George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 34 of 194)
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systems, ifnofcofmusical theory generally. Tonio
Sol-faists are taught to regard a minor scale a3
a variant of the relative major, not of the tonic
major, and to sol-fa the sounds accordingly. The
learner is made to feel that the special ' minor '
character results from the dominance of the hih,
which he already knows as the plaintive sound of
the scale. The ' sharpened sixth' (reckoning from
the lah), when it occurs, is called ba (the only
wholly new sound -name used (see the modulator,
above), and the ' leading ' tone is called se, by
analogy with te (Italian si) of the major mode.
Thus the air is written and sung; as follows : —

4 — »— ■ - ^^ — • — I — I '-

If God be for ns, who can be a ■

• — _ • > r__

who can he

Key Bb.



1, d









If God








n :1,

gainst us ?










it us ? who can be a - gainst us ?

It, : 1, : d Is : -.f : n I r : d

Igainst us? who I can be a- 'gainst us?

tperience appears to show that, for sight-read-

lurposes, this is the simplest way of treating

linor mode. Some musicians object to it on

round that, as in a minor scale the lowest (and

jst) sound is essentially a tonic, in the sense

it plays a part analogous to that of the do

major scale, calling it la seems an incon-

jicy. But this seems a shadowy objection.

only important question is, what sign, for

and ocular use, will best help the singer to

■nise, by association with mental effect, one

1 as distinguished from another ? Experience

s that the Tonic Sol-fa plan does this

ually. The method is also theoretically

i. It proceeds on the principle that simi-

r of name should accord with similarity of

al effect. Now as a fact the scale of A

r is far more closely allied to the scale of C

r than it is to the scale of A major. The

ity of ' signature ' itself shows that the sub-

ial identity of the two first-named scales has

js been recognised. But a proof more effec-

ihan any inference from signs and names is

given by the practice of composers in the

jr of modulation. The scales most nearly

id must evidently be those between which

Jation is most frequent ; and changes be-

1 tonic major and relative minor (type, C

to and from A minor) are many times

frequent than the changes between tonic

major and tonic minor (type, C major to and from
C minor). In Handel's music, for instance, the
proportion is some nine or ten to one.^ If there-
fore the Tonic »Sol-faist, in passing from C major
to A minor, changed his doh, he would be adopt-
ing a new set of names for what is, as near as
may be, the same set of sounds.

The examples above given show the notation
as applied to simple passages ; the following will
show how peculiar or difficult modulations may
be rendered in it : —

1 The best summary account of this system for the musician is
given in 'Tonic Sol Fa," one of the 'Music Primers' edited by Dr.
Stainer (Xovello).

2 In 'Judas' the transitions from major to relative minor, and
from minor to relative major, are, as reckoned by the writer, 67 in
number ; the transitions from major to tonic minor, and from
minor to tonic major, being only 7. The practice of centuries in
points of technical nomenclature cannot, of course, be reversed, but
it is plain that the phrase ' relative ' minor is deceptive. The scale
called ' A minor' would be more reasonably called (as its signature
in effect calls it) C minor. It has not been sufficiently noticed that
the different kinds of change from minor to major are used by com-
posers to produce strikingly different effects. The change to rela-
tive major (e. g. A minor to major) is the ordinary means of
passing, say, from the dim to the bright— from pathetic to cheerful.
But the change to tonic major (.\ minor to A major) is a change to
the intensely bright— to jubilation or triumph. A good instance is
the beginning of the great fugue in 'Judas,' 'We worship God'— a
point of extraordinary force. Another is the well-known choral
finale in ' Mosu in Egitto,' ' Dal tuo stellalo sogUo,' where, after the
repetition in three successive verses of the change from G minor to
Bb major, giving an effect of reposeful serenity, the culminating
effect, the great burst of triumph in the last verse, is given by the
change from G minor to G major. Other instances are the passage
in ' Elijah '— ' His mercies on thousands fall '—and the long prepared
change to the tonic major which begins the finale of Beethoven's
C minor Symphony.

L 2 •



They stand be-fore Gods throne,

Key Gk.
=i3 I m I f : _.r

and serve him day and

■ r : -.r I f

: -.t, I d
-.t, I d :

: d

night. And theLambshalUeadthem to foun-tainsofliv-ingwa-ters. | "T., 1 , :d. t , ,t , [ m,r,r:t,.S, I r.d||

G : Seven removes,
ma 1






51=:^: ■


^ — *-


^ {

Af-fright-ed fled hell's spi-rits black in throngs.

