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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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Clarino). It is unnecessary to seek for the
origin of an instrument which was ah-eady fa-
miliar when the Mosaic books were written ;
at Jericho performed one of the earliest miracles ;
figured in the Hebrew ritual; preluded to the
battles around Troy; is carved on the stone
chronicles of Nineveh and Egypt ; and for
which China claims, in tlie form of the ' Golden
Horn' a far greater antiquity than these.

If, instead of following the vertical ordinate
history, we move along the horizontal line
of ethnology, we find its gradual development
from the shell, the cow, buffalo or ram's horn
through the root^ hollowed by fire, to the

1 Where the name is wrongly spelt as Troyer.

2 From the excellent ' Biographical Inde-v'tothe ' Church Hymnal '
(Dublin. 1K78I by Maior Crawlord.

' A good example of tliis, with a cupped mouthpiece scooped in
the wood, which could be played on. was shown at the Loan
Exhibition of Sc entlflc Instruments by Mr. Ba^sett, from Africa.


wooden Alpenhorn bound with birch bark^
thence to the Zinckes and Cornets of ancient
Germany, up to the Tuba and Lituus of Rome.
Both of these, which were real Trumpets, Rome
borrowed, inherited, or stole ; the former from
Etruscan, the latter from Oscan, originals. One
of the Etruscan Tubas in the British Museum has
a mouthpiece perfectly characteristic, and capable
of being played on ; two spate mouthpieces stand-
ing beside it as perfect as though just turned.

In the typical shapes above named we have
evidence of an early subdivision into two forms
of the sounding tube which has now become
fruitful of musical results. For whereas the
large-bored conical Tuba still keeps its name,
and is the mother of Bugles, Serpents, Horns,
Cornets h piston, Euphoniums, Bombardons
and the like ; the Lituus, which Forcellini
derives from the Greek \itos, tenuis, is the
small - bored cylindrical Trumpet, and the
father of all Trombones. It was early seen that >
two distinct varieties of tone quality could thus
be obtained ; the large cone and bell favouring
the production of the fundamental note and the
lower partial tones ; whereas the long contracted
pipe broke easily into harmonics, and spoke
freely in its upper octaves. Hence the Orches-
tral Trumpet, as now used, is really an S-foot
pipe overblown, like a Harmonic stop on the
Organ ; to this it owes its keenness, pungency,
power of travelling, and its marvellous superiority
in timbre over the 4-foot Cornet.

That the distinction between the Roman Tuba
and Lituus is real, needs for proof no more
scholarship than is contained in Horace's First
Ode to Maecenas :

Multos castra .juvant, et litiio tubae
Permi.\tus sonitus.

On this passage Forcellini comments, ' Sunt
qui lituum a tuba distinguunt, ex eo quod ille
equitum sit, bgec vero peditum.' The distinction
is good to-day. The Tuba was the ' Infantry
Bugle' ; the Lituus the 'Cavalry Trumpet.'

'The derivation of lituus may indeed be
originally Greek ; certainly it is proximately from
the hooked augur's stafif of the Oscans, which
had been Mercury's wand, and has become the
bishop's crozier. Cicero sets the etymology hind-
side foremost. 'Eacillum,' he says of the staff,
'quod ab ejus litui quo canitur similitudine
nomen invenit.' It might as well be said that
the horse was made with four legs and a round
body to fit the forked shafts of the cart.

Both Tuba and Lituus figure on Trajan's
column, in the triumphal procession. Vegetius
defines the former: 'Tuba — quEe directa est,
appellatur.' This straight form reappears even
in more recent times, as in a fine picture by
Baltazarini; by comparing it with the average
height of the players, it may be estimated at
about seven feet long. The Lituus is figured by
Bartolini from a marble Roman tombstone with
the inscription

M. Julius Victoe

ex colleftio

Liticinura Comicinum.


which is perhaps the first mention of a society of
professioual musicians.

