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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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to have been copyist at the Chapel Koyal. He
died Feb. 28, 167S-9. and was buried March i
in Westmmster Abbey cloLsters. [W.H.H.]

^ TUCJCERMAN, Samuel Parkman, Mus.D.,
born at Boston, Mass., U.S., Feb. 17, 1819! |


At an early age he received instruction in
church music and organ-playing from Charles
Zeuner. From 1S40, and for some years after, he
was organist and director of the choir in St.
Paul's Church, Boston, and during that time pub-
lished two collections of Hymn "Tunes and An-
thems, 'The Episcopal Haip' (chiefly original
compositions) and 'The National Lyre,' the latter
with S. A. Bancroft, and Henry K. Oliver. In
1S49 he went to England, to make himself
thoroughly acquainted with the English cathe-
dral school of church music, both ancient and
modern. _ For the first two years he pursued his
studies in London, and afterwards resided in
Canterbury, York, Durham, Winchester and Salis-
bury, in each of them devoting himself to his
favourite study. For about two years Dr. Tuck-
ermati lived at Windsor, and enjoyed the ad-
vantage of daily attendance at the services in
St. George's Chapel. In 1853 he took the
Lambeth degree of Doctor of "Music, and then
returned to the United States, and resumed his
connection with St. Paul's Church in his native
city. He lectured upon • Church Music in the
Old World and the New,' and gave several-
public performances of cathedral and church
music from the 4th to the 19th century. In'
1856 he returned to England, and remained'
four years. During this interval he made large
atlditions to his musical library, which at present'
contains about 2000 volumes, many of them rare
and valuable works. It includes many full scores
and a large and valuable collection of motets,
anthems, and services, both ancient and modern,
of the Italian and English schools.

Dr. Tuckerman's compositions will be foimd=
in Novello's catalogues. They comprise several
services, a festival anthem, 'I was glad,' six;
short anthems, and the anthem (or cantata) 'I
looked and behold a door was opened in heaven,'
the latter written (though not required) as a.n
exercise for his Doctor's degree. He also com -
piled and edited 'Cathedral Chants' for use in
the choirs of the Episcopal Church, in the United-
j States. This work, published in 1858, has had
a large circulation. In 1864 he edited the
'Trinity Collection of Church Music,' consisting
of hynm tunes, selected, arranged, and composed
for the choir of Trinity Church, New York, by
Edward Hodges, Mus. Doc, formerly of Bristol,,
adding to it many of his own compositions. His
MS. works contain a Burial Service, two anthems,
' Hear my prayer,' and ' Blow ye the trumpet in
Zion,' carols, chants and part-songs. In 1852 he
received a diploma from The Academy of St.
Cecilia, jRome. [Q]

TUCKET, TUCK. Tucket is the name <.f
a trumpet ^ sound, of frequent occurrence in the
works of the Elizabethan dramatists. Shake-
spere (Henry V, Act iv, Sc. 2) has, 'Then let the
trumpets sound The tucket-sonance, and the note
to mount ' ; and in ' The Devil's Law Case' (1623)
is a stage direction, ' Two tuckets by several
trumpets.' The word is clearly derived from the

1 Johnson says 'a musical instrumenf, but this is inaccurate.


Italian Toccata, which Florio ('A Worlde of
Wordes,' 159S) translates 'a touch, a touching.'
Like most early musical signals, the tucket
came to England from Italy, and thougla it is
always mentioned by English writers as a trumpet
sound, the derivation of the word shows that in
all probability it was originally applied to a drum
signal. [See vol. iii. p. 642, etc.] Francis Mark-
ham (' Five Decades of Epistles of Warre,' 1622)
says that a 'Tucquet' was a signal for marching
used by cavalry troops. The word still survives
in the French 'Doquet' or 'Toquet,' which La-
rousse explains as ' nom que Ton donne a la
quatrifenie pai-tie de Trompette d'une fanfare de
cavallerie.' There are no musical examples extant
of the notes which were played.

