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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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In certain cases, particularly at the commence-
ment of a phrase, the efTect of the ordinary turn
beginning with the upper note is unsatisfactory
and deficient in accent. The perception of this
fact led to the invention of a particular form of
turn (called by Emmanuel Bach the Geschnellte
Doppelscklag), in which the four notes of the
ordinary turn were preceded by a short principal
note, written as a small grace-note (Ex. 24).
This kind of turn, consisting of five equal notes,
is better adapted to modern music and to modern
taste than the simple turn of four notes, and it is
therefore frequently introduced in older music,
even when not specially indicated. The cases in
which it is most suitable are precisely those in
which Emmanuel Bach allowed the use of the
' geschnellte Doppelschlag,' namely, after a stac-
cato note (Ex. 25), or a rest (Ex. 26), or when
preceded by a note one degree lower (Ex. 27).

E. Bach, Sonata
24. ^


g r-^-^^l ^ S3v=gf=:


2 ~ ~r — T'\ — tt — ps!i^ir*~

i^ — ^ — ^-* — J — ■ — as-s ^\ —


A similar turn of five notes (instead of four), ;
also frequently met with, is indicated by the
compound sign ;;;;, and called the Prallende
Doppelschlag . The difference of name is unim-
portant, since it merely means the same orna-
ment introduced under different circumstances ;
but the sign has remained longer in use than the
older mode of writing shown in Ex. 24, and is
still occasionally met with. (Ex. 28.)

Beethoven, "Violin Sonata, Op. 12, No. i.

2s. .:?

When a note bearing a turn of either four or
five notes is preceded by an appoggiatura (Ex.
29), or by a slurred note one degree higher than
itself (Ex. 30), the entrance of the turn is
slightly delayed, the preceding note being pro-
longed, precisely as the commencement of the
'bound trill ' is delayed. [See Shake, vol. iii.
p. 4S1, Ex. II.]

AV. F. Bach, Sonata in D.

C. p . E. Bach, Rondo in C.



Like the shake, the turn can occur in two
parts at once, and Hummel indicates this by
a double sign, ^ ; this is however rarely if ever
met with in the works of other composers, the
usual method being to write out the ornament in
full, in ordinary notes. A strikingly effective
instance of the employment of the double turn
occurs in the first movement of Beethoven's Con-
certo in Eb,-"^ and Schumann, in No. 4 of the

* Kreisleriana,' has a three-part turn, written in
small notes. [F.T.]

TURNER, Austin T., born at Bristol, 1823,
was a chorister at the Cathedral there, and at
the age of 20 was appointed vicar choral at Lin-
coln. He went to Australia in 1S54, and was
selected as singing master to the Government
School at Ballarat, where he now resides. He
:Was the pioneer of music in that place, being the
£rst conductor of the Philharmonic Society, which
among other oratorios has performed Mendels-
sohn's ' St. Paul ' and Spohr's ' Last Judgment,'
And, for the first time in Australia, Sullivan's

* Prodigal Son.' His sacred cantata 'Adoration,'
fir solos, chorus, and full orchestra, was produced
Ijy the Melbourne Philharmonic Society on Nov.
24, 1874. He is also the author of a choral
song ; two masses, sung with fuU orchestral ac-
companiments at St. Francis' Church, Melbourne ;
several glees, madrigals, and minor works. He
has been organist of Christ Church, Ballarat,
for many years. [G.]

TURNER, "William, Mus. Doc, born 1651,
•son of Charles Turner, cook of Pembroke College,
Oxford, commenced his musical education as a
chorister of Christ Church, Oxford, under Edward
Lowe, and was afterwards admitted a chorister
of the Chapel Royal under Captain Henry Cooke.
"Whilst in the latter capacity he joined his fellow
choristers, John Blow and Pelham Humfrey in
the composition of the 'Club Anthem.' After
quitting the choir his voice settled into a fine
countertenor, and he became a member of the
choir of Lincoln Cathedral. On Oct. 11, 1669,
he was sworn in as a gentleman of the Chapel
Royal, and soon afterwards became a vicar
choral of St. Paul's, and a lay vicar of "West-
minster Abbey. He graduated as Mus. Doc. at
Cambridge in 1696. He composed much church
music •, 2 services and 6 anthems (including ' The
king shall rejoice,' composed for St. Cecilia's
Day, 1697, and 'The queen shall rejoice,' for

