George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 44 of 194)
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Lcs Feiiites. The Sliarps and Flats.

For the tuner's guidance the ascending fifths
are marked as flat, the descending as sharp, but
the last fifth, Gjf — Eb, is excepted as being the
'defect of the accord.' With this recognition of.
the 'wolf it is clear that Mersenne was not
thinking of equal temperament. But Schlick's-
principle of fifths and octaves had become para-

We will now go back to the interesting
'gebunden'orfretted clavichord. [See Clavichord
and T-VNGENT.] The octave open scale of this
instrument is F G A Bb C D Eb F, or C D-
Eb F G A Bb C, according to the note which
may be accepted as the starting-point. Both of,
these are analogous to church modes, but may
be taken as favourite popular scales, before
harmony had fixed the present major and minor,
and the feeling had arisen for the leading note.-
We derive the fretted clavichord tuning from
Amnierbach thus :





Later on, no doubt, four fifths up, F C G D A
and two fifths down F Bb Eb, would be used'
with octaves inserted to keep the tuning for the
groundwork, in the best part of the keyboard for
hearing. We have found the fretted or stopped
semitones which included the natural B and E,
adjusted by a kind of rough temperament, in-
tendeil to give equal semi mean-t'ones and re-
sembling the lute and guitar semitones.

When J. Sebastian Bach had under his hands
the ' bundfrei ' or fret-free clavichord, each key
having its own strings, he could adopt the
tuning by which he might in all the
twenty-four keys, from which we have the 48
Preludes and Fugues.'

Emanuel Bach ('Versuch,' etc., Berlin 1753)
gives, p. 10, very clear testimony as to his own
preference for equal temperament tuning. He says'
we can go farther with this new kind of tuning

I He did not get this tuning on the organ, it would appear, although
his piefcreiice for it is shown iu Mr. Ellis s • Historj- ol Musical Pitch '
already referred to. (Seethe ' Journal ol the Society of Arts,' March5.
ISOO). ,


although the old kind had chords better thau
could be found in musical instruments generally.
He does not allude to his father, but brings in
a hitherto unused interval in keyboard instru-
ment tuning — the Fourth. Xot, it is true, in
place of the Fifth; but as one of the trials to
test the accuracy of the tuning. At the present
lime beginners in tuning find the Fourth a
difficult interval when struck simultaneously
with the note to which it makes the interval :
there is a feeling of dissonance not at all per-
ceptible in the Fifth. It is therefore not strange
that for centuries we do not find it used for
instruments capable of more or less sustained
harmony. The introduction of a short ground-
work for the piano, confined to the simple

chromatic scale between T^ ^



is traditionally attributed to Eobert Wornuui,
' early in the present century. In this now
universally adopted system for the piano, the
Fourth is regarded and treated as the inversion
of the Fifth; and for the intentional 'Mean-
tone' system [see Tempera3[EXt] employed al-
most universally up to about 1840-50, the fallow-
ins groundwork came into use : —


-?-r — ■ — 7^ — ^S>


gg" 3^ \rr:r frzy
V^ -<si- -s -

— the wolf being, as of old, at the meeting of Gjf
and Eb. The advantages of the short system
were in the greater resemblance of vibration
between notes so near, and the facilities offered
for using common chords as trials. It will be
observed that the pitch-note has changed from
F to the treble C ; possibly from the intro-
duction of the Tuning FORK in 171 1. In Great
Britain and Italy a C-fork has been nearly
always adhered to since that date for keyboard
instruments ; but for the vioUtis, A (on account
of the violin open string), which in France and
Germany has been also adopted as the keyboard
tuning-note. But the pitchpipe may have
also had to do with the change of pitch-note.

The long tuning scale did not at once go out
of use; it was adhered to for organs, and for
pianos by tuners of the old school. It went
out in Messrs. Broad wood's establishment with
the last tuner who used it, about the year 1869.
The change to intentional equal temperament
in pianos in 1846, in England, which pre-
ceded by some years the change in the organ,
was ushered in by an inclination to sharper
mnjor thirds : examples differing as different
tuners were inclined to more or less 'sweet'
common chords of C, G, and F. The wolf ceasing
to howl so loudly, another short groundwork,
which went through the chain of fourths and
fifths without break, became by degrees more

general with tlie piano until it prevailed en-
tirely. It is as follows : —


'W- ig:

and is also the groundworlc for tuning the har-

The organ no longer remains with the ground-
work of fifths and octaves ; the modern tuners
use fourths and fifths in the treble C — C, of
the Principal; entirely disregarding the thirds.
Like the harmonium the organ is tuned entirely
by beats. Organ pipes are tuned by cutting them
down shorter, or piecing them out longer, wlierk
much alteration has to be made. When they
are nearly of the right pitch, (i) metal pipes are
' coned in' by putting on and pressing down the
' tuning horn,' to turn the edges in for flattening,
or ' coned out ' by inserting and pressing down
the tuning horn to turn the edges out for sharp-
ening; (2) stopped pipes, wooden or metal, are
sharpened by screwing or pushing the stopper
down, or flattened by palling it up ; (3) reed
pipes by a tuning wire which lengthens or
shortens the vibrating portion of the tongue.
Harmoniums are tuned by scraping the metal
tongue of the reed near the free end to sliarpen
the tone, and near the attached end to flatten it.

The old way of tuning pianos by the Tuning
Hammer (or a Tuning Lever) remains in vogue,
notwithstanding the ever-recurring attempts to
introduce mechanical contrivances of screws etc.,
which profess to make tuning easy and to bring
it more or less within the immediate control of
the player. Feasible as such an improvement
appears to be, it has not yet come into the domain
of the practical. The co-ordination of hand and
ear, possessed by a skilled tuner, still prevails,
and the difficulty of getting the wire to pass over
the bridge, continuously and equally without the
governed strain of the tuner's hand, is still to be
overcome before a mechanical system can rival
a tuner's dexterity.

In considering practical tuning we must at
once dismiss the idea that the ear of a musician
is capable of distinguishing small fractions of a
complete vibration in a second. Professor Preyer
of Jena limits the power of ))erception of the
diflferenco of pitch of two notes heard in succes-
sion by tlie Ijest ears to about one third of a double
vibration in a second in any part of the scale.
By the phenomena of beats between two notes
heard at the same time we can make much
finer distinctions, which are of great use in
tuning the organ and harmonium ; but with the
piano we may not entirely depeml upon them,
and a good musical ear for melodic succession
has the advantage. In fact the rapid beats of the
upper partial tones frequently prevent the recog-
nition of the slower beats of the tundamental tones
of the notes themselves imtil they become too




faint to count by. The tuner also finds difficulty
in tuning the treble of a piano by beats only.

Still, to tune the groundwork of a piano to a
carefully measured set of chromatic tuning-
forks, such as Scheibler formerly provided,
would ensui-e a nearer approach to a perfect temperament than the existing system of
fourths and fifths, with the slight flattening
upwards of fifths and downwards of fourths,
to bring all within the perfect octave. But to
achieve this, a normal pitch admitting of no
variation is .a sine quit non, because no tuner
would or could give the time to work by a set of
forks making beats with the pitch wanted.

The wind and fretted stringed instruments,
although seemingly of fixed tones, are yet capa-
ble of modification by the player, and their
exact scale relation cannot be defined without
him. In Asiatic countries, as India, Persia, and
Arabia, and sometimes in European, this play
of interval is used as a melodic grace, and from
the ancient Greeks to the present day, the
quarter-tone has been a recognised means of
expression. Georges Sand, writing in her de-
lightful novel 'La Mare au Diable' about the
Musette (a kind of Bagpipe) of her country
people, says — ' La note finale de chaque phrase,
tenue et tremblee avec une longneur et une
puissance d'haleine incroyable, monte d'un
quart de ton en faussant syst>5matiquement.'
Whitley Stokes (Life of Dr. Petrie, p. 339)
has noticed such a licence in his native Irish
music. But we are led away here from Har-
monic Scales. [A.J.H.]

TUNING-FORK (Fr. Dlajiawn ; Ital. Corista;
"Germ. Slimmrjahel). This familiar and valuable
pitch-carrier was invented by John Shore,
Handel's famous Trumpeter. From a musical
instrument it has become a philosophical one,
■chiefly from its great permanence in retaining a
pitch ; since it is flattened by heat and sharpened
by cold to an amount which is determinable for
any particular observations. A fork is tuned by
filing the ends of the prongs to sharpen, and
between them at the base, to flatten ; and after
this it sliould stand for some weeks and be tested
again, owing to the fact that filing disturbs the
molecular structure. Rust affects a fork but
very little : the eff'ect being to slightly flatten it.
Tuning- folks have been used to construct a key-
board instrument, but the paucity of harmonic
upper partial tones causes a monotonous quality
of tone. An account of the combination of
tuning-forks into a Tonometer for the accurate
measurement of pitch will be found under
ScHEiBLEn, the inventor. [A.J.H.]