A farther development of the two types above
named involved the means of bridging over the
harmonic gaps. For this purpose the slide was
obviously the first in date. [See Trombone.] Its
application to the Trumpet itself came later,
from the reason named above, that in its upper
part the harmonic series closes in upon itself so
that at a certain point the open notes become
all but consecutive and form a natural scale.
This can be accomplished by a good lip, un-
assisted by mechanism, and is probably one of
the reasons why Bach, Handel, and the older
musicians write such extremely high parts for
the instrument.^ The Bugle type, on the other
hand, developed early into hand-stopped side
holes, as in the Serpent, followed by the same,
key-stopped in the Key-Bugle, keyed Serpent, and
the identical instrument with the mongrel Greek
appellation of Ophicleide. Considerably later the
prorligious brood of Valve or 'Ventil' con-
trivances allied itself to the Bugles with fair
success. On the Trumpet - and Trombones they
are a complete failure, as they obscure the upper
harmonics, the main source of the characteristic

In the following description of the modern
Trumpet the writer has been materially assisted
by an excellent monograph published by Breit-
kopf & Hartel of Leipzig in 1881, and named
'Die Trompete in Alter und neuer Zeit, von
Hermann Eichbom.' In acknowledging his
obligations to the work he can heartily advise
its study by those who wish for more detail than
can be given in a dictiona^}^

The simple or Field Trumpet is merely a tube
twice bent on itself, ending in a beU. Hence its
Italian name Tromba doppia. The modern
orchestral or slide Trumpet, according to the
description of our greatest living player,^ is
made of brass, mixed metal, or silver, the two
latter materials being generally preferred. It
consists of a tube, sixty-six inches and three
quarters in length, and three eighths of an inch in

diameter. It is twice turned or curved, thus
forming three lengths ; the first and third lying
close together, and the second about two inches
apart. The last fifteen inches form a bell. The
slide is connected with the second curve. It is
a double tube five inches in length on each side,

1 A Tnimpet capable of producin? the high notes in Bach's Trumpet
parts has beeji made in Berlin, and was used in the performance of
the B minor ilass under Joachim at the unveiling of the statue at
Eisenach in Sept. 1884.

- In the Monatshette fur Musik-Gesch. for 1881, No. III. is a long
and interesting article by Eitner, invesliBating the facts as to the
inventor of the ' Ventil trompete.' which is said to date trom 180-2 or
1S03. The writer seems however to confuse entirely the key-system
or ■ Klappen Tj ompete ' with the ventil or valve. Valves render tlie
harmonic system of the Trumpet entirely lalse, besides deadening
its tone. Eitner's error is exposed in the preface to Eichboni's ' Die

» Harper's School for the Trumpet. Eudall, Carte & Co.



by which the length of the whole instrument
can be extended. It is worked from the centre
by the second and third fingers of the right hand,
and after being pulled back is drawn forward to
its original position by a spring fixed in a small
tube occupying the centre of the instrument.
There are five additional pieces called crooks, a
tuning bit, and the mouthpiece.

The first crook and mouthpiece increase the
length of the whole tube to 72 inches, and
give the key of F. The second gives E, the
third, Eb, the fourth, D. The fifth or largest
crook in general use is 25I inches long, making
the total length of the instrument 96 inches, and
giving the key of C. A Db, BQ, and Bb crook
may be used, but are not often i-equired. The
mouthpiece is turned from solid brass or silver,
and its exact shape is of greater importance than
is generally supposed. The cup is hemispherical,
the rim not less than an eighth of an inch in
breadth, level in surface, with slightly rounded
edges. The diameter of the cup differs with the
individual player and the pitch of the notes
required. It should be somewhat less for the
high parts of the older scores.

The natural notes begin with 8-foot C, which

is not used, and follow the harmonic series, up to

-SI- the C above the soprano

^ 2 \ ~ clef. Pedal notes seem

^ 1 — ^ = to be unknown on the

i^ *^ Trumpet.*

Practically the useful compass begins with the
Clarinet E and ends with the G in alt.

The Natural notes of the Trumpet.