1 In the subject which is iccompanied by descending chromatic
triplets in the bass.

the coronation of Queen Anne) are contained in

the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS. 7339 and
7341). Eight more anthems are at Ely Cathe-
dral, and others in the choir books of the Chapel
Royal and Westminster Abbey. Boyce printed
the anthem ' Lord, Thou hast been our refuge '
in his Cathedral Music. Many of Turner's songs
were printed in the collections of the period.
He died at his house in Duke Street, "West-
minster, Jan. 13, 1739-40, aged 88, having sur-
vived his wife, with whom he had lived nearly
70 years, only 4 days, she dying on Jan. 9, aged
85. They were buried Jan. 16, in one grave in
the west cloister of Westminster Abbey. Their
youngest daughter, Anne, was the wife of John
Robinson, organist of Westminster Abbey. [See
RoBI^fsoN, John.] ["W.H.H.]

TURPIN, EmiuxD Haet, distinguished or-
ganist, was born at Nottingham May 4, 1835;
was local organist at the age of thirteen ; also
studied composition and piano, and became prac-
tically acquainted with the instruments of the
orchestra and military band. In 1857 he came
to London, and since 1869 ^^^ been fixed at
St. George's, Bloomsbury, and is one of the most
prominent of the London organists. In 1875 he
became Hon. Secretary of the College of Or-
ganists, to which excellent institution he has
devoted much attention, especially in developing
the examinations. Mr. Turpin has been for long
connected with the musical press of London, and'
since 18S0 has edited the 'Musical Standard.'
He conducts various societies, and in 1883 was
conductor of the London orchestra at the Car-
diff Eisteddfod. His published works embrace
'A Song of Faith,' produced in London, 1867;
'Jerusalem,' a cantata; anthems and .services;
pianoforte pieces ; songs, hymn-tunes, and much
organ music. He has also edited the ' Student's
Edition ' of classical pianoforte music ("Weekes
and Co.), with marginal analyses and directions.
In MS. he has several masses, a Stabat Mater,
etc., etc. [G.]

TUSCH, probably a form of Touche, that is.
Toccata, and that again related to Tuck, Tucket.
The German term for a flourish or ensemble-
piece for trumpets, on state or convivial occa-
sions. Weber has left one of 4 bars long for 20
trumpets, given in Jahns's Verzeichniss, 47 A.
[See Fanfare.]

In Germany the term is also used for a thing
unknown in this country, namely, for the sort of
impromptu, spontaneous, acclamations of the wind
instruments in the orchestra after some very great
or successful performance. After the audience
and the players have gone on for some time with
ordinary applause, cries of 'Tusch, Tusch,' are
gradually heard through the hall, and then the
Trumpets, Horns, and Trombones begin a wild
kind of greeting as if they could not help it, and
were doing it independent of the players. To
an Englishman on a special occasion, such as
the Beethovenfest or Schumannfest at Bonn in
1870 and 1S73, it is a very new and interesting
experience. [G.]




TUTTI (Ital.\ all. Tins word is used to desig-
nate those parts of a vocal or instrumental com-
position which are performed by the whole of the
forces at once. In tlie scores, and more fre-
quently in the chorus parts of masses, cantatas,
etc., the parts for the solo quartet (where such is
employed) are often written on the same set of
staves as the chorus parts, in which case the
words Solo and Ttitti are used to distinguish the
one from the other. The same thing is done in
the solo part of a pianoforte concerto, and also in
the band parts of concertos generallj', so that the
orchestra may know where to avoid overpowering
the solo instrument. It is a frequent custom in
large orchestras to allow only a portion of the
strings (three desks or so) to accompany solos,
though if tlie conductor understands how to keep
the players well down this is not necessary. The
term Ripieno was formerly applied to those vio-
lins which only play in the tuttis. For this end
in some modern scores (Killer's cantata ' Die
Nacht,' Liszt's 'Graner Messe,' etc.), the string
parts are marked S and T or S and E. where