Closely allied with the word Tucket is the
Scotch term 'Tuck 'or 'Touk,' usually applied
to the beating of a drum, but by early writers
used as the equivalent of a stroke or blow. Thus
Gawin Douglas's 'Virgil' has (line 249) 'Her-
cules it smytis with ane mychty touk.' The word
is also occasionally used as a verb, both active
ftnd neuter. In Spalding's ' History of the
Troubles in Scotland ' (vol. ii. p. 166) is the fol-
lowing : ' Aberdeen caused tuck drums through
the town,' and in Battle Harlaw, Evergreen
(i. 85) the word is used thus : ' The dandring
drums alloud did touh.' 'Tuck of Drum' is of
frequent occurrence in Scotch writers of the
present century (see Scott's ' Rokeby,' canto iii.
stanza 17); Carlyle's Life of Schiller; Steven-
Son's 'Inland Voyage,' etc.; also Jamieson's
Dictionary of the Scottish Language, s.v. 'Tuck'
and 'Touk'). [TuscH.J [W.B.S.]

TUCZEK, a Bohemian family of artists — the
same name as Duschek or Dussek. The com-
pilers of dictionaries have fallen into much con-
fusion between the different members, of whom
the first,

(i) Fbanz, was choirmaster of S. Peter's at
Prague in 1771, and died about 1780. His son
and pupil,

(2) ViNCENZ Feanz, a singer in Count Sweert's
theatre, became accompanyist to the theatre at
Prague in 1796, Capellmeister at Sagan to the
Duke of Courland in 1798, conductor of the
tlieatre at Breslau in 1800, of the Leopoldstadt
theatre in Vienna in 1801, and died about 1820
at Pesth. He was a versatile composer, writing
masses, cantatas (one was performed at Sagan in
1798, on the recovery of the King of Prussia),
oratorios (' Moses in Egypt,' and ' Samson '),
operettas (second-rate), in German and Czech,
and music for a tragedy, ' Lanasse,' his best work.
His only printed work is the PF. score of ' Dii-
iaona,' a fairy opera in 3 acts. Another,
, (3) Franz, born at Kciniggratz, Jan. 29, 1782,
died at Charlottenburg near Berlin, Aug. 4, 1850,
a musician first in Vienna, and afterwards in
Berlin, had two daughters, of whom one married
Rott the well-known actor, and the other,

(4) Leopoldine, a pupil of Friiulein Frohlich's
at the Vienna Conservatorium from 1829-34,
played little parts at the Court theatre with
Unger, Garcia, and Moriani, from the time she



was 13, and thus formed herself as an actress.
She was also thoroughly trained as a singer by
Mozatti, Gentiluomo, and Curzi, and made her
first appearance in Weigl's 'Nachtigall und
Eabi.' In 1841, on the recommendation of Franz
Wild, Count Redern offered her a star-engage-
ment in Berlin, as successor to Sophie Lowe in
ingenue parts. Her Susanna, Zerlina, Sormam-
bula, Madeleine, etc., pleased so much as to lead
to an offer of engagement on liberal terras,,
which she accepted on her release from the Court
theatre at Vienna. She sang at the unveiling
of the Beethoven memorial in Bonn (1S45). She
made her farewell appearance in Berlin, Dec. 6,-
1861, when the king himself threw her a laurel-
wreath, and sent her a miniature laurel-tree in
silver, bearing 65 leaves, on which were written
the names of her parts, including Mrs. Ford in
' The Merry Wives of Windsor.' Her voice had
a compass of 2^ octaves, and her refined and
piquant acting made her a model soubrette. She
married an ofiicial of some position at Herr-
enburg. She was afflicted with partial par-
alysis during her later years, and frequently,
resorted to Baden near Vienna, where she died
Sept. 1883. [F.G.]