Not used

.^- b^ P f^ - g:
— p^ — ^^ — I 1 i —


- ?^-=^^

Scale of the Slide Tnimpet. (Harper).


The slide is used— (i) To bring the F and A
of the fourth octave into tune. (2) To produce a
semitone below the natural note. (3) To lower
the pitch a whole tone. (4) To correct the
seventh or natural harmonic, at all times too
flat for tempered harmony. For the first
purpose it is drawn back about an inch and a
half. For the second about halfway, or 2^
inches in keys above D ; and two-thirds, or
rather over 3 inches, in keys lower than D. For

•1 Eichbom names 'Das kontra Register ' or ' Posaunen Register,'
but says ' es spricht sehr schwer an.'




the third it is drawn to its full extent or 5
inches. In the upper part of the scale above
treble C all tlie natuial harmonics are con-
secutive, and the slide is not required for pro-
ducing intervals of a whole tone. It is in
constant use in this part of the register for
the production of chromatic intervals involving
tlie notes


The semitones do not become consecutive as
open notes until above C in alt ; -^

but such a compass is practically —y — 1

iinattainable. It will be seen from ^ ^

the table that this consecutive series *-'

really begins a tone lower, with Bb. But

:\s this is the well-known harmonic seventh not

used in music, it is commonly replaced _n

by the C depressed a tone with the ^ -g ^zz
whole length of the slide drawn out. ^-~

A number of alternative notes are given in
good instruction books, such as th;it already
quoted, by which, on the same principle, other
notes may be tempered to suit the harmony, and
Mr. Harper very judiciously sums up liis direc-
tions by saying : ' It will therefore be seen that
the required length of slide for certain notes
varies with each change of crook, consequently
when it is necessary to extend the slide, the ear
must assist the fingers.' This fact has already
been noted in regard to the Trombone, and
exists to a certain extent in the Bassoon nnd
Ophicleide. It is quite impossible on the Valve

The mediaeval use of the Trumpet is well
given in Eichborn's book already named ; but
somewhat exceeds our present limits. He states
however that Henry VIII of England had 14
Trumpeters, one 'Dudelsack' (or bagpipe), and
10 Trombones in his band, and Elizabeth, in
15S7, 10 Trumpets and 6 Trombones. Indeed,
it is in the i6th century, according to him, that
the ' building up of the art of sound ' made a
great advance. He divides the band of that day,
* the day of Palestrina and of Giovanni Gabrieli '
into seven groups, of which group 3, Zinken or
Cornets, Quart-Zinken, Krumm-horns, Quint-
Zinken, EassZinken and Serpents of the Bugle
type, group 6, Trumpets, 'Klarinen,' and 'Prin-
cipal or Field-Trumpets,' with group 7, the
Trombones, from soprano to bass, most con-
cern us.

At this period falls in Baltazai-ini's picture,
named before, of the marriage of Margaret of
Lorraine with the Duke of Joyeuse, of which we
have the music as well as the pictorial re-
presentation. Claudio Monteverde, about 1610,
has I Clarino, 3 Trombe and 4 Tromboni, in his
orchestra ; and Benevoli in a mass at Salzburg
Cathedral in 162S has 'Klarinen, Trompeten,
Posaunen' ; Prretorius in 1620, already quoted
under Trombone (p. 176) waxes enthusiastic, and
says 'Trummet istein herrlich Instrument, wenn
ein gute Meister, der es wohl und kiinstlich
zwingen kann, dariiber kommt.'

About this time began the curious distinctioin I
into Clarini and Principale which is found in I
Handel's scores, and especially in the Dettingen I
Te Deum. The Principale was obviously a large-
bored bold-toned instrument resembling our
modern Trumpet. It was apparently of S-foot
tone as now used. To the Clarino I and II of
the score were allotted floi-id, but less funda-
mental passages, chiefly in the octave above
those of the Principale. They were probably
of smaller bore, and entirely subordinate to the-
'herrlich' Principale, both in subject and in
dominance of tone. A like arrangement for three
Trumpets occurs in J. S. Bach's Choralgesang'
' Lobe den Herrn,' though the Principale is not
definitely named. The mode of scoring is aa
exact parallel to that for the three Trombones.
A good example of it also occurs in Haydn's-
Imperial Mass, where, besides the ist and 2ncl
Trumpets, there is a completely independent
3rd part of Principale character.