Doivn they sink in the deep a - byss to

In the teaching of Harmony the Tonic Sol-fa
method puts forward no new theory, but it uses
fi chord-nomenclature which makes the expres-
sion of the facts of harmony very simple. Each
chord is represented by the initial letter, printed
in capitals, of the sol-fa name of its essential
root, thus —



the various positions of the same chord being
distinguished by small letters appended to the
capital, thus —


l>a or D Db


Harmony being wholly a matter of relative, not
absolute pitch, a notation based on key-relation-
.ship has obvious advantages as a means of indi-
cating chord-movements. The learner has from
the first been used to think and speak of every
sound by its place in a scale, and the familiar
sj'mbols m, f, etc. convey to him at once all that
is expressed by the generalising terms ' mediant,'
' subdominant,'etc. Another point in the method,
as applied to Harmony teaching, is the promi-
nence given to training the ear, as well as the
eye, to recognise chords. Pupils are taught, in
class, to observe for themselves how the various
consonances and dissonances sound ; and they are
practised at naming chords when sung to them.

The Tonic Sol-fa method began to attract
public notice about the year 1850. Its great
success has been mainly due to the energy and
■enthusiasm of Mr. John Curweu, who died in
June iSSo, after devoting the best part of his
life to the work of spreading knowledge of music
auiong the people. Mr. Curwen [see Cdrwen,
A)ipendix], born in 1S16, was a Nonconformist
minister, and it was from his interest in school
-and congregational singing that he was led to
take up the subject of teaching to sing at sight.

KeyEb. Lali is C.

1 : — I-

■t, |1,

1 . —

: d' I 1 :

]1 :-l-
— I m :

-Id : -! t,

— 1 1,



His sj-stem grew out of his adoption of a plan
Sol-faing from a modulator with a letter no
tion, which was being used with success
teaching children some forty years ago, bj '1
benevolent lady living at Norwich. He alwj '
spoke of thisl;idy,MissElizabethGlover(d. 186
as the originator of the method. Her roo
idea developed utider his hand into a compl
method of teaching. He had a remarkable
for explaining principles in a simple way, a
his books strike the reader throughout by th
strong flavour of common sense and incess;
appeal to the intelligence of the pupil. TI
abound with acute and suggestive hints on ■
art of teaching : and nothing, perhaps, has m
contributed to the great success of the metl
than the power wliich it has shown of mat
teachers easily. A wide system of examinati'
and graduated ' certificates,' a college for train
teachers, and the direction of a large organi
tion were Mr. Curwen's special work. [See To:
SoLFA College.] For some time the syst
was looked on with suspicion and disfavour
musicians, chiefly on account of the novel lool
the printed music, but the growing importanc*
its practical results secured the adhesion of mi
cians of authority. Hehnholtz, viewing it from
scientific as well as the practical side, remar)
in his great work on Sound (1S63) on the va
of the notation as 'giving prominence towha
of the greatest importance to the singer,
relation of each tone to the tonic,' and descri'
how he had been astonished — ' raich in Erstau!
setzen' — by the 'certainty' with which *aci
of 40 children, between S and 12 in a Brit
and Foreign school, read the notes, and by
accuracy of their intonation.'* The criti(
jection which the Tonic Sol-faists have to
is, that the pupil on turning to the use
Staff notation has to learn a fresh set of
Their reply to this is, that as a fact two-i
of those who become sight-singers from the
notation, spontaneously learn to read from
staff. They have learnt, it is .said, ' the th
music,' something which is independent of i
system of marks on paper ; and the transitioi
a set of new symbols is a matter which cif^'
hardly any trouble. With their habitual •■

1 Tonempfindung. App. XVIII. (Ellis p. 639). Professor Helm «
coufiimeU this experience in conversation with the writer in l£b .



