George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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result is a powerful well-proportioned mass of sound.

It may be well then, without writing an organ
tutor, which is beyond the scope of such a work
as this, to give a few hints on the management
of the organ.

The selection and combination of stops is a
matter of considerable difficulty, partly because
stops of the same name do not produce the same
effect. Undoubtedly much larger use should be.
made of single stops. The most important stop
of all — the open Diapason — is very seldom heard
alone, being nearly always muffled by a stopped
Diapason, and yet when used by itself it has a
clear distinctive tone very pleasant to listen to.
Eeeds too, when good, are much brighter when
unclouded by Diapason tone, and this is espe-
cially the case witli a Clarinet or Cremona, though
both are coupled almost always with a stopped
Diapason. Organ-builders seem to have a craze
on this point. The writer has often noticed that
they ask for the two to be drawn together. The

M 2


employment of single stops has this further ad-
vantage in an instrument of such sustained
sound, and which it is almost impossible to keep
quite in tune, that the unison beats are then not
heard. Families of stops should be oftener heard
alone. These are chiefly (i) stops with open
pipes, such as the open Diapason, Principal,
Fifteenth ; (2) stops with closed pipes, sucli as
the stopped Diapason, Flute and Piccolo ; (3)
Harmonic stops ; (4) Reeds. Stop.s of the Gamba
type nearly always spoil Dia]iason tone. 16-
feet stops on the manuals should be used spar-
ingly', and never when giving out the subject of a
fugue, unless the bass begins. The proper place
for the mixture work has already been indicated
in the extract from Helmholtz. It would be
■well if organs possessed composition pedals,
drawing classes of stops, rather than, or in addi-
tion to, those which pile up the tone from soft to

Couplers are kept drawn much more than they
ought to be, with the effect of half depriving
the player of the contrast between the different
manuals. The writer knew a cathedral organist
who commenced his service by coupling Swell to
Great, and Swell to Choir, often leaving thera to
the end in this condition. Another evil result
of much coupling is that the pipes of different
manuals ai-e scarcely ever affected equally by
variations of temperature, and the Swell of
•course being enclosed in a box is often scarcely
moved, so that at the end of an evening the heat
of gas and of a crowd will cause a difference of
almost a quarter of a tone between the pitch of
the Great and Swell Organs. On this account
every important instrument ought to have a
balanced Great Organ which does not need sup-
plementing by the Swell Reeds for full effect.

The Pedal Organ is now used far too fre-
quently. The boom of a pedal Open, or the in-
distinct murmur of the Bourdon, become very
irritating when heard for long. There is no
finer effect than the entrance of a weighty pedal
at important points in an organ-piece, but there
are players wlio scarcely take their feet from the
pedal-board, and so discount the impression.
Care should be taken to keep the pedal part
fairly near the hands. The upper part of the
pedal-board is still too much neglected, and it is
common to hear a player extemporising with
a humming Bourdon some two octaves away
from the hand parts.

The old habit of pumping the Swell Pedal
■with the right foot, and hopping on the pedals
Avith the left, has now probably retired to remote
country churches, but the Swell Pedal is still
treated too convulsively, and it should be remem-
bered in putting it down that the first inch makes
more difference than all the rest put together.

In changing stops it is important to choose
the moment between the phrases, or when few
keys are down. One finds still a lingering belief
that repeated notes should never be struck on
Ihe organ. Nothing cnn be further from tlie
truth. These repercussions are a great relief
from the otherwise constant-, tyr'md of sound.



i U I


Again, the great aim of the old org.anist was t
put down as many notes as pos
,. . sible, not merely those belong

i [jar?,, — /T. ing to the chord, but as man

1 1^^ J semitones as could convenient!

si ,^ be held below each. This a

J ?J: all events does not suit th

f p ^ "^? '-^ m— modern organ, and now one oc
^ casionally detects with pleasur

even an incomplete chord. Fev
organists have the courage t
leave in its thin state the chon
w ■which is to be found on th-

last page of J. S. Bach's ' Passacaglia' (a), and ye
the effect is obviously intentional. In Wesley'
Anthem ' All go to om,
place,' at the end of th
))hrase ' eternal in the hea
vens,' we find a beautifu
chord which would be ruinec
by filling up, or by a pedal {b)
Here, as in management o;
stops, contrast and variety
are the things to be aimed at. Tiius trio
playing, such as we see in the 6 Sonatas o!M
•J. S. Bach, gives some of the keenest enjoymentj)
the instrument can afiord. The article Phras-II
ING should be read by the student. [Vol. ii.||
p. 706.] Much of it applies with almost greatetji
force to the organ than to the piano. Extem-i
porising on the organ will frequently become ant
aimless, barless, rhythndess wandering among!
the keys to which no change of stops can give:
any interest.

