laying down
the law. In person he was tall, and of a mili-
tary carriage. The superficial was his abhorrence.
Even in his smaller works there was a technical
completeness, which procured him the title of the
'Schiller of music' His church music includes
a ]Missa Solennis in Eb, and several Requiems,
but his predilection was for dramatic music, to
which he was led by its connection with the
Ballad and the Lied. He set several of Goethe's
and Schiller's poems, and also old Czech songs
from the Koniginhof MS.^

Tomaschek played his setting of Goethe's
poems before the poet himself at Eger, and
was very kindly received. His opera ' Seraphine'
(181 1) was well received at the National Theatre
in Prague, in spite of a poor libretto ; but in spite
of this success he declined to permit the appearance
of two other operas, 'Alvara' and 'Sakuntala.'
He left scenas from Goethe's ' Faust,' and from
'Wallenstein,' 'Maria Stuart,' and the 'Braut
von Messina,' as well as other vocal compositions,
which were presented with his other remains to
the Bohemian National Museum in Prague, by
his nephew Ereiherr von Tomaschek.

Besides a quantity of smaller works, chiefly
Lieder, Tomaschek published iio with opus
numbers, including the interesting 'Eklogues'
(op- 35' 39. 47' 51. 5.3, 66 and 83) and ' Dithy-
ramb ' (op. 65, Prague, Berra), which would still
repay the attention of pianists. It is unfor-
tunate for Tomaschek's fame that his works
were contemporaneous with Beethoven's, but
they exercised a material influence on such an
artist as Eobert Schumann. Is it too much to
hope that these lines may direct some musicians
to an unjustly forgotten composer ?

Tomaschek died April 3, 1850, and was buried
in the churchyard of Koschir, near Prague. [E.G.]

TOMASINI, LuiGi (ALOTSiDS),eminent violin-
ist, and distinguished member of Prince Ester-
hazy's band imder Haydn, bom 174I at Pesaro.
In 1757 he became a member of Prince Paul
Anton's household at his palace of Eisenstadt in

2 The authenticity of -which has been disproved by Sembora, the
great authority on Czech literature.



Hungary, and on Hajxln's undertaking the Vice-
Capellnieistership in 1761, was at once promoted
by him to be first violin. He was afterwards
leader, and director of the chamber-music, with a
largely increased salary. Prince Nicholas (suc-
cessor to Paul Anton) left him a pension in 1 790,
but Tomasini remained in the service till his
death, April 25, iSoS. He was on the most in-
timate terms with Haydn, who wrote all his
quartets with a view to Tomasini's playing, and
remarked to him, ' Nobody plays my quartets so
much to my satisfaction as you do.' He only
once appeared in public in Vienna, at a concert
of the Tonkiinstler-Societat (i77.=i), of which he
had been a member from its foundation in I77i'
In all probability Haydn gave him instruction in
composition. He published violin-concertos, quar-
tets, duos, concertants (dedicated to Haydn), etc.
For the Prince he wrote ' 24 Divertimenti per il
Paridon (barytone), violino, e violoncello,' now in
the archives of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde
in Vienna. A few of Haydn's violin-concertos
were written expressly for Tomasini (' fatto per il
Luigi'). Besides two daughters, who sang in the
church and opera at Eisenstadt, Tomasini had two
talented sons. The eldest,

Luigi, born 1779, at Esterhaz, an excellent
violinist, was received into the chapel in 1796,
dismissed several times for incorrigible levity, but
as often readmitted at Haydn's request. The
latter speaks of his 'rare genius,' and so did
Hummel. He played in Vienna in 1796 and iSoi
at the Tonkiinstler-Societat, and in 1806 at the
Aucarten concerts. In iSoS he had to fly, for
having married, without the Prince's leave, Sophie
Groll, a singer in the chapel, but he secured an
appointment as Concertmeister to the Duke of
Mecklonburg-Strelitz. In 1S12 he and his wife
gave a concert in Berlin, when Luigi played
Beethoven's concerto, and his wife, a pupil of
Kighini's, was much applauded. In 1814 he gave
a concert in the court theatre in Vienna, after
which he wholly disappears. His brother,

Anton, born 1775 at Eisenstadt, played in the
chapel as an amateur from 1791 to 96, when he
became a regular member. His instrument was
the viola. He married the daughter of a Polish
General in iSo.:^, in which year he also became a
member of the Tonkiinstler-Societat. He resem-
bled his brother both in talent and disposition,
and, like him, was several times dismissed, and
taken on again with increased salary. In 1S20
he became leader of the band, and died at Eisen-
stadt June 12, 1824. [C.F.P.]