TUDWAY, Thomas, Mus. Doc, was admitted
a chorister of the Chapel Royal in or soon after
1660. On April 22, 1664, he was elected a lay.
vicar (tenor) of St. George's Chapel, Windsor.
About Michaelmas, 1670, he became organist of
King's College, Cambridge, in succession to
Henry Loosemore (whose name disappears from
the College accounts after Midsummer, 1670),
and received the quarter's pay at Christmas,
and an allowance for seven weeks' commons. He
obtained the post of instructor of the choristers
at King's College at Christmas, 1679, and re-
tained it until Midsummer, 1680. He was also
organist at Pembroke College. In 16S1 he gra-
duated as Mus. Bac. at Cambridge. On Jan. 30,
1704-5, he was chosen as Professor of Music in
the University on the death of Dr. Staggins.
Shortly afterwards he proceeded Mus. Doc, his
exercise for which — an anthem, ' Thou, O God,
hast heard our desire ' — was performed in King's
College Chapel on April 16, in the presence of
Queen Anne, who bestowed upon the composer
the honorary title of Composer and Organist ex-
traordinary to her. On July 22, 1706, he was
suspended from his offices for, it is said, in
the exercise of his inveterate habit of punning,
having given utterance to a pun which was
considered to be a libel on the University
authorities."^ His suspension continued until
March 10, 1707. He resigned his organistship
at King's College at Christmas, 1726, when he
was paid £10 in addition to his stipend. He
then repaired to London, where he passed the
remainder of his life. He was employed by
Edward, Lord Harley, afterwards Earl of Oxford,

1 Burney, Hist, of Music, iii. 459 n., relates the following anecdote,,
whicli may possibly include the obnoxious pun. ' In the time of the
Duke of Somerset's Chancellorship at Lan\bridge, during the dis-
contents of several members of the University at the rigours of his
government and paucity of his patronage, Tudway, himself a mal-
content, and joining in the clamour, said, '" The Chancellor rides us
all, without a bit in our muulhs*" '



to collect musical compositions for liim, and,
amongst others, transcribed, between 1715 and
1720, an important collection of Cathedral
Music in 6 thick 4to. vols., now in the British
Museum (Hai-1. MSS. 73.17-7342), an Evening
Service, 18 anthems, and a Latin motet by
Tudway himself being included in it. Another
Service by him is in a MS. at Ely Cathedral,
and some songs and catches were printed in the
collections of the period. He died in i 730. His
portrait is in the Music School at Oxford. For his
Collection see p. 19S of this volume. [W.H.H.]

TURK, Daniel Theophil, writer on tlieory,
born at Clausswitz near Cliemnitz in Saxony, son
of a musician in the service of Count Schonburg,
learned first from his father, and afterwards from
Homilius at the Kreuzscliule in Dresden. In
1772 he went to the University of Leipzig, where
he became the pupil and friend of J. A. Hiller,
who procured his admittance to the opera, and
the ' Grosses Concert.* About this period he
produced two symphonies and a cantata. In
1776, owing to Hiller's influence, he became
Cantor of S. Uhich at Halle, and Musikdirector
of the Univer.sity. In 1 779 he was made organist
of the Frauenkirche. Tiirk was the author of
several books on the theory of music which have
become recognised text-books : 'The chief duties
of an Organist' (17S7); ' Clavierschule * (17S9),
and a Method for beginners compiled from it
(1792); and ' Short Instructions for playing from
iigured basses' (1791); all of which passed through
several editions. In iSoS he was made Doctor
imd Profts-;or of Musical Theory by the Univer-
sity. He died after a long illness, Aug. 26, 181 3.
His compositions — PF. sonatas and pieces, and
a cantata 'The Shepherds of Bethlehem,' — once
popular, have wholly disappeared. [F.G.]