TURANDOT is a 5-act play of Schiller's,
founded on a Chinese subject, orchestral music
to which was composed by Weber in 1809. His
music consists of an Overture and 6 numbers,
3 of them marches, all more or less founded on
a Chinese melody, which Weber took from
Rousseau's Dictionary of Music (vol. ii. plate N),
and which opens the overture exactly as Rous-
,seau gives it.

^-> 1^ — I »-• • — •-! — I— • — • — "-i-ipi

■I ' IM i I

The Overture was originally composed as an
' Overtura Chinesa ' in 1806, and afterwards re-
vised. The first performance of the Overture in
its present shape was at- Strassbuig, Dec. 31,
1814. It is doubtful if the rest has ever been
performed. The play has been also treated by
Blumenroeder, Reissiger, and Hoven. It has
been ' freely translated' into English by Sabilla
Novello (1872). [G.]

TURCA, ALLA, i. e. in Turkish style ; the
accepted meaning of which is a spirited simple
melody, with a lively accentuated accompaniment.
The two best examples of this are the finale to
Mozart's PF. Sonata in A (Kochel, 331), which
is inscribed by the composer ' Alia Turca,' and
the theme of Beethoven's variations in D (op. 76),
which he afterwards took for the ' Marcia alia
Turca,' which follows the Dervish chorus in the
' Ruins of Athens.' [G.]

Tl'RCO IN ITALIA, IL. Opera by Rossini.
Produced at the Scala at Milan, Aug. 14, 1S14 ;
in London at His Majesty's, May 19, 1820. [G.]

TURINI, Francesco, learned contrapuntist,
born at Prague, 1590, died at Brescia, 1656, son
of Gregorio Turini, cornet-player to the Emperor
Rudolph II, and author of ' Teutsche Lieder '
a 4, in imitation of the Italian Villanelli (Frank-
fort, 1610). His father dying early, the Emperor
took up the young Francesco, had him trained
in Venice and Rome, and made him his chamber-
organist. Later he became organist of the ca-
thedral at Brescia. He published ' Misse a 4 e 5
voci a Capella,' op. i (Gardano) ; * Mottetti a
voce sola,' for all four kinds of voices ; ' Madri-
gali a I, 2, e 3, con senate a 2 03'; and ' Motetti
commodi.' A canon of his is quoted by Burney,
the theme of which —

was a favourite with Handel, who employs it in
his Organ Fugue in Bb, and in his Oboe Con-
certo, No, 2, in the same key. It had been
previously borrowed by Thomas Morley, who
begins his canzonet, 'Cruel, you pull away too
soon your dainty lips,' with the same theme. It
is probably founded on the old ecclesiastical
phrase with which Palestrina begins his 'Tu
es Petrus,' and which was employed bj' Bach in
his well-known Pedal Fugue in Eb, and by Dr.
Croft in his Psalm-tune, ' St. Anne's.' [F.G.]
TURK, a dog, who by his connexion with
a great singer and a still greater composer, has
attained nearly the rank of a person. He be-


longed to Signer Rauzzini, and after his death
his master put up a memorial to him in his
garden at Bath, in which he was spoken of as
Lis master's ' best friend.' Haydn and Burney



visited Rauzzini at Bath in 1794, and Haydn
was so much struck by the memorial as to set
a part of the inscription — apparently the con-
cluding words — as a canon or round for 4 voices.

Canon a quattro.

faith - ful dog; a faith - ful dog.


and not a man.


man. Turk was

faith - ful doe.

faith - ful do?.

And not a man, and not a ;


V— fj ^ '^ -=^-«l '^ h =iri^»-



man. Turk was

faith - ful dog, and not, and

man, and not a man ; Turk, Turk,

The house was then known as ' Perrymead '
•(not ' The Pyramids,' as Pohl ' gives it), but now
as 'Warner's,' and is situated in the south-east
part of Bath. All trace of the memorial seems
io have disappeared.^ [G.]

TURKISH MUSIC (TurHsche, or ^Jcmk-
scharenmusik; liaX. Banda t area). The accepted
term for the noisy percussion instruments —
big-drum, cymbals, triangle — in the orchestra.
The most classical instance of its use is in the
brilliant second number of the Finale to the
Choral Symphony, alia marcia. There, and in
the last chorus of all, Beethoven has added
^Triangolo,' ' Cinelli,' and 'Gran Tamburo/ to
the score ; and these noisy additions were
■evidently part of his origin;d conception, since they
are mentioned in an early memorandum, long
■before the vocal part of the symphony had
assumed at all its present shape. In the auto-
graph of the Dervish Chorus in the Ruins of
Athens, which is scored for horns, trumpets, and
alto and bass trombone, in addition to the usual
strings, he has made a memorandum that ' all
possible noisy instruments, such as castanets,
bells, etc.,' should be added. [G.]