TOM KINS. A family which, in the 16 th and
17th centuries, produced many good musicians.

Rev. Thomas Tomkins was chanter and minor
canon of Gloucester Cathedral in the latter jiart
of the 1 6th century. He contributed to 'The
Triuniphes of Oriana,' 1600, the madrigal 'The
faunes and satirs tripping,' commonly attributed
to his more celebrated son and namesake.

John Tomkins, Mus. Bac, one of his sons, was
probably a chorister of Gloucester Cathedral. He
afterwards became a scholar of King's College,
Cambridge, of which in 1606 he was appointed


organist. He resigned in 1622 upon being choser
organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1625 he was
appointed gentleman extraordinary of the Chape
Royal ' for the next place of an organist there,
and in 1625 became Gospeller. He died Sept
27, 1638, and was buried at St. Paul's. Sora«
anthems by him are contained in Barnard's MS
collection. His son, Robert, was in 1641 one 0;
the King's musicians.

Thomas Tomkins, Mus. Bac, another son o;
Thomas, was a pupil of Byrd, and graduated at
Oxford, July 11, 1607. He soon afterwards be-
came organist of Worcester Cathedral. On Aug
2, 1 62 1, he was sworn in as one of the organisti
of the Chapel Royal upon the death of Edmond
Hooper. In 1622 he published ' Songs of 3, 4, 5
and 6 parts,' containing 28 madrigals and an'
thems of a high degree of excellence. He died
in June, 1656, and was buried at Martin Hass
ingtree, AVorcestershire. A collection of his
church music, comprising 5 services and 68
anthems, was published in 1664 under the title
of 'Mnsica Deo Sacra & Ecclesise Anglicanse;
or, Musick dedicated to the Honor and Service oi
God, and to the Use of Cathedral and other
Churches of England, especially to the Chappel
Roj-al of King Charles the First.' A second ini'
pression appeared in 1668.

Many MSS. of his music are found in the
Tudway collection, at Ely, Ch. Ch. Oxford, etc.
At St. John's Coll. O.-cford, there is a volume
written by him and Este, containing, among other
remarkable things, the bass part of a Service by
Tallis for .:; voices, otherwise unknown. [See
Tallis, vol. iv. p. 54 a.]

Giles Tomkins, a third son, succeeded his
brother, John, as organist of King's College,
Cambridge, in 1622. He afterwards became
organist of Salisbury Cathedral, which appoint-
ment he held at the time of his death in 1668

Nathaniel Tomkins, born 1584, son of a gen-
tleman of Northampton, chorister of Magdalen r
College, Oxford, from 1596 to 1604, clerk there
from 1604 to 1606, and usher of the College
School from 1606 to 1610, and Abraham Tom-
kins, chorister of the same College from 161 1 to
161 7, were probably members of another branch
of the same family. [W. H. H.}

TONAL FUGUE (Fr. Fugue du Ton ; Germ.
Eivfache Fuge, Ftige dcs Tones). A form of
Fugue, in which the Answer (Comes), instead of
following the Subject (Dux) exactly, Interval
for Interval, sacrifices the closeness of its Imita-
tion to a more important necessity — that of exact
conformity with the organic constitution of the
Mode in which it is written ; in other words, to
the Tonality of its Scale. [See Subject.]

This definition, however, though sufficient
to distinguish a Tonal Fugue from a Real one
of the same period and form, gives no idea what-
ever of the sweeping revolution which followed
the substitution of the later for the earlier
method. A technical liistory of this revolution,
though giving no more than a sketch of the
phases through which it jiassed, between the
death of Palestrina and the maturity of Handel


I Sebastian Bach, would fill a volume. We
I here only give the ultimate results of the
vement ; pausing first to describe the position
m which the earliest modem Fuguists took
ir departure.

rhe Keal Fugue of the Polyphonic Composers,
perfected in the i6th century, was of two
ids — Limited, and Unlimited. With the
nited form — now called Canon — we have, here,
concern.^ The Unlimited Real Fugue started
,h a very short Subject, adapted to the opening
'ase of the verbal text — for it was always vocal
ind this was repeated note for note in the
swer, but only for a very short distance. The
swer always began before the end of the Sub-
t ; but. after the exact Imitation carried on
ough the first few notes, the part in which it
)eared became ' free,' and proceeded whither
TOuld. The Imitation took place generally in
; Fifth above or the Fourth below ; sometimes
the Fourth above, or Fifth below, or in the
tave ; rarely, in Unlimited Real Fugue, in any
J natural Interval than these. There was no
iinter-Subject ; and, whenever a new verbal
•ase appeared in the text, a new musical phrase
s adapted to it, in the guise of a Second Sub-
t. But it was neither necessary that the open-
Subject should be heard simultaneously with
: later ones ; nor, that it should reappear, after
iter one had been introduced. Indeed, the
es in which these two conditions — both indis-
isable, in a modern Fugue — were observed,
in in the slightest degree, are so rare, that
y may be considered as infringements of a
y strict rule.