The term Tiitti hns thence been applied to
those portions of a concerto in which the orches-
tra — not necessarily the whole orchestra — plays
while the solo instrument is silent. In the Mo-
zartian form of the concerto the first movement
has in particular two long tuttis, one at the
beginning, to present the whole of the subject-
matter, and the second (rather shorter) in the
middle to work it out. This arrangement is still
in use, though the modern tendency is to bring
the solo instrument and the orchestra into closer
rapport and consequently to shorten the pure
solos and tuttis. Beethoven introduced (PF.
Concerto in G, No. 4) the innovation of allowing
the soloist to open tiie proceeding-;, but though
the doing so with a flourish, as in his Eb Con-
certo, has been frequently imitated since, no one
has followed the extremely original and simple
precedent afforded by the former work. Ex-
amples of unusually long tuttis may be noticed
in Beethoven's Eb and Violin Concertos, LitolfF's
'Dutch' Concerto- symphonie, and Tschaikow-
sky's immense work in Bb minor. Mendelssohn,
in his G minor, set the fa.shion of shoit tuttis,
which is followed by Hiller, Grieg, and others.
Schumann's A minor Concerto has one of 32
short bars, another of 20, and none besides of
more than S. Brahms in D minor and Dvorak
in Bb, however, return to the old fashion of
a lengthy exordium.

In pure orchestral music, especially up to
Beethoven's time, we speak of the forte passages
as ' the tuttis,' ironi the fact of their being the
places where the full orchestra is used in a mass,
but in modern music the tendency is to use
nearly the whole orchestra everywhere, in soft or
loud places, a custom which tends to render the
general tone-colour dull and monotonous.

In military bands, where little difference of
tone-colour is attainable, and volume of sound
the prime consideratidn, the music is nearly all




TYE, Christopher, Mus. Doc, born in West-
minster in the early part of the 16th century,
was a chorister and afterwards a gentleman of
the Chapel Royal. He graduated as Mus. Bac.
at Cambridge in 15.^6. From 1541 to 1562 he
was organist of Ely Cathedral. In 1545 he pro-
ceeded !Mus. Doc. at Cambridge, and in 1548
was admitted ad cundcm at Oxford. He trans-
lated the first 14 chapters of the Acts of the
Apostles into metre, set them to music, and
published them in J 553, with the curious title
of ' The Actes of the Apostles, translated into
Englyshe metre, and dedicated to the kj-nges
moste excellent maiestye, by Christofer Tye,
Doctor in musyke, and one of the gentylmen of
hys graces most honourable Chappell, wyth notes
to eche Chapter, to synge and also to play upon
the Lute, very necessarye for studentes after
theyr studye to fyle thyr wyttes, and alsoe for
all Christians that cannot synge to reade the good
and Godlye storyes of the lives of Christ hys
Apostles.' Tye's verses are of the Sternhold
and Hopkins order : his music for them most
excellent. Hawkins printed the music for the
beginning of the r4th chapter (a masterly canon),
in his History, chap. xxv. the first stanza af
which is a fair sample of Tye's versification ; —

It chanced in Iconium

As they olt times dyd ufe,
Together thej' into djd cum

The Sinagoge of Jiies.

Some of the music of the Acts of the Apostles
has been adapted by Oliphant and others to
passages from the Psalms. Three anthems by
Tye were printed in Barnard's Church Music,
one of which was also printed in Boyce's Cathe-
dral Music; another anthem was printed in
Page's Harmonia Sacra, and his Evening Service-
in G minor in Rimbault's Cathedral Music.
An anthem is in the Tudway collection (Harl.
MS. 7341), and motets and anthems by him
exist in MS. in the Music School and at Christ
Church, Oxford, The Gloria of his mass ' Euge
bone' is printed by Burney (Hist. ii. 589) and
reprinted in Hullah's 'Vocal Scores.' It was
sung by Hullah's Upper Schools at St. Martin's
Hall, and proved both melodious and interesting.
Tye taught Edward VI. music. He died about
1 5S0, He was introduced as one of the characters
of Samuel Rowley's play, ' When you see me
you know me, or. The Famous Chronicle Historie
of King Henry VIII. with the Birth and Virtuous
Life of Edward, Prince of Wales,' 1605. In
this play occurs the following curious antici-
pation of a phrase well known in reference to
Farinelli : —

Kngland one God, one truth, one doctor hath.
For Musicke's art, and that is Doctor Tye,
Admired for skill in musicke's harmony.