TURLE, James, born at Taunton, March
5, 1802, was a chorister at AVells Cathedral,
under Dodd Perkins, from July 1810 to Dec.
1813. He was organist of Christ Church, Surrey,
from 181 9 to 1829, and from the latter date to
1831 organist of St. James, Bermondsey. From
1819 to 1831 he was assistant to Thomas Grea-
torex as organist and m.aster of the choristers of
Westminster Abbey, and upon Greatorex's death
in 1831 was appointed his successor. In 1875
he was released from active duty by the
appointment of Dr. J. F. Bridge as his assistant.
From 1829 to 1856 he was music master at the
School for the Indigent Blind. He composed and
edited many services, anthems, and chants, and

1 'Haydn in London,' p. 275.

2 I am much indebted to Sir. C. T. Payne and Ifr. .Terom Murch
for their kindness in ascertaining that nothing further is to be

■ a That i-i, • lannisarj.'

edited, with Professor E. Taylor, 'The People's
Music Book.' He also composed many glees,
which yet remain in MS. His remarkable skill
and ability as a teacher were strikingly manifested
by the number of those who received their early
training from him, and rose to eminence in theii
profession. He died June 28, 1882.

Robert Turle, his brother, born March 19,
1804, was a chorister at Westminster Abbey
from 1814 to Aug. 1821, was organist of Arniagli
Cathedral from 1823 to 1872, and died March
26, 1877.

William Turle, first cousin of the preceding
two, born at Taunton in 1795, a chorister of
Wells Cathedral from 1804 to 1810. After
quitting the choir he paid a short visit to America,
and on his return to England in 1812 became
organist of St. James's, Taunton, which he quitted
upon being appointed organist of St. Mary
Magdalen's in the same town. [W.H.H.]

TURN (Fr. Brisee; Germ. Doppelscfilar/;
Ital. Grnpetlo). An ornament much used in
both ancient and modern mu.sic, instrumental as
well as vocal. Its sign is a curve -^ placed
above or below the note, and it is rendered by
four notes — namely, the note next above the
written note, the written note itself, the note
below, and the written note again (Ex. i). It
is thus identical with a figure frequently em-
ployed in composition, and known as the Jialf-
circle {Halhzirhel, Circolo mezzo). The written
note is called the principal note of the turn, and
the others are termed respectively the upper and
lower auxiliary notes.

1. Written. Played.

On account of its gracefulness, and also no
doubt in consequence of its presenting little dif-
ficulty of execution, the turn has always been a
very favourite ornament, so much so that Em-
manuel Bach says of it, 'This beautiful grace is



us it were too complaisant, it suits well every-
where, and on this account is often abused, for
many players imagine that the whole grace and
■ beauty of pianoforte-playing consist in making a
turn every moment.' Pro]jerly introduced, how-
ever, it is of the greatest value, both in slow
.movements, in which it serves to connect and
'fill up long notes in a melody, and also in rapid I
tempo and on short notes, where it lends bright-
ness and accent to the phrase.

When the sign :^tands directly above a note,
the four notes of the turn are played rapidly,
and, if the written note is a long one. the last pf
the four is sustained until its duration is com-
pleted (Ex. 2); if, however, the written note is
'too short to admit of this difference, the four notes
are made equal (Ex. 3).

2. Mozart, Violin Sonata in G minor.


method of writing the turn is usually employed
in modern music in preference to the sign.

3I0ZART, Sonata, in F. Turn on the note.

6. fej Played.


-4— • =






Mozart, Uondo in A minor.

When the sign is placed a little to the right of
the note, the written note is jilayed first, and the
four notes of the turn follow it, all four being of
equal length. The exact moment for the com-
mencement of the turn is not fixed ; it may be
soon after the written note, the four tuin-notes
being then rather slow (Ex. 4), or later, in which
case the turn will be more rapid (Ex. 5). The
former rendering is best suited to a slow move-
ment, the latter to one of a livelier character.

Bkethovex, Sonata, Op. lo. No. i.
4. Played.


Bkethove.v, Sonata, Op. 2, No. i.
. Prestissimo. ^ -^ • Played.