rhe form we have here described was brought
\bsolute )>erfection in the so-called ' School of
lestrina,' in the latter half of the i6th century.
B first departure from it — rendered inevitable
the substitution of the modern Scale for the
er Tonalities — consisted in the adaptation of
Answer to the newer law, in place of its
ijugation, by aid of the Hexachord, to the
;lesiastic;d Modes. [See Hexachord.] The
inge was crucial. But it was manifest that
tters could not rest here. No sooner was the
nsformation of the Answer recognised as an
woidable necessity, than the whole conduct
the Fugue was revolutionised. In order to
ke the modifications through which it passed
elligible, we must first consider the change
the Answer, and then that which took place
the construction of the Fugue founded upon
-the modern Tonal Fugue.
rhe elements which enter into the composition
this noble Art-form are of two classes ; the one,
nprising materials essential to its existence ;
; other consisting of accessories only. The es-
itial elements are (i) The Subject, (2) The
iswer, ( ^) The Counter-Subject, (4) The Codetta,
) The Free Part, (6) The Episode, (7) The

Those who wish to trace the relation between the two will do
I to study the 'Jlessa Canonica.' edited by La Fag-, and by him
■ibuted to Falestrina. or the ' Missa Canonica ' of Fux. side by
• nith ralestrina's ■Jlissaad Fugam"; taking the two flrst-uained
■ks as examples of Limited, and the third of Unlimited Heal



Stretto, and (8) The Pedal-Point, or Organ- Point.
The accessories are. Inversions of all kinds, in
Double, Triple, or Quadruple Counterpoint ;
Imitations of all kinds, and in all possible Inter-
vals, treated in Direct, Contrary, or Retrograde
Motion, in Augmentation, or Diminution ; Modu-
lations ; Canonic passages ; and other de\'ices too
numerous to mention.

Among the essential elements, the first place
is, of course, accorded to the Subject ; which
is not merely the Theme upon which the Com-
position is formed, but is nothing less than au
epitome of the entire Fugue, which must contain
absolutely nothing that is not either directly
derived from, or at least more or less naturally
suggested by it.

The qualities necessary for a good Subject are
both numerous and important. Cherubini has
been laughed at for informing his readers that
' the Subject of a Fugue ought neither to be too
long, nor too short' : but, the apparent Hibernian-
ism veils a valuable piece of advice. The great
point is, that the Subject should be complete
enough to serve as the text of the discourse,
without becoHiing wearisome by repetition. For
this purpose, it is sometimes made to consist of
two members, strongly contrasted together, and
adapted for separate treatment ; as in the fol-
lowing Subject, by Telemann, in which the first
member keeps up the dignity of the Fugue, while
the second provides perpetual animation.

First Jlember. |

.Second Jlember.


Sometimes the construction of the Subject is
homogeneous, as in the following by Kirnberger ;
and the contrast is then produced by means of
varied Counterpoint.



Many very fine Subjects — perhaps, the finest
of all— combine both qualities ; aifording suffi-
cient variety of figure when they appear in com-
plete form ; and, when separated into fragments,
serving all necessary purposes, for Episodes,
Stretti, etc., as in the following examples —


:l?pi;ri=:p=pz:i:^__ ^

»!^* ^ I- — \ — I ~^

'^'^B' I — i-

^^I— t-

' Preserve him for the glory of Thy name.'




JIendelssohn (Op. 3<, No. :|)

- ^^^




Sometimes, the introiluction of a Sequence, or
the figure called Rosalia, affords opportunities
for very effective treatment,




-•s* — 1I«






Sebastian Bach constantly made use of this
device in his Pedal Fugues, the Subjects of
which are among the longest on record. There
are few Subjects in which this peculiarity is
cnrried to greater excess than in that of his
Pedal-Fugue in E Major.

Very different from these are the Subjects
designed by learned Contrapuntists for the ex-
press purpose of complicated devices. These are
short, massive, characterised by extremely con-
cordant Intervals, and built upon a very simple
rhythmic foundation. Two fine examples are to
be found in Bach's 'Art of Fugue '; and the 'Et
vitam* of Cherubini's ' Credo ' in G for 8 voices.