So much oratorio music is now sung in churches i
and in other places, where on account of the 1
expense or from other reasons, an orchestra is .
unattainable, that the organ is often called upon '
to supply the place of a full band. It cannot be
said that the artistic outcome of this treatment •
of the instrument is good. The string tone, in
spite of stops named Violin-Diapason, Gamba-
Violoncello, and others, has no equivalent in the
organ. The wind is susceptible of closer imita-
tion, but the attempt to produce with two hands
and feet the independent life and movement of
so many instruments is obviou.sly absurd. The
organist does his best by giving the background
of the picture, so to speak, upon one manual and
picking out the important features upon another.
Doubtless clever feats may be performed with a
thumb upon a third keyboard, but in this case
phrasing is usually sacrificed. The string tone
is best given by stops of the Gamba type, but of
these no organ po.?sesses enough to furnish the
proper amount, and Diapascms coupled even to
Swell Reeds have to be called into requisition.
Some stops of the small open kind fairly give
the horn-tone. Flutes, oboes, clarinets, bas-
soons, and trumpets have all been copied by the
organ builder, with more or less succes.s, but
their hard unvarying tone contrasts unfavourably
with that of their orchestral prototypes. More-
over the instrument itself varies the quality
with the intensity ; the Swell-box, though regu-
lating the intensity, leaves the quality untouched.


On tliis point an almost coni]ilete analogy may
be found in the case of painting, engraving, and
chromo-litliographs. The piano may be said to
give the engraving of an orchestral work, the
organ the chromo-lithograph with all its defects
of hard outline and want of delicate shading.
There can be no doubt that this treatment of
the organ has had a niiscliievous effect upon
organ building, organ music, and organ playing.
The employment of the organ ivith the orchestra
is not without its dangers, but the main principles
are clear. Never use imitation stops or mixtures
and hardly ever 4-ft. or 2 -ft. work. The Diapasons
and the pedal stops are the only effects which
can be used without clash and harshness. A
pedal alone has often a wonderfully fine effect.
Instances in Mendelssohn's organ parts (which
are models) will readily occur. There is a long D
at the end of the first chorus of Sullivan's
'Martyr of Antioch,' again another in Brahms's
Requiem, at the end.of No. 3, where the pedal may
be introduced with the happiest results. [See
Registration, vol. iii. p. 94.] [W.Pt.]

TREBELLI, Zelia, an operatic singer who
took the public by storm, and stepped into the high
position which she maintains to the present day.
Zelia Gilbert* was born in Paris in 183S. So
early was her talent recognised that she was taught
the piano at the age of six. Guided by her Ger-
man teacher, she learnt to reverence and enjoy
the works of Bach and Beethoven. After ten
jears her wish for instruction in singing was
encouraged by her parents, who only thought
thereby to add one other graceful accomplish-
ment to those which were to render their
daughter useful and acceptable in society. The
services of Herr Wartel were secured, and so
delighted was he with his clever pupil that he
never rested until he had persuaded her parents
to allow of his training her for the lyric stage.
Five years of close study prepared for her debut,
which was made at Madrid as Mile. Trebelli,
under the most favourable circumstances and
with complete success, Mario playing Almaviva
to her Rosina, in ' II Barbiere.'

Trebelli's appearances in the opera-houses
of Germany were a series of brilliant ti'iumphs.
Public and critics were alike carried avv^ay by
enthusiasm when they heard her rendering of
the parts of Rosina, Arsace, Orsini, Urbano,
Azucena and others. No member of Merelli's
Italian troupe was gilted with so brilliant a
voice and so much executive power. Nor could
"the audiences fail to be impressed by the ac-
tress's varied powers so rarely at the command
of one individual, Trebelli expressing at one
time the fire of an almost manly vigour, and
at another the charm of womanly tendei-ness
and delicacy. The German criticisms which
declared the voice a contralto, comparing it
with Alboni's in quality and with Schechner's
in power, were not supported by English
■opinions. As a mezzo-soprano, its brilliancy,
power and flexibility were appreciatively no-
ticed ; the artist's control over voice and action

1 ' Trebelli ' is obviously intended as the reverse of Gillebert.



enthusiastically praised. Trebelli appeared first
in London at her Majesty's Theatre, May 9th,
1S62, as Orsini in 'Lucrezia.' 'A more encour-
aging reception has seldom been awarded to
a debutante.' Since then, she has been a recog-
nised favourite with our opera and concert
audiences. Those who have long been familiar
with her appearances in frequent co-operation
with Mdlle. Titiens in the chief Italian operas,
will not easily forget the performances of Oberon,
where Trebelli's impersonation of the captive,
Fatima, was invested with peculiar charm.
More recent and more widely known is her
rendering of the very opposite character of
the heroine in ' Carmen.'