TULOU, Jeax Louis, eminent French flute-
player and composer, born in Paris, Sept. 1 2,
17S6, son of a good bassoon-player named Jean
Pierre Tulou (born in Paris 1749, died 1799);
entered the Conservatoire very young, studied
the flute with Wunderlich, and took the first
prize in 1801. He first made his mark at the
Theatre Italien, and in 1813 succeeded his master
at the Opera. In 1S16 the production of ' Le
Eossignol,' an insignificant opera by Lebrun,
gave him an opportunity of showing his powers
in a series of passages a deux with the singer
Mme. Albert, and proving himself the first
flute-player in the world. Drouet himself ac-
Itnowledged the superiority of a rival whose
style was so pure, whose intonation was so per-
fect, and who tlrew so excellent a tone from his
4-keyed wooden flute. Very popular in society,
botli on account of his talent, and for his in-
exhaustible spirits, Tulou was prompt at repartee,
and had a fund of sarcastic humour which he
littered freely on anything he disliked. His
droll comments on the rejime of the Restoration
■were resented by the Ministry in a practical form,
for he was passed over in tiie appointment of
flute-player to the Chapelle du Roi, and also in
the ))rofessorship at tlie Conservatoire on Wun-
derlich's death. In conse(iuence of this slight he


left the Opt^ra in 1822, but returned in 1S26
with the title of first flute solo. On Jan. 1,
1829, he became profes.sor at the Conservatoire,
where his class was well attended. Among his
pupils may be mentioned V. Coche, Remusat,
Forestier, Donjon, Brunot, Altes, and Demersse-
man. Tulou frequently played at the Societe des
Concerts, and wrote nmch for his instrument,
especially during the time he was teaching. His
works include innumerable airs with variations,
fantasias on operatic airs, concertos, and grand
solos with orchestra, a few duets for two flutes,
a grand trio for three flutes, solos for the Con-
servatoire exaniination.s, etc. This music is all
well-written for the instrument, and the accom-
paniments show the conscientious artist. Several
pieces are still standard works. In 1S56 Tulou
retired from the Conservatoire and the flute-
making business. His trade-mark was a night-
ingale, doubtless in allusion to the opera in which
he made his first success. Both as performer
and manufacturer he opposed Boehm's system,
and would neither make nor play on any other
flute than the wooden one with 5 keys. Never-
theless he took medals at the Exhibitions of
1834, 39, 44, and 49, was honourably mentioned
at that of 1 85 1 in London, and gained a medal
of the first class at the Paris Exhibition of 1855.
After his retirement he lived at Nantes, where
he died July 23, 1865. [G.C.}

TUMA, Franz, distinguished church-composer,
and player on the viol da gamba, born Oct. 2,
1704, at Kosteletz in Bohemia, was a ])upil of
Czernohorsky (Regenschori at Prague, with whom
he als3 fulfilled an engagement as tenor-singer),
and of J. J. Fux in Vienna. In 1 741 he became
Capellmeister to the Dowager Empress Elisabeth,
on whose death in 1750 he devoted himself en-
tirely to his muse. In 1760 he retired to the
monastery of Geras, but after some years returned
to Vienna, where he died, Feb. 4, 1774,- in the
convent of the Barmherzigen Briider. Tuma was
greatly respected by connoisseurs of music amongst
the court and nobility, and received many proofs
of esteem from Maria Theresa. His numerous
church-compositions, still, unfortunately, in MS.,
are distinguished by a complete mastery of con-
struction, and a singular appropriateness between
the harmony and the woi'ds, besides striking the
hearer as the emanations of a sincerely devout
mind. Especially' celebrated are his grand masses
in D minor and E minor, which are masterpieces
in the line of Bach. As a chorister in the cathe- of Vienna, Haydn had the opportunity of
becoming piactically acquainted with the works
of this solid master. [C. F. P.]

TUNE appears to be really the same word as
Tone, hut in course of a long period of familiar
usage it has come to have a conventional mean-
ing wdiich is quite different. The meaning of
both forms was at first no more than ' sound,'
but Tune has come to mean not only a series of
sounds, but a series which appears to have a de-
finite form of some kind, either through the
balance of phrases or periods, or the regular dis-
tribution of groups of bars or cadences. It may