Beethoven's use of the Trumpet is in strong con-
trast to his use of the Horn. The Horn he delights
to honour (and tease), the Trumpet he seldom
employs except as a tutli instrument, for rein-
forcing, or marking rhythms. He takes it so high
as to produce an effect not always agreeable ;:
see the/or/e in the Allecfratto of Symphony No.
7 (bar 75) and in W\g AllcQro asmi of the Choral
Symphony (Theme of the Finale, bar 73). In
the Finale of the 8th Symphony however there
is an Fti prolonged through 1 7 bars, with mas-
terly ingenuity and very striking effect. An
instance of more individual treatment will be
found in the Recitative passage in the Agnus of
the Mass in D ; and the long flourish in the
overtures to Leonora, nos. 2 and 3, (in the
no. 2 an Eb Trumpet and in triplets, in the no.
3 a Bb one and duple figures,) can never be for-
gotten. But on the whole the Trumpet was not
a j^jcf of Beethoven's.

Schubert uses it beautifully in the slow move-
ment of the great Symphony in C as an accom-
paniment -pianissimo to the principal theme.

Mendelssohn wrote a 'Trumpet overture,' but
the instrument has no special prominence, and it
is probable that the name is merely used as a
general term for the Brass.

The only successful attempt to apply valves to
this instrument is the ' Univalve Trumpet ' of
Mr. Bassett, who brought it under the notice of
the Musical Association in 1876. It is the ordi-
nary Slide Trumpet, with the addition of a single
valve tuned in unison with the open D, or har-
monic ninth — in other words, lowering the pitch
a minor tone. This valve — worked by the first,
finger of the left hand, the instrument being held
exactly in the usual manner — does not injure in
the slightest degree the pure lone of the old
Trumpet, the bore of the main tube remaining
perfectly straight. By the use of this single
valve and the slide, it is possible to produce a
complete scale, major or minor, with a perfection
of intonation only limited by the skill of the-
player, as it is essentially a slide instrument.
The valve not only supplies those notes which


are false or entirely wantinj^ in the ordinnry
: Slide Trumpet (including even the low Ab and
Eb when plajnng on the higher crooks), but
greatly facilitates transposition andrapid passages,
while comparatively little practice is required to
become faniiiliar with its use. [W.H.S.]

TSCHAIKOWSKY, Petek Iltitsch, one of
the most remarkable Russian composers of the
day, was born April 25, 1S40, at Wi>tkinsk in the
government of Wiatka (Ural District), where his
father was engineer to the Imperial mines. In
1850 the father was nppointed Director of the
Technological Institute at St. Petersburgh, and
there the boy entered the School of Jurisprudence,
into which only the sons of high-class government
officials are admitted. Having completed the
prescribed course in 1859, ^® ^^'"^^ appointed to
& post in the ministry of Justice. In 1S62,
however, when the Conservatoire of Music was
founded at St. Petersburg, he left the service of
the state, and entered the new school as a student
of music. He remained there till 1865, studying
harmony and counterpoint under Prof. Zaremba,
and composition under Anton Rubinstein. In
1865 he took his diploma as a musician, together
with a prize me'dal for the composition of a can-
tata on Schiller's ode, 'An die Freude.' In 1866
Nicholas Rubinstein invited him to take the post
of Professor of Harmony, Composition, and the
History of Music at the new Conservatoire of
Moscow ; he held this post, doing good service as
a teacher, for twelve years. Since 1878 he has
devoted himself entirely to composition, and has
been living in St. Petersburg, Italy, Switzerland,
and Kiew. M. Tschaikowsky makes frequent
use of the rhythm and tunes of Russian People's-
8ongs and dances, occasionally also of certain quaint
harmonic sequences peculiar to Russian church
music. His compositions, more or less, bear the
impress of the Slavonic temperament — fiery ex-
altation on a basis of languid melancholy. He is
fond of huge and fantastic outlines, of bold modu-
lations and strongly marked rhythms, of subtle
melodic turns and exuberant liguration, and he
delights in gorgeous eflfects of orchestration. His
music everywhere makes the impression of genu-
ine spontaneous originality. [E.D.]