At the present time (1884) Madame Trebelli
is making a tour through the United States
with Mr. Abbey's troupe.

Madame Trebelli's marriage to Signer Bet-
tini, about 1863, was, in a few years, followed
by a separation. [L.M.M.]

TREBLE (Canto; DisJcant ; Dessus). A
general term applied to the highest voices in
a chorus or other concerted vocal piece, and
to the upper parts in concerted instrumental
music ; also to soprano voices generally. The
treble clef is the G clef on the second line of
the upper (our treble) stave ; the eighth line of
the great stave of eleven lines {Chiavc di sol,
chiave di violino ; Clef de Sol).

Its etymology does not refer it to any special
class of voice. It has been said to be a corrup-
tion of Triplum, a third part superadded to tlie
Altus and Bassus (high and low). In this case
it will have been sung by boys, who till then
will have joined instinctively in congregational
singing in unison with, or an octave above, the
tenor. Another derivation is Thurible, the vessel
in which incense is burnt in the services of the
Roman Catholic Church, from the Latin Thuri-
huliim. The portable thurible or censer was
carried and swung by boys. But there is very
strong doubt whether the thurible boys ever had
any share in the vocal part of the church services ;
and if they did not, this theory is overturned. The
thnrible-bearers would surely be called, in de-
scribing a religious procession, ' the thurifers.'
The derivation from Triplum seems therefore
the more probable. At what time ' treble' may
have found its way into English it is difficult to
say. 'Childish treble,' as the voice of old age,
appears in Shakspeare, and ' faint treble ' used
to be applied to what is commonly known as
falsetto. English amateur pianists frequently
call the right hand the treble hand. The word
Triplum as a third part was of course introduced
at a very early date, and marks a most import-
ant step in the px'ogress of part-music.

The treble clef is a modification of the letter
^ . [Clef.] It is used for the violin, flute,
hautboy, clarinet, horn, and trumpet ; also in
very high passages on the viola, violon-
cello, and bassoon. The double G clef lias
been used for tenor parts in choruses, the
music being sung an octave lower than written ;
also for the horn in low kejs. [Tenok.] [H.C.D.]




TREITSCHKE, Geokg Friedrich, author and
entomologist, deserves a place in a Dictionary of
Music, as the adapter of Joseph 8onuleithner's
libretto for Beethoven's 'Fidelio,* for its revival
in 1S14. He was born at Leipzig, Aug. 29, 1 776,
died at Vienna, June 4, 1S42. In 1793 his
father sent him for further education to Switzer-
land, and there he became acquainted with
Gessner of Zurich, wlio inspired him with a love
of literature. In 1S02 he went to Vienna, and
fell in with Baron Braun who made him manager
and librettist of the Court theatre, of which he
himself was director. In iSoo he became vice-
director of the theatre an-der-Wien, but in 1S14
returned to his former post. In 1822 the whole
of the financial arrangements of the Court theatre
were placed in his hands, and remained there
til] his death. He adapted a host of French
librettos (Cherubini's ' Deux Journees,' ' Medee,'
'Aline,' etc.) for the German stage, not always,
it must be owned, with the skill shown in ' Fi-
delio.' His connexion with Beethoven was con-
siderable. Besides the revision of ' Fidelio' in
1813-14, a letter of Beethoven to him, dated
June 6, iSii, seems to speak of a 'proposed
opera book ; another, of July 3, of a melodrama.
Beethoven supplied music to a chorus of his,
'Gerniatiia,' apropos to the Fall of Paris (March
31, 1S14), and to another chorus, ' Es ist voll-
bracht,' celebrating the entry of the Allies into
Paris, July 15, 1S15. Treitschke made a col-
lection of 2,582 species of butterflies, now in the
National INIuseum in Pesth, and was the author
of several books on entomology. His first wife,

Magdalene, nie de Caro, a celebrated dancer
— born at Civita Vecchia, April 25, 1788, died
at Vienna, Aug. 24, 1816 — was brought up in
London and Dublin, and became thoroughly
English. Introduced on the stage by Noverre, her
grace and charm created a perfect furore. She
afterwards studied under Duport, made several
tours, anil on her return to London appeared with
Vestris in the ' Caliph of Bagdad.' There in 1815
she closed her artistic careei-, went back to her
husband in Vienna, died, and was buried near
Haydn's grave, [F.G.]