be fairly defined ns formalised melody : for
whereas melody is a general term which is ap-
plicable to any fragment of music consisting of
single notes which has a contour — whether it is
found in inner parts or outer, in a motet of
Palestrina or a fugue of Bach, — tune is more
specially restricted to a strongly outlined part
which predominates over its accompaniment or
other parts sounding with it, and has a certain
completeness of its own. Tune is most familiarly
illustrated in settings of short and simple verses
of poetry, or in dances, where tlie outlines of
structure are always exceptionally obvious. In
modern music of higher artistic value it is
less frequently met with than a freer kind of
melody, as the improvement in quickness of
musical perception which results from the
great cultivation of the art in the past cen-
tury or so, frequently makes the old and
familiar methods of defining ideas and subjects
superfluous. For fuller discussion of the subject
(I see Melody. [C.H.H.P.]

' TUNE. ACT- TUNE (Fr. Entr'acte, Germ.
J Zwischenspiel), sometimes also called Curtain
I Tune. A piece of instrumental music per-
formed while the curtain or act-drop is down
between tho acts of a play. In the latter
half of the 17th century and first quarter of
the 1 8th centuiy act -tunes were composed
specially for every play. The compositions so
called comprised, besides the act-tunes proper,
the 'first and second music,' tunes played at in-
tervals to beguile the tedium of waiting for the
commencement of the play, — for it must be re-
membered that the doors of the theatre were
then opened an hour and a half, or two hours
before the play commenced — and the over-
ture. The act-tunes and previous music were
principally in dance measures. Examples may
be seen in Matthew Lock's ' Instrumental Mu-
sick used in The Tempest,' appended to his
'Psyche,' 1675 ; in Henry Purcell's * Dioclesian,'
1691; and his 'Collection of Ayres composed
for the Theatre,' 1697 ; and in two collections
of 'Theatre Music,' published early in the
1 8th century ; as well as in several MS. collec-
tions. During the greater part of the last century
movements from the sonatas of Corelli, Handel,
Boyce, and others were used as act-tunes, and at
present the popular dance music of the day is so
employed. But act-tunes, now styled ' Entr'actes,'
have been occasionally composed in modern times;
the finest specimens are those composed by Bee-
thoven for Goethe's ' Egmont,' by Schubert for
* Rosamunde,' by Weber for ' Pi-eciosa,' by Schu-
mann for ' Manfred,' and by Mendelssohn for
Shakspere's • Midsummer Night's Dream,' in-
cluding the Scherzo, the Allegro appassionato,
the Andante tranquillo and the world-renowned
"Wedding March, which serves the double purpose
of act-tune and accompaniment to the wedding
procession of Theseus and Hippolita, the act-drop
rising during its progress. Sir A. Sullivan has
also written Entr'actes for ' The Tempest,' ' The
Merchant of Venice,' and 'Henry VIII' — some
of which will be remembered when his operettas



have necessarily yielded to the changes of
fashion. [W.H.H.]

TUNING (To tune; Fr. accorder; Ital. ac-
cordare; Germ, stimmen). The adjustment to
a recognised scale of any musical instrument
capable of alteration in the pitch of the notes
composing it. The violin family, the harp,
piano, organ, and harmonium, are examples of
instruments capable of being tuned. The ac-
cordance of the violin, viola, and violoncello,
as is well known, is in fifths which are tuned
by the player. ^ The harpist also tunes his
harp. But the tuning of the piano, organ, and
harmonium, is effected by tuners who acquire
their art, in the piano especially, by long prac-
tice, and adopt tuning, particularly in this
country, as an independent calling, having little-
to do with the mechanical processes of making
the instrument. At Antwerp, as early as the-
first half of the 17th century, there were harpsi-
chord-tuners who were employed in that vocation
only ; for instance, in De Liggeren der Antwerp-
sche Sint Lucasgilde, p. 24, edited by Rombouts
and Van Lerius (the Hague) we find named as a
master Michiel Colyns, Claiersingelstelder Wyn-
vicester, i. e. harpsichord-tuner and son of a master
(in modern Flemish Clavecimbel-steller).