Antony Wood attributes to him the recovery of
English church music after it had been almost
ruined by the dissolution of the monasteries. [See
Schools OF Composition, iii. 2726.] [W.H.H.] |

TYLMAN SUSATO, printer and composer
of music, was born at or near Cologne probably
towards the end of the fifteenth century. His
name is regularly written by himself in the




fall form given above, although the spelling of
the first part of it is extremely irregular.^ A
document referred to by Fetis" describes Susato
as ' son of Tyhnan,' It is therefore only through
an inexplicable forgetf ulness of diplomatic usage
that F^tis and others* have taken Tylman for a
surname.* These writers have also accepted a
conjecture of Dehn^ that ' Susato ' indicated the
place of the composer's birth, namely the town of
Soest {Susattim) : in one of his books, however,
he expressly describes himself as 'Agrippinensis,'*
which can only refer to Cologne.' Consequently
vre have to consider ' Susato ' (or 'cle Susato ' — as
it once occurs, in a document' of 1543) as a
family-name, 'van (or 'von') Soest,' doubtless
originally derived from the Westphalian town.
By the year 1529 Tylman is found settled at
Antwerp, where he maintained himself by
transcribing music for the cha^^el of the Virgin
in the cathedral; in 1531 he is mentioned as
taking part, as trumpeter, in the performance of
certain masses there. He was also one of the
five musicians supported by the city (' stads-
speellieden '), and as such possessed, according to
a list of 1532, two trumpets, a ' velt-trompet,'
and a 'teneur-pipe.' Losing his post on the
arrival of Philip II in 1549, ^^ appears, for some
unexplained reason, never to have been again
employed by the city. Before this date however
he had found another occupation as a printer of
music. For a short time" he worked in company
_with some friends; but irom 1543 onwards he
published on his own account, bringing out
between that year and 1561 more than fifty
volumes of music, nearly every one of which
contains some compositions of his own. He
died before 1564.'"

Susato's first publication is entitled 'Premier
Livre de Chansons a quatre Parties, au quel sont
contenues trente et une nouvelles Chansons
convenables tant k la Voix comme aux Instru-
mentz.' Eight of these pieces are by himself.
The rest of his publications, so far as they are
now extant, include (i) in French, sixteen books
of 'Chansons' in 3-8 parts; (2) Madrigali e
Canzoni francesi a 5 voci' (1558) ; (3) in Latin
3 books of 'Carmina,' 3 of Masses, one of
'Evangelia Dominicarum, ' 15 of ' Ecclesiasticffi
Cantiones' or motets U.^.'^S-'S^o), 'Alotecta
quinis vocibus, auctore C'lemente non Papa'

1 In works with Latin titles Susato writes himself In a great ma-
iority of cases TUemannus : Tiebnannus, Tilmannus. Ttjlemannus, and
Tihnnnnus. occurring but rarely. In Flemish his favourite form seems
to have been Tielman. In French Tylman, the spelling adapted by
Fetis and Mendel is found most frequently ; Thielman. which is pre-
ferred by M. Goovaerts is less usual ; while Tilman, the spelling
which is adopted by M. vander Straeten and is now practically the
accepted one in Ihe Netherlands, is met with only twice.

- Biogr. univ. des Music, viii. 27G ; 2nd ed.

3 Thus Mendel and Keissmann, Musikal. Convers.-Lex., x. a55 ;
Berlin. IISl.

< Op. Alphonse Goovaerts, Histoire et Eibliographie de la Typogra-
phie musicale dans les Pays-bas, pp. 26. 27 ; Antwerp, IStiO.