J. S. Bach.

Next in importance to the Subject is the
Answer; which, indeed, is neither more nor
less than the Subject itself, presented from a
different point of view. We have already said
that the Tonal Answer must accommodate itself,
not to the Intervals of the Subject, but, to the
organic constitution of the Scale. The essence of
this accommodation consists in answering 1 1 1 e Tonic
by the Dominant, and the Dominant by the Tonic:
not in every unimportant member of the Subject —
for this would neither be possible nor desirable
— but in its more prominent divisions. The first
thing is to ascertain the exact place at which
the_ change from Real to Tonal Imitation must
be introduced. For this process there are cer-
tain laws. The most important are —

(i) When the Tonic appears in a prominent
position in the Subject, it must be answered by
the Dominant ; all prominent exhibitions of the
Dominant being answered in like manner by the
Tonic. The most prominent positions possible
are those in which the Tonic passes directly to the
Doniinant, or the Dominant to the Tonic, without
the interpolation of any other note between the
two ; and, iu these cases, the rule is absolute.


Subject. Answer. Subject.


(2) When the Tonic and Dominant appear
I'i'ss prominent positions, the extent to whic
Rule I can be observed must be decided by tf
Composer's musical instinct. Beginners, wl
have not yet acquired this faculty, must carefuL
observe the places in which the Tonic and D<
niinant occur ; and, in approaching or quittin
those notes, must treat them as fixed points 1
which it is indispensable that the general contoi
of the passage should accommodate itself.

(n) Dominant, answered by Tonic, at (c).

(t) Dominant, answered by Supertonic, at W).

(3) The observance of Rules i and 2 wi!
ensure compliance with the next, which ordain
that all passages formed on a Tonic Harmony, i
the Subject, .'^hall be formed upon a Dominan
Harmony in the Answer, and vice versd.



Tonic "^'

(4^ The Third, Fourth, and Sixth of the ScjOi
should be answered by the Third, Fourth, aii(
Sixth of the Dominant, respectively.

(a) Sixth or Tonic. (61 Tliird of Tonic, (c) Fourth of Tonic.
{d) SixUi of Dominant (c) Third of Dominant.
<J) Fourth of Dominant.

(5) The Interval of the Diminished Seventh,
whether ascending or descending, should be an-
swered by a Diminished Seventh.


(6) As a general rule, all Sevenths should be
answered by Sevenths ; but a Minor Seventh,
ascending from the Dominant, is frequently an-
swered by an ascending Octave ; in which case,
its subsequent descent will ensure conformity with
Rule 4, by making the Third of the Dominant
answer the Third of the Tonic.







j) The most difficult note of the Scale to
iwer is the Supertonic. It is frequently ne-
sary to reply to this by the Dominant ; and
en the Tonic is immediately followed by
! Supertonic, in the Subject, it is often ex-
lient to reiterate, in the Answer, a note,
ich, in the original idea, was represent«d by
a distinct Intervals ; or, on the other hand, to
iwer, by two different Intervals, a note which,
the Subject, was struck twice. The best safe-
ird is careful attention to Rule 3, neglect of
ich will always throw the whole Fugue out
Subject. Answer.



(a) (b) (c) (d) '-^ -^-

(a) Tonic, answered by Dominant, at (c).
(6) Supertonic, answered by Dominant, at(iJ).

simple as are the foregoing Rules, great judg-
nt is necessary in applying them. Of all the
dities needed in a good Tonal Subject, that of
jgesting a natural and logical Tonal Answer
the most indispensable. But some Subjects
I so difficult to manage that nothing but the
ight of genius can m.ike the connection between
! two sufficiently obvious to ensure its recogni-
n. The Answer is nothing more than the pure
bject, presented under another aspect : and,
less its effect shall exactly correspond with
it produced by the Subject itself, it is a bad
3wer, and the Fugue in which it appears a
1 Fugue. A painter may introduce into his
iture two horses, one crossing the foreground,
ictly in front of the spectator, and the other

such a position that its figure can only be
dy represented by much foreshortening. An
lorant observer might believe that the pro-
"tions of the two animals were entirely
Ferent ; but they are not. True, their actual
sasurements differ; yet, if they be correctly
iwn, we shall recognise them as a well-
itched pair. The Subject and its Answer
er a parallel case. Their measurement (by
tervals) is different, because they are placed