TREMOLO. A figure consisting, in the case
of bowed instruments, of reiterated notes plajed
as rapidly as possible with up and ^
down bow, expressed thus with the
word tremolo or tremolando added ^
(without which the passage would ^ "^
be played according to the rhythmical value of
the notes), producing a very fine effect, if ju-
diciously used, both in fortissimo and pianissimo
passages. On the pianoforte it is a rapid alter-
nation of the parts of divided chords, repro-
ducing to a great extent the above-mentioned
effect. Good examples of Tremolo are to be
found in various branches of music — for the
Piano in the Introduction to Weber's Solo Sonata
in Ab, and in the Finale to Schubert's Rhapsodic
Hongroise, where it gives the effect of the cym-
balum or zither in the Hungarian bands; for

• Unless this refers to Fidelio.


the Piano and Violin, in the Introduction 1
Schubert's Phantasie in C (op. 159); for tl
Orchestra, in Weber's Overtures, and Schubert
Overture to Fierabras. For the PF. and Voice
good example is Schubert's song ' Am Meer.' Bei
thoven uses it in the Funeral March of the So]
Sonata, op. 26 ; in the Sonata Appassionata, an
that in C minor, op. iii. The strictly classics
PF. writers evidently did not consider iremot
without rhythm legitimate in original pian
words — another example (if such were needed
of the purity with which they wrote. The tri
molo on the PF. is therefore a reproduction
the effect of other instruments, as in Beethoven
Fimeral March just mentioned. This, thoug
written rhythmically, is, by common consen
played as a real tremolo, being clearly a repn
sentation of the roll of muffled drums. Some <
the best of the Romantic school, as Weber an
Schumann, have used the real Tremolo. Bei
thoven ends a droU note to Steiner^ on tl
dedication of the Sonata, op. 106, as follows : —

ad amicum
de amico.


1^ — g=

Ad - ju - tant! ;

2 . In vocal music the term is applied to the abu."
of a means of expression or eSiect, legitimate
used only at the right time and place, and in tl:
right way. It assumed the character of a voc;
vice about forty years ago, and is supposed to hav
had its origin in the vibrato of Rubini, firs
assuming formidable proportions in France, an
thence quickly spreading throughout the music;

The Vibrato and the Tremolo are almost equaU
reprehensible as mannerisms. Mannerisms ex
press nothing but carelessness or self-sufficiencj
and the constant tremolo and vibrato are there
fore nauseous in the extreme. Their constan
use as a means of expression is simply false, fo
if they are to represent a moral or physical state
it is that of extreme weakness or of a nervou
agitation which must soon wear out the un
fortunate victim of its influence. The tremol
is said to be frequently the result of forcing th
voice. It may be so in some cases, but it i
almost exclusively an acquired habit in this ag
of 'intensity.' It is a great mistake to say tha
it is never to be used, but it must only be Si
when the dramatic situation actually warrant
or requires it. If its use is to be banished en
tirely from vocal music, then it should equalb
disappear frcmi instrumental music, though, bi
the way, the instrumental tiemolo is more nearb
allied to the vocal vibrato. Indeed, what is callee
' vibrato ' on bowed instruments is what woulc
be ' tremolo ' in vocal music. [Vibrato.] Wha
is it that produces its fine effect in instrumenta
music ? In loud passages it expresses sometime,'
joy and exultation ; in others, agitation or ter
ror; in all cases, tension or emotion of som(