ience on tlie scale they have only to be told
. such a line of the staff is doh, and hence
; the next two lines above are me and soli,
they are at home on the staff as they were
he modulator. The testimony of musicians
choiiTnasters confirms this.^ Dr. Stainer,
instance, says (in advocating the use of the
.hod in schools) : ' I find that those who have
.lent for music soon master the Staff notation
T they have learnt the Tonic Sol-fa, and
Dme in time good musicians. It is therefore
ite a mistake to suppose that by teaching the
Ac Sol-fa system you are discouraging the
uisition (the future acquisition) of Staff music,
,. so doing a damage to high art. It may be
I, if the systems so complement one another,
ly do you not teach both ? But from the time
t can be devoted to musical instruction in
ools it is absurd to think of trying to teach
I systems at once. That being so, then you
st choose one, and your choice should be
erned by the consideration of which is the
pier for young persons, and there cannot be
oubt which is the simpler.' This testimony
upported by a general consensus of practical
chers. The London School Board find that
1 the teachers prefer to teach by the Tonic
-fa method,' and have accordingly adopted it
oughout their schools ; and it now appears
.t of the children in English primary schools

are taught to sing by note at all, a very large
iportion (some 80 per cent) learn on this plan,
far too many schools still, the children only
m tunes by memory, but the practicability of
'eal teaching of music has been proved, and
re is now fair hope *hat ere long the mass of

1 population may learn to sing. The following
ires, from a pailiamentary return of the
umber of Departments ' in primary schools in
ich singing is taught (1880-1), is interesting,
ey tell a tale of lamentable deficiency, but show
what direction progress maj- be hoped for : —



^ J «■

= i




3 .


^ s



:= «










lool Board Scho^ls

England and Wales) .






her Schools

England and Wales) ,.


628 1278



hoolsin Scotland ..


8 1648



fVriting down a tune sung by a teacher has
V become a familiar school e.xercise for
glish children, a thing once thought only
isible to advanced musicians ; and it has
!ome common to see a choir two or three
lusand strong singing in public, at first sight,
anthem or part-song fresh from the printer's
ids. Such things were unknown not many
krs back. In the great spread of musical
Bwledge among the people this method has

[tis stated that o{2025pupils who took the ' Intermediate Certi-
e' in a parlicutar year. 13*27 'did so with the optional require-
it of singing a hymn-tune at sight trom the Staff-notation.'

played a foremost part, and the teaching of the
elements is far from being all that is done.
Some of the best choral singing now to be
heard in England is that of Tonic Sol-fa choirs.
The music so printed includes not only an im-
mense quantity of part-songs, madrigals, and
class-pieces, but all or nearly all the music of
the highest class fit for choral use — the oratorios
of Handel, masses by Haydn and Mozart, can-
tatas of Bach, etc. One firm alone has printed,
it is stated, more than i6,oco pages of music.
Leading English music-publishers find it de-
sirable to issue Tonic Sol-fa editions of choral
works, as do the publishers of the most popular
hymn-books. Of a Tonic Sol-fa edition of the
'Messiah,' in vocal score, 39,000 copies have
been sold.

To the pushing forward of this great and
beneficent work of spreading the love and know-
ledge of music, Mr. Curwen devoted his whole
life, and seldom has a life been spent more
nobly for the general good. He was a man of
singularly generous nature, and in controversy,
of which he naturally had much, he was re-
markable for the perfect candour and good temper
with which he met attack. If the worth of a man
is to be measured by the amount of delight he
is the means of giving to the world, few would
be ranked higher than Mr. Curwen. His was
a far-reaching work. Not only has it been, in
England, the great moving force in helping on
the revival of music as a popular enjoyment, but
it has had a like effect in other great com-
munities. We read of the forming of choral
classes, in numbers unknown before, in New
Zealand, Canada, Australia, India, the United
States. Even from savage and semi-savage
regions — Zululand or Madagascar — come ac-
counts of choral concerts. When one thinks of
what all this means, of the many hard-working
people all over the world who have thus been
taught, in a simple way, to enter into the enjoy-
ment of the music of Handel or Mendelssohn,
of the thousands of lives brightened by the
possession of a new delight, one miglit write on
the monument of this modest and unselfish
worker the words of the Greek poet : ' The joys
that he hath given to others — who shall declare
the tale thereof.' -

Of the ' Galin-Cheve ' method of teaching
sight-reading, which is basetl, broadly speaking,
on the same principle as the Tonic Sol-fa method,
a notice is given under Cheve, in the Ap-
pendix. [E.B.L.]

the few public institutions in England wholly
devoted to promoting the knowledge of music.
It was founded by Mr. Curwen (see preceding
article) in 1S69, in order to give stability and
permanence to the Tonic Sol-fa system of teach-
ing, and was definitely established in its present
form in 1875 ^7 incorporation under the Com-
panies Act 1862. The College is chiefly an

tKeii'OS oca. xapixaT dAAoi? edijKef,
Tts av (j>pa.<rai. &vvano ; PiNDAn.



examining bod}', but it also carries on the teach-
ing of music (mainly directed to the training of
teachers) by means of lectures and correspondence
classes. The buildings, lecture-rooms, offices,
etc., are at Forest Gate, E., an eastern suburb of
London, some twenty minutes' railway journey
from the City.