Both the turn upon the written note and that
wliicli follows it .may be expressed in small
gi ace-notes, instead of by the sign. For this the turn upon the note will require three
small notes, w hich are placed before the principal
note though played within its value, and the turn
oftcr the note will require four (Ex. 6). This

-9 - - — —



^5 f=-



KK) i



=— ^-^n^'-"^

The upper auxiliary note of a turn is always
tlie next degree of the scale above the principal
note, and is therefore either a tone or a semitone
distant from it, according to the position in the
scale held by the written note. Thus, in a turn
on the first degree, the upper note is a tone
above (Ex. 7"^, while a turn on the third degree
is made with the semitone (Ex. 8). The lower
auxiliary note may likewise follow the scale,
and may therefore be also either a tone or a
semitone from its principal note ; but the effect of
the smaller distance is as a rule the more agree-
able, and it is therefore customary to raise the
lower note chromatically, in tho.^e cases in which
it would naturally be a tone distant from its
principal note i^Ex. 9).

This alteration of the lower note is in accord-
ance with a rule which governs the use of auxi-
liary notes in general, but in the construction
of both the ordinary turn and the turn of the
shake [Shake, vol. iii. p. 483, Ex. 40] the rule is
not invariably followed. The case in which it is
most strictly observed is when the principal note
of the turn is the fifth degree of the scale, yet
even here, when it is accompanied by the tonic
harmonj', an exception is occasionally met with,
as in Ex. 10. That Bach did not object to the
use of a lower auxiliary note a tone below the
principal note is proved by the four semiquavers
in the subject of the Cj major fugue in the
Well-tempered Clavier, and by other similar in- j
stances. Another and more frequent exception |
occurs when the upper note is only a semitone i
above the principal note, in which case the lower
note is generally made a tone below (Ex. 11).
In the case of a turn on the fifth dt-gree of the
'minor scale the rule is always observed, and both
notes are a semitone distant (Ex. 12). A turn
of this kind is termed a chromatic turn, because
its notes form part of a chromatic scale.
Mozart, Sonata in A.


3I02ART, Violin Sonata in G.


Mozart, Clarinet Trio iu E t'.

All chromatic alterations in a turn can be in-
dicated by means of accidentals placed above or
below the sign, although they frequently have to
be made without any such indication. An ac-
cidental above the sign refers to the upper auxi-
liary note, and one underneath it to the lower,
as in the following examples from Haydn : —

Sonata in Eb.
13. ♦

1 When the note which bears a turn is dotted,
and is followed by a note of half its own length,
the last note of the turn falls in the place of the
dot, the other three notes being either quick or
slow, according to the character of the movement
(Ex. 14). When however the dotted note is
followed by two short notes (Ex. i.i), or when it
represents a full bar of 3-4 or a half-bar of 6-8 or
6-4 time (Ex. i6), the rule does not apply, and
the note is treated simply as a Ion.; note. A
turn on a note followed by two dots is played so
that the last note falls in the place of the first
dot (Ex. 17).

Mozart, Sonata in D.

1 r^ I 1^*!

Bbbthovev, Sonata, Op. 13, Adagio.

15. '^


16. Beethove.v, Sonata, Op. 10, No. i.


The turn on the dotted note was frequently
written by Mozart in a somewhat aaibiguous
fashion, by means of four small notes (Ex. 18),
the fourth of which has in performance to be
made longer than the other three, although
written of the same length, in order that it may
represent the dot, according to rule.

Mozart, Sonata iu F, Adagio.

An apparent exception to the rule that a turn-
is played during some portion of the value of its
written note occurs when the sign is placed over
the second of two notes of the same name,,
whether connected by a tie or not (Ex. 19).

IIavd.v, Trio in G.

VOL. IV. PT. 2.

In this case the turn is played hefore the note
over which the sign stands, so that the written
note forms the last note of the turn. This ap-
parently exceptional rendering may be explained
by the assumption that the second of the two
notes stands in the place of a dot to the first, and
this is supported by the fact that any such ex-
ample might be written without the second note,
but with a dot in its stead, as in Ex. 20, v/beii
the rendering would be precisely the same. If,
however, the first of two notes of the same name
is already dotted, the second cannot be said to
bear to it the relation of a dot, and accordingly
a turn in such a case would be treated simply
as a turn over the note (Ex. 21).



When the order of the notes of a tui-a is re-
versed, so as to begin with the lower note instead
of the upper, the turn is said to be inverted, and
its sign is either phxced on end thus, I, or drawn
down in the contrary direction to the ordinary
sign, thus, v^ (Ex, 22). The earlier writers
generally employed the latter form, but Hum-
mel and others prefer the vertical sign. The
inverted turn is however more frequently written
in small notes than indicated by a sign (Ex. 23).

22. E. Bach, Sonata in B b, Largo.


25. Haydn, Trio in EP, Andante.

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