2 See Thayer, iii, EOl.


kind. In soft passages it has a beautifully -weird
and ethereal effect of half-light when not spun
lout. In vocal music it is to be used in the first-
named situations. The human voice loses its
Bteadiness in every-day life under the influence
of joy, sorrow, eagerness, fear, rage, or despair,
and as subjects for vocal treatment usually have
their fair share of these emotions, we must ex-
pect to hear both the vibrato and the tremolo
in tlieir places, and are very much disappointed
if we do not. Reason, judgment, and taste must
be brought to bear with the same kind of philo-
sophical and critical study by means of which an
actor arrives at the full significance of his part,
and it will be found that a big vocal piece like
'Ah perfido,' 'Infelice,' or 'Non piu di fieri,'
requires more psychological research than is
generally supposed. Singers, and those of this
country especially, are very little (in too many
cases not at all) alive to the fact, that the mo-
ment singing is touched, we enter upon the re-
{jion of the dramatic. In speaking generally of
dramatic singing, tlie operatic or theatrical is
understood. But the smallest ballad has its
share of the dramatic, and if this were more
widely felt, we should have better singing and a
better use of the tremolo and vibrato, which
can hardly fail to place themselves rightly if the
import of the piece to be sung be rightly felt
and understood. By tremolo is visually under-
stood an undulation of the notes, that is to say,
more or less quickly reiterated departure from
true intonation. In some eases this has been
cultivated (evidently) to such an extent as to be
utterly ludicrous. Eerri, a baritone, who flour-
ished about thirty-five years ago. gave four or five
beats in the second, of a good quarter-tone, and
this incessantly, and yet he possessed a strong
voice and sustaining power to cari'y him well
through his operas. But there is a thrill heard
at times upon the voice which amounts to neither
tremolo nor vibrato. If it is the result of pure
emotion, occurring consequently only in the right
place, its effect is very great.

The vibrato is an alternate partial extinction
and re-enforcement of the note. This seems to
have been a legitimate figure, used rhythmically,
of the fioritura of the Farinelli and Caffarelli
period, and ic was introduced in modern times
with wonderful effect by Jenny Lind in ' La
Figlia del Reggimento.' In the midst of a flood
of vocalisation these groups of notes occurred —



executed with the same brilliancy and precision
as they Avould be on the pianoforte, thus —

3 2 1 K

[See Singing, iii. 496 ; also Vibkato.] [H.C.D.]

TREMULANT. A contrivance in an organ
■producing the same effect &&iremolandom singing.

Its action practically amounts to this: — the air
before reaching the pipes is admitted into a box
containing a pallet to the end of which is attached
a thin arm of metal with a weight on the end
of it ; when the air on its admission raises the
pallet the metal arm begins to swing up and
down, thus producing alternately an increase
and diminution of wind-pressure. Its use is
generally limited to such stops as the Vox humana
and afevv otherstopschiefly of thereedfamily. The
tremulant is happily much less in vogue in this
country than on the continent, where its abuse
is simply offensive. It is difficult to conceive how
good taste can tolerate these rhythmical pulsations
of a purely mechanical pathos. [J.S.]

TRENCHMORE, an old English country
dance, frequently mentioned by writers of the
1 6th and 17th century. According to Mr. Chap-
pell ('Popular Music') the earliest mention of
it is in a Morality by William EuUeyn, published
in 1564. The character of the dance may be
gathered from the following amusing quotation
from Selden's ' Table Talk ' (16S9) : ' The Court
of England is much altered. At a solemn Danc-
ing, first you had the grave Measures, then the
Corrantoes and the Galliards, and this is kept up
with Ceremony ; at length to Trenchmorc, and
the Cushion-Dance, and then all the Company
dance, Lord and Groom. Lady and Kitchen-Maid,
no distinction. So in our Court, in Queen Eliza-
beth's time. Gravity and State were kept up. In
King James's time things were pretty well. But
in King CAarZes's time, there has been nothing
but Trenchmorc, and the Cushion-Dance, omnium
gatherum tolly-polly, hoite come toite.' Trench-
more appears first in the Dancing Master in the
fifth edition (1675), where it is directed to be
danced 'longways for as many as will.' The
tune there given (which we reprint) occurs in
'Deuteromelia' (1609), where it is called 'To-
morrow the fox will come to town.'


1st time.


TRENTO, ViTTORio, composer, born in
Venice, 1761 (or 1765), date of death unknown,
pupil of Bertoni, and composer of ballets. His
iirst, ' Mastino della Scala' (1785), was successful
enough to procure him commissions from various
towns. He was induced by Dragonetti to come
to London, and there he composed the immensely
popular 'Triumph of Love' (Drury Lane, 1 797).
His first opera buffa, ' Teresa Vedova,' succeeded,
and was followed by many others. In 1804 he
composed ' Ifigenia in Aulide.' In 1S06 he be-
came impresario in Amsterdam, and there pro-
duced with great success an oratorio 'The
Deluge' (iSoS). Soon afterwards he went to
Lisbon, also as impresario. In 1824 he returned
to Venice, and after that his name disappears.
He composed about 10 ballets, 20 operas, and a



few oratorios, one being the ' Maccabees.' His
scores are in the collectiou of Messrs. Eicoidi

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 38 of 194)