In all keyboard instruments the chief dif-
ficulty has been found in what is known as
'laying the scale, bearings, or groundwork,' of
the tuning; an adjustment of a portion of the
compass, at most equal in extent to the stave

with the Alto clef Iffl

from which the

remainder can be tuned by means of simple
octaves and unisons. We have records of these
groundworks by which we are enabled to trace
the progress of tuning for nearly four hundi-ed
years. The earliest are by Schlick (1511),
Ammerbach (1571), and Mersenne (1636). It
is not however by the first of these in order
of time that we discover the earliest method of
laying the scale or groundwork, but the second.
Ammerbach published at Leipzig in 15 71 an
' Orgel oder Instrument Tabulatur,' in which he
gives the following directions for the ground-
work. We will render this and the examples
which follow into modern notation, each pair
of notes being tuned together.

For the Naturals (das gdhc Clavier).

-G>- n

For tlie Sliarps (Obertastcn).


must be Jlajor Thirds {milssen grouse Terzen sein).

are Jlinor Thh-ds {tiefcr erklingcn).
There is not a word about temperament !

1 The accordances of the guitar, lute, theorbo, and similar instru-
ments tuned by tilths, lounhs, and thirds will be found in the
descriptions of them.



By the stave for the naturals we may restore
the tuning of the Guido scale of the earliest
organs and clavichords which had only the Bb
as an upper key in two octaves. These would
be provided for either by tuning up from the G
(a minor third) or down from the Y (a fiftli), all
the intervals employed beinc,'- ajjproximately just.
We may also suppose that from the introduction
of the full chromatic scale in organs before 1426,
to tlie date of Schlick's publication 1511, and
indeed afterwards, such a groundwork as Am-
merbach's may have sufficed. There was a
•difference in clavichords arising from the fretting,
to which we will refer later. Now, in 151 1,
Arnolt Schlick, a blind organist alluded to by
Virdiing.inhis ' Spiegel derOrgelmacher' (Mirror
of Organbuilders) — a work which the present
writer, aided by its republication in Berlin in
1S69, has brought under the notice of writers
on music — came out as a reformer of tuning.
He had combatted the utter subordination of
the sharps or upper keys to the natural notes,
and by the invention of a system of tuning of
fifths and octaves had introduced a groundsvork
which afforded a kind of rough-and-ready un-
equal temperament and gave the sharps a quad
independence. This is his scale which he gives
out for organs, clavicymbals, clavichords, lutes,
harps, intending it for wherever it could be


easiest for performance. Mr. Ellis, in his ex- r
liaustive Lecture on the History of Musical
Pitch (Journal of the Society of Arts, Appendi.x;
of April 2, 18S0), considers corroboration of
this statement necessary. We certainly do not
find it in Mersenne's notation of the tuning
scale which we here transpose from the bari-
tone clef.



He gives directions that ascending fifths
should be made flat to accommodate the major
thirds, particularly F — A, G — B3, and C — E, —
•excepting Gj, which should be so tuned to Eb, as
to get a tolerable cadence or dominant chord,
the common chord of E, to A. The GjJ to the Eb,
he calls the ' wolf,' and says it is not used as
a dominant chord to cadence Cj. Indeed, from
the dissonance attending the use of Cjf and Ab,
they being also out of tune with each other, he
recommends the player to avoid using them as
keynotes, by the artifice of transposition.

The fact of Ammerbach's publication of the
older groundwork 60 years later proves that
Schlick's was slow to commend itself to practice.
However, we find Schlick's principle adopted and
published by Mersenne (Harmonie Universelle,
Paris, 1636) and it was doubtless by that time
established to the exclusion of the earlier sys-
tem. With this groundwork Mersenne adopted,
at least in theory. Equal Temperament [see
Tempekamext], of which in Liv. 2, Prop. xi.
p. 132, of the before-named work, he gives the
correct figures, and in the next volume, Prop,
xii, goes on to say that equal temperament
is the most used and tlie most convenient, and
that all practical musicians allow that the di-
vision of the octave into twelve half-tones is the

-^ — ^^^^ — ^ I rs I ^ F^^ < g -— ^

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