The following is a list^ of his works : —

Op. J.



Op 31

Scherzo liusse and Im-
promptu, fur PF. solo.

2. Souvenir deHapsal. 3mor-

ceaujc. PF. solo.

3. Ovenure and Ballet airs

from Opera 'Voievode.'

4. Valse Caprice iu 1). PF.


5. Komance, F minor. PF.

0, G Lieder for one voice witli

PF. accompaniment.
7. Valse Scherzo in A. PF.

«. Capriccio, Gb. PF. solo.
U. 3 Morceaux. lieverie, Polka,

Mazurka. I'F. solo.

10. 'Kocturne in F, and Hu-

morcske in G. PF. solo.

11. String-Quanet in D.

13. Symphony for Orchestra.

Ouverture Triomphale (sur

I'liymne national Daiiois;.

. G Lieder (with Eussiantu,\t;.

Fantasia for Orchestra,
' The Tempest.'
. G Jlorceaux. PF. solo.

, 6 Clavierstilcke fiber ein

, String-Quartet in F.
. Concerto Pianoforte and

Orchestra, in Bb minor.

, G Lieder.

, Serenade mcSIancolique for

Violin and Oichestra.
. fi Lieder.
. 6 Lieder.
, Symphony for Orchestra,

No. 3 in D.
. String-Quartet in Eb mijior.

1 The vacant Nos. are reserved for the Operas.

63. Suite for Orche.stra, Xo. 2,
54. IG Kinderlieder.
B.'i. Suite for Orchestra No. 3.
5G. Fautaisie, PF. and Orch.

Operas and Ballets :—

. Slarche Slave for Orchestra.
Symphonic Poem, ' Fran-
cesca von Kimini.'

33. Variations on a Theme ro-

coco for Violoncello and

34. Scherzo. Violin and Or-

chestra. [1. Voievode. Represented 1869.

3j. Concerto for Violin and 2. Opritschnik. Represented 1874.
Orchestra in D. j3. Wakula the Smith. 1876.

36. Symphony for Orchestra, 4. Schwanensee. Ballet.

No. 4, in F minor. p. Snegourotska. Drama with In-

37. Sonata for PF. in G. cidental Music.
3-i. G Lieder. [fi. Eugeny Onegin.

£9. Album d'enfants. 24 little 7. The Maid of Orleans, 1881.
pieces for PF. solo. [8. Mazeppa. 1S84.

40. 12 Stiicke. PF. solo.

41. Russian Liturgy for four Works without opus number:—

voices. I

42. 3 Pieces for Violin, with i ''^^''""'« '« I^<""eo and Juliet.
GO Russian Volksmelodien, ar-
ranged for PF. 4 hands.

Die .Jahreszeiten,' 12 PF. pieces.
Weber's Perpetuum mobile, lor

left hand only.
Coronation march for Orch.
Coronation Cantata, soli, chorus

and Orch.

Literary works :—

PF. accompaniment.

43. Suite for Orchestra. No. 1.

44. Concerto for PF. and Or-

chestra, No. 2, in G.

4.5. Caprice Italiec for Or-

40. 6 Vocal Duets.

47. 7 Lieder.

48. Serenade for String-Or-


49. '1812,' Ouverture solenneliejHarmonie-Lehre.

for Orchestra. [ Do. for Schools.

50. Trio for PF.. Violin, and Gevaert'slnstrumentations-Lehre,

Violoncello in A minor, i translated and edited.

51. 6 Morceaux. PF. solo. Lobe's (Jatechism, etc., translated
62. Vesper service, 4 voices. I into Russian.


TSCHUDI, BuRKHARDT, founder of the house
of Broadwood. [See Shudi.]