5 See his letter in i'etis. 1. c.

6 Goovaerts. p. 191.

7 At the same time. M. Goovaerts notes (pp. 26. 27). we are not to
confound Susato. as Fetis and Mendel hive done, with a contem-
porary Thielman van Ceulen, who was a brewer, and whos2 father's
name was Adolf.

8 Edmond vander Straeten, La Musique aux Fays-has avant le
Iixnie Siecle. v. 258 : Brussels, 18i0.

. 9 (ioovaerts. pp. m — 26.
JO Ibid. p. 31.

(1546), and 5 books of 'Cantiones sacrae quae
vulgo Moteta vocant' [sic] (1546). Finally (4)
in Dutch there are his three books of songs, etc.,
entitled 'Musyck boexken,' and one book (1561),
apparently the second of a series of 'Sauter-
Liedekens' (sweet little songs), which are of pecu-
liar interest. The third of the Musyck boexken
contains some dances by Susato himself, which
are described'^ as 'full of character' and ex-
cellently written. The souteiiiedekens, which
Ambros further^^ states to be found in four
more Musyck-boexken, are pieces from the Psalms
according to the rhymed Flemish version, set
without change to the popular song-tunes of the
day ('gemeyne bekende liedekens.' ^") The charm
however of these compositions lies less in the
airs adapted in them than in the independ-
ence and originality of the part-writing, an art
in which Susato was so proficient that some
of his three-part songs are composed in such
a manner as to be suitable, he states, equally for
three and for two voices with omission of the
bass. Susato appears also to have co-operated
with Clemens non Papa in some of his work, and
not to have been merely his publisher. Still it is
as a publisher '* that Susato has hitherto been
almost exclusively known, the masters whose
works he printed being very numerous, and
including such names as Crequillon, Gombert,
Goudimel, 0. de Lassus, P. de Manchicourt, J.
Mouton, C. de Eore, A. WiUaert, etc. [R.L.P.]

TYNDALL, John, LL.D., F.R.S. It is
unnecessary in this Dictionary to say more about
this eminent natural philosopher and lecturer
than that he was born about 1S20 at Leighlin
Bridge, near Carlow, Ireland, that to a very
varied education and experience in his native
country and in England he added a course of
study under Bunsen at Marburg and Magnus at
Berlin ; that he succeeded Faraday as Superin-
tendent of the Royal Institution, London, and was
President of the British Association at Belfast in
1874. His investigations into subjects connected
with music are contained in a book entitled
'Sound,' published in 1867, and now in its 4th
edition (1884). (See Times, Oct. 23, 1884 ;
p. 10 c.) [G.]

TYROLIENNE, a modified form of Landler.
[See vol. ii. p. 83.] The ' Tyrolienne ' never had
any distinctive existence as a dance ; the name
was first applied to Ballet music, supposed more
01- less accurately to represent the naive dances
of the Austrian or Bavarian peasants. In a
similar manner it was adopted by the compilers
of ti-ivial school-room pieces, with whom it is as
much a rule to print their title-pages in French
as their marks of time and expression in Italian.
Tiie fashion for Tyrolean music in England was
first set by the visit of the Rainer family, in

11 Vander Straeten. v. 2fil. who says that these dances have been
reprinted by Eitner in the Monatshefte lilr Musik^-eschicbte, Jahrg.
vii. No. 6.

u Geschichte der Musik. iii. 313 (Breslau, 1^68). These however are
not mentioned by M. Goovaerts. whose general accuracy may lead one
to suspect a mistake on Ambros' part.

13 Ambros. iii. 313.

n His publications are rarely found in England, the British Museum
only possessing one volume of masses.



May 1 82 7, since when several similar perform-
ances have been heard from time to time. Most
of these companies of peasant musicians come
from the Ziller Thai, where the peculiar forms of
Tyrolean music may still be heard better than
anywhere else. The best -known example of
an artificial ' Tyrolienne ' is the well-known
* Chceur Tyrolieu' in Act iii. of Rossini's 'Guil-
laume Tell,' the first strain of which is given
below. For examples of the genuine Landler
we must refer the reader to Eitter v. Spaun's
' Oesterreichischen Volksweisen' (Vienna, 1S45),
M. V. Siiss's 'Salzburger Volkslieder' (Salz-
burg, 1865), or Von Kobell's ' Schnadahiipfeln '
(Munich, 1845).