a different aspect ; yet, they must be so ar-
[iged as to produce an exactly similar effect,
e have shown the principle upon which the
rangement is based to be simply that of an-
■ering the Tonic by the Dominant, and the
Dminant by the Tonic, whenever these two
tes foUow each other in direct succession;
th the farther proviso, that all passages of
elody formed upon the Tonic Harmony shall
: represented by passages formed upon the
ominant Harmony, and vice versa. Still, great
fficulties arise, when the two characteristic
ites do not succeed each other directly, or,
tien the Harmonies are not indicated with
evitable clearness. The Subject of Handel's
lorus, 'Tremble, guilt,' shows how the whole
anc of the Answer sometimes depends on the

change of a single note. In this case, a per-
fectly natural reply is produced, by making the
Answer proceed to its second note by the ascent
of a Minor Third, instead of a Minor Second,
as in the Subject — i.e. by observing Rule 4, with
ret;ard to the Sixth of the Tonic.

-i-c • — ■ — •-

:l — t>-*E=







The Great Masters frequently answered their
Subjects in Contrary Motion, giving rise to
an apparently new Theme, described as the In-
verted Subject (/?irecs?o ; Rivolta, Rivolzimento;
UmJcehrung). This device is usually employed
to keep up the interest of the Composition, after
the Subject has been discussed in its original
form : but some Masters bring in the Inverted
Answer at once. This was a favourite device
with Handel, whose Inverted Answers are so
natural, as to be easily mistaken for regular ones.
The following example is from Cherubini's
' Credo ' already mentioned.


-^- r ^


Inversion ; or Answer in Contrary Motion.

Another method of answering is by Diminu-
tion, in which each note in the Answer is made
half the length of that in the Subject. This,
when cleverly done, produces the effect of a new
Subject, and adds immensely to the spirit of the
Fugue; as in Bach's Fugue in E, No. 33 of
the XL VIII, bars 26-30 ; in the Fugue in Cjf
minor, No. 2 7 of the same set ; and. most espe-
cially, in Handel's Chorus, ' Let all the Angels.'

Answer, by idimiiiutiou.
Allied to this, though in the opposite direc-
tion, is a highly effective form of treatment iDy
Au"mentation, in which each note in the An-
swer is twice the length of that in the Subject,
or in Double Augmentation, four times its length.
The object of this is, to give weight to massive
passages, in which the lengthened notes produce
the effect of a Canto fermo. See Bach's Fugue

1 The ' Answer 'here might with equal propriety be considered as the
' Subject ' ; in which case the answer would be l)y Augmentation.



in DJ minor, no. 8, in the XLVIII, and many
other celebrated instances.

Subject. Cherubini. ' Et vitam.'

Answer, by Augmentation.




By these and similar expedients, the one Sub-
ject is made to produce the effect of several new
ones; though the new Jioitro is simply a modified
form of the original.

But a good Subject must not only suggest a
good Answer : it must also suggest one or more
subsidiary Themes so constructed as to move
against it, in Double Counterpoint, as often as it
may appear.' These secondary Themes are called
Counter -Subjects {Contra-iSubjcctum; Contra-
Tema; Contra-subjcJd;Contre-sujet). The Counter-
Subject or Counter-Subjects, however numerous
they may be, must not only move in Double
Counterpoint with the Subject, but all must be
capable of moving together, in Triple, Quadruple,
or Quintuple Counterpoint, as the case may be.
Moreover, after the Subject has once been proposed,
it must nevermore be heard, except in company
with at least one of its Counter-Subjects. The
Counter-Subjects usually appear, one by one, as
the Fugue develops ; as in Bach's Fugue in Cjf
Minor — No. 4 of the XLVIII. Less frequently,
one, two, or even three Counter-Subjects appear
with the Subject, when first proposed, the Com-
position leading off, in two, three, or four Parts,
at once. It was an old custom, in these cases,
to describe the Fugue as written upon two,
three, or four Subjects. These names have
sometimes been erroneously applied even to
Fugues in which the Counter-Subjects do not
appear until the middle of the Composition,
or even later. For instance, in Wesley and
Horn's edition of Bach's XLVIII, the Fugue
in Cj minor is called a ' Fugue on 3 Subjects,'
although the real Subject starts quite alone,
the entrance of the first Counter-Subject taking
place at bar 35, and that of the second at bar
49. Cherubini very justly condemns this no-
menclature, even when the Subject and Counter-
Subjects begin together. 'A Fugue,* he says,
'neither can nor ought to have more than one
principal Subject for its exposition. All that

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 31 of 194)