The examinations are based on a system of
graded certificates, arranged so as to test the
progress of pupils from the earliest stage. From
the elementary certificate upwards the power to
sing at sight is demanded. The higher certificates
are granted upon a paper examination combined
with vocal tests, on the rendering of which the
local examiner has to report to the College. The
official report gives the number of certificates
granted in the year 1S79-80 at 15,755, which
was 964 more than in the previous year. The
number of persons entered in correspondence
classes was 4729. The subjects of these were
Harmony-Analysis, Musical Composition (four
stages). Staff Notation, Musical Form, Musical
and Verbal Expression, Counterpoint, English
Composition, Organ -fingering and Chord-naming.
Students from all parts of the world enter these
correspondence classes. The College further or-
ganises a summer term of study, lasting for six
weeks in vacation time, whicli is attended by
young teachers and students from Great Britain,
the Colonies, etc. A great point is made of the
art of presenting facts to the learner, and of
cultivating the intelligence as well as the ear and
voice. The students give model lessons, which
their teachers criticise. The total number of
certificates issued by the College up to the
present time (September i S84) is stated to be as
follows: — ^junior, 51,500; elementarj', 163,850;
intermediate, 44,073; matriculation, 3.367; ad-
vanced, 525. The receipts for the year 1S83-S4
were £1398, the payments £904. Tlie total
payments for the new buildings were £3635.
Altogether the published reports of the College
give an impression of a vast amount of useful
work carried on with thoroughness and spirit.

The College has 1465 shareholders, and is
governed by a council, in the election of which
every holder of a ' Matriculation ' certificate has
a vote. The constitution of the council is some-
what curious. It is composed of 48 membei's
elected in eight classes of six members each, and
drawn from the following classes of society : —
(a) handworkers, (b) clerks and employes, (c)
masters in commercial or professional occupations,
(c?) schoolmasters, (e) professional musicians, (/)
clergymen and ministers, (g) persons of literary
and other qualifications, and {h) honorary mem-
bers. The object of this arrangement is to prevent
the College getting into the hands of any one
interest or party. The present president is ilr.
J. Spencer Curvven, A.R.A.M., who succeeded
his father, the founder, in iSSo. [li.B.L.]

founded in Dresden in 1854 ^'^'^ *^® popularisa-
tion of good chamber-music. It took its rise from
Eichard Pohl's evenings for the practice of
chamber-music, and its first and present presi-


dent is Herr Fiirstenau. The following m ^'
sicians are, or have been, honorary members :- ■'
Von Billow, Chrysander, Hauptmann, Otto Jah ''*-
Joachim, Lauterbach, Julius Rietz, Clara Sch' ^
manu, and Ferdinand David. By degrees orche ''^
tral works were introduced into the practic TO
and performances. Out of 992 works playi [eJ
between 1S54 and 1S79, 116 were in MS., 5 nbli
being by membeis and 21 by non-membei m
These figures show the liberality of the socie m
in producing the work of modern artists. Fu %{
thermore, it possesses a considerable library, h m
provided lectures on the science of music by stu rf'
men as Fiirstenau, F. Heine, Eiihlmann, ai.ti
Schneider (author of the ' History of the Lied im.
and in all respects amply fulfilled its profess at
object, the promotion of the art of music. Aft m.
an existence of 25 years, it musters 195 ordinal Jji
members (practical musicians) and 164 extfT ib
ordinary ones. For further details see the !Pl i^
tival prospectus of 1879. {FM a

bass drum as thunder. This direction occurs rfti
Herold's overture to ' Zampa,' and a few ott
works, and means a roll. But as the bass dru
is played with one stick only, the roll
best executed with a two-headed sti(i
{Tampon or Maillocke double), as mat -
in Paris, by Tournier, Boulevai b
St. Martin. It is held in the middl '«
where it is i^inch in diameter, so thi
the roll is easily made by an altema
motion of the wrist. The stick, ending i
a round knob at each end, is turned o\
of a piece of ash ; the knobs are thick]
covered with tow and a cap of chamo
leather, and are both of the same size. Wht
finished the heads are about 2| inches in diamete
and the same in length. The length of the who
stick is 12 J inches. [V. deP

TONOMETEE. [See Scheibleb, vol. ii
p. 243^. Also Tuning-fork.]