1 I I!


Toi que I'oi-seau ne suivrait pas




f=-» — • — I — F4-i»-i-



sur lios ac- cords ru-gle tes pas -


A characteristic feature of the original form of
Landler as sung in Austrian and Bavarian Tyrol
is the Jodel. This term is applied to the abrupt


but not inharmonious changes from the chest
voice to the falsetto, which are such a well-known
feature in the performances of Tyrolese singers.
The practice is not easy to acquire, unless the
voice has been accustomed to it from early youth :
it also requires a powerful organ and considerable
compass. Jodels form an impromptu adornment
to the simple country melodies simg by the
peasants ; they are also used as ritornels or re-
frains at the end of each verse of the song. They
are not sung to words, but merely vocalised,
although passages resembling them in form are
of frequent occurrence in Tyrolean melodies.
Examples of these will be found below in a dance
song from von Spaun's collection. Moscheles
(Tyrolese Melodies, 1827) tried to note down
some of the Jodels sung by the Eainer family,
but the result was neither accurate nor suc-

Bluit, TJnd so wie's beim Tanz geig - nea, So


nieiii UuU.


. THOMASSCHULE. Since the notice under
Leipsic, vol. ii. p. 114 &, was compiled, the fol-
lowing changes are to be mentioned. In 1877
the school was removed from its old building
in the Thomaskirchhof to a new one near the
Plagwitzerstrasse in the western suburb of Leip-
.sic. In 1879 Wilhelm Eust succeeded to the
post of Cantor, which he still holds. A minute
account of the history of the school and of its
condition in the time of Kuhnau and Bach will
be found in Spitta's 'Bach,' vol. ii., especially
pp. 11-35 and 483-494 : compare the documents
printed in Anhang B, I-IX and XI. [R.L.P.]
TUDWAY. [See ante, p. 186 a.] 'A coUec-
tion^ of the most celebrated Services and An-
thems used in the Church of England from the
Eeformation to the Eestauration of K. CharlesII.,
composed by the best mastei-s and collected by
Thomas Tudway, D.M., Musick Professor in the
University of Cambridge.' In 6 volumes 4to
(1715-1720). Copied for Lord Harley. (British
Museum, Harleian MSS. 7337-7342.)

Tallis. Whole Service, D miaor; Anthem. Lord make. h5.
with B p (Benedictus).
Anthem. I call and cry. i5.
Do. Wipe away my sins, k 5.
Do. With all our hearts, k 5.
Do. O Lord give Thy Holy. ^4.
Bird. Whole Service. D minor
with B P (Benedictus).
Anthem, Singjoylully. a6.
Do. Lord turn Thy wrath.

Do. Bow thine ear. k 5.

1 N.B. For an alphabetical list of them, under composers, see Oli-
phant's Catalogue ol MS. Music in the B. M. p. 31, etc.

Do. Save me, God. k 5.
Do. Prevent us. O Lord, ii 4.

Tallis. Anthem, Discomfit them,
a 5.

Tye. Even. Serv., G minor, 1545.

Bull. Anthem, 2 trebles. Al-
mighty God, 1592. (Organ

Morley. Even. Serv., D min. a 0.

Barcroft. Morning Service, G
minor, 1532 (Benedictus).

Stonard. Evening Service in C.

i5. 1558.
Amner. Whole Service, D min.
a 4 (Benedictus).
Anthem, Christ rising again,
a 4.
Mundy. Do. O Lord I bow. a 5.
O. Gibbons. Service, 1635 (Bene-
Anthem, Lord, increase, a 4.
Do. Why art thou so heavy.

Do. Behold Thou bast made,
II. Molle. Ev. Serv. Dm. with Bj.
I'ortman. Whole Service, G (Be-
H. Molle. Evening Service, F,
Patrick. Whole Service, G minor

Farrant. Whole Service, called
' Farrant's High,' A minor

Child. Whole Service, D. k 4.

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