TUA, Maria Felicita, known as Teresina,
was born May 22, 1867, at Turin. She com-
pleted her musical education at the Paris ' Con-
servatoire,' where she received instruction on the
violin from M. Massart, and obtained in 18S0 a
' premium ' or first prize. She afterwards played
with brilliant success in concert tours over
the greater part of the continent. On May 5,
1883, she made her first appearance in England
at the Crystal Palace, and played with so much
success that she was re-engaged for the concert
of the following week. She played at the
Philharmonic on !May 9 and 30 ; at the Floral
Hall Concerts June 9 ; at Mr. Cusins's concert,
with whom she was heard in Beethoven's
' Kreutzer ' Sonata ; and at other concerts. She
returned to the continent, and did not re-appear
for the season of 18S4 as was expected. Apropos
to her first appearance in London, May 9, the critic
of the 'Daily Telegraph' mentioned that 'she was
heard under more favourable circumstances. Yet
even St. James's Hall is too large for an artist
whose delicacy of style and small volume of tone
suit the narrow limits of a "chamber." Her
playing was marked by very high qualities,
such as exquisite phrasing, refinement, with
power of expression and executive skill equal
to almost every call upon it.' It was also
marked by an obvious tendency to caricature
the style of a great living artist, which though
aniu.sing, hardly added to the ariiitic qualities
of Signora Tua's performances. [A.C.]

TUBA. A generic and somewhat vague title
given to the Bass instruments of the Saxhorn
family, also termed Bombardons. All of them
are furnished with valves, and are liable to the
usual defects inherent in this mode of construction.



But as they have a large mouthpiece, and require
a very loose embouchure, more can be done
towards correctinLf harmonic imperfections of
the scale by the player than in acuter instru-
ments of the same character. Tubas are maile
in many keys, in F in Germany, in Eb and Bb
in this country : as however they usually read
from the real notes, their parts require no
special transposition. Their introduction into
the stringed orchestra is entirely due to later
composers, and pre-eminently to Wagner, who
often obtains fine effects through their instru-
mentality. [W.H.S.l

given to a high-pressure reed-stop of 8 ft. pitch
on an organ. In some instruments, especially if
there are only three manuals, such high-pressure
reeds are connected with the Great Organ
manual ; but inasmuch as the pijies are of ne-
cessity placed on a separate soundboard supplied
by a different bellows to that which supplies the
ordinary flue-work, high-pressure reeds are more
often found on the fourth or Solo Organ. The
pipes of the Tuba are sometimes arranged in a
horizontal position, but whether arranged hori-
zontally or vertically, they are, as a rule, placed
high up in the framework of the instrument.
The wind-pressure of a Tuba, as measured by
an ordinary wind-gauge, varies considerablv ; in
some cases it does not exceed 7 inches, but in St.
Paul's Cathedral the pressure reaches 17^ inches,
and in the Albert Hall 23 inches or more. The
pipes are of ' large scale,' and the tongues of the
reeds are, of course, thicker than in the common
Trumpet-stop. The Tuba is not .solely used as a
Solo stop ; on large instruments, when' coupled to
the full Great Organ, it produces a most biilliant

TUBBS, James, a violin-bow maker, residing
m Wardour Street, London. His father and
grandfather followed the same occupation, their
style being founded on that of Dodd, wliose
work that of the present Mr. Tubbs also re-
sembles. The Tubbs bows, though not equal to
those of the best French makers, are esteemed
by many players for their lightness and handi-
ness. [E.J.P.]

TUCKER, Rev. William, was admitted priest
and gentleman of the Chapel Roval and minor
canon and precentor of AVestminster Abbey in
1660. He composed some excellent church music
some of which is still e.xtant. An anthem ' O
give thanks,' is printed in Page's 'Harmonia
hacra and is also included (with another) in
the ludvvay Collection (Harl. MS. 7339) A
Benedicite ' is in MS. in the library of the
Royal College of Music, and a service and
5 anthems at Ely Cathedral. He appears also

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