TOECULUS, or Cephaliccs. A Neunn
indicating a group of three notes, of which tt
second was the highest ; as C, D, C. [See vo
ii. pp. 467 h, 468 a]. [W.S.R

TOEELLI, Giuseppe, violinist and compose
was born about the middle of the 1 7th centur
He lived for many years in Bologna as leader (
a church orchestra, but in 1701 accepted tb
]30st of leader of the band of the Markgraf (
Brandenburg- Anspach at Anspach in German]
where he died in 1708. To him is generally at
cribed the invention of the ' Concerto ' — or, mor
correctly speaking, the application of the sonata
form to concerted music. His most importan
work, the Concerti grossi, op. 8, were publisher
at Bologna, 1709, three years earlier than Co
relli's Concerti grossi. They are written for
obligate violins and stringed orchestra, and ar
said clearly to present the main features of th
concerto-form, as used by Corelli, Handel, am
others. According to Fetis, eight works of hi
have been published — all in concerted style, fo
2, 3, or 4 stringed instruments. [P.D.


TORQUATO TASSO. Lyric drama in 4

ts ; libretto by Ferretti, music by Donizetti.

•oduced at the Teatro Yalle, Rome, in the

tumn of 1833 j ^t -S- •^^' Theatre, London, Mar.

1840. [G.]

TORRANCE, Rev. George William, M.A.,

us. D. University of Dublin, born at Rathmines,

ublin, in 1835. Educated as a chorister in

irist Church Cathedral, he afterwards became

ccessively organist of Blackrock, Dublin, and

the city churches of St. Andrew and St. Anne.

mong his earlier comijositions was a 'TeDeum'

id ' Jubilate,' sung in Christ Church Cathedral.

t 19 he composed his first oratorio, *Abra-

im,' which was performed in 1S55 at the An-

ent Concert Rooms, Dublin, by all the leading

usicians of the city, Sir Robert Stewart pre-

iing at the organ and the composer conducting.

^.braham' was performed four times in two years.

I was rightly deemed a wonderful work for a

' ere lad to produce ; the airs were written after

le manner of Beethoven, the choruses followed

lat of Handel : of plagiarism there was none, and

the work was lacking in experience, it was yet

bold and successful effort for a boy in his teens.

1 1856 Mr. Torrance visited Leipsic, and during

is studies in that city became acquainted with

[oscheles and other eminent musicians. Upon

is return he produced an opera 'William of

rormandy,' and several minor works, some of

hich have since been published. In 1859 Mr.

orrance entered the University of Dublin, with

view to studying for the ministry of the Church

f England ; here he graduated in Ai*ts in 1864,

nd produced the same year a second oratorio,

The Captivity,' to Goldsmith's words. He took

le degree of M. A. at the University in 1867, was

rdained deacon in 1865, and priest in 1866.

In 1869 he emigrated to Melbourne, Victoria.
n 1879 he obtained the degrees of Mus. B. and
lus. D. from Dublin University, on the recom-
lendation of Sir Robert Stewart, Professor of
lusic in the University, the 'Acts' publicly
erformed for the degree being, for Mus.B. a Te
)eum and Jubilate (composed 1878 , for Mus.D.
selection from his oratorio ' The Captivity.'
[e received an honorary degree of Mus. D. ad
[indem from the Melbourne University, the first
nd only degree yet conferred in Music by that

Ini882 Dr. Torrance produced a third oratorio,
The Revelation ' ; this was performed with great
access in Melbourne, the composer conducting,
le was elected president of the Fine Arts section
f the ' Social Science Congress ' held in Mel-
loume in 18S0, when he delivered the opening
ddress on Music, since published. In 1883 he
ras appointed by the Governor of Victoria to
le one of the Examiners for the ' Clarke Scholar-
hip' in the Royal College of Music.

He is also the author of a paper on ' Cathedrals,
heir constitution and functions,' and is at present
Jicumbent of Holy Trinity Church, Balaclava,
lear Melbourne, a handsome new church recently
milt, with a fine 3-manual organ constructed
pecially to be played by himself during service.



We believe Dr. Torrance to be the only Doctor
of Music in the southern hemisphere — although
many able musicians are settled in the principal
cities. [R.P.S.]

acts ; libretto by Sterbini, music by Rossini. Pro-
duced at the Teatro Valle, Rome, Dec. 26, 1815 ;

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