George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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(Jubilate.) .
Anthem. Sing we merrily, a 8.
Do. O Lord God. 4 5.
Do. praise the Lord, k 6.
Whole Service, F. (Jubilate

and Cantate.)
Evening Service, A.
Do. C minor (given in D).
Humphrey. Even. Serv., E min.
Verse.
Anthem, Thou art my king, ki.
Do. Haste Thee, O God. k4.
Do. Lord my God. a 4.
Do. Like as the hart, k 3.
Do. By the waters, a 3.
Do. Ogive thanks, a 4.
Do. Have mercy, k 3.
Farrant. Kyrie and Credo from

High Service.
Child. Whole Service. E minor.
Verse (Jubilate).
Anthem, Praise the Lord, a 4.
Do. O Lord grant the King



Morley. Funeral Anthem, I am
the resurrection.

Do. Man that is burn.

Do. I heard a voice.
Giles. Anthem, Ogive thanks. kS.
Tomkins. Do. Almighty God.

Hooper. Do. Behold this is Christ.

is.
Batten. Do. Hear my prayer. 4 4.
Loosemore. Put me not to re-
buke, a 4.
Lawes [W.]. Anthem, The Lord
is my light, a 4.
Canon, Non nobis, Morley,
(Byrd).
Do. I am so weary. 43 (Ford).
Do. O that men would, k 3.
Do. Haste thee, O Lord, k 3.

(Eamsey.)
Do. Music Divine, k 3.
Do. She weepeth sore, a 4.
Do, Miserere, k S.

.n.

Evening Senice in G. k 4.
Humphrey. Anthem, O praise the
Lord, a 3.
Funeral Anthem, Lord teach us.
a 3.
Do. be joyful, i 3. Orch.
Do. The King shall rejoice.

ki. Orch.
Do. Hear, O heavens, k 3.
Rogers. Whole Serv.. in D (J ub.).
Loosemore. Whole Service, in D

minor, k 4. 5, 6.
Wise. WholeServ.,Dmin.(Jub.).
Anthem, Awake, put on. k 3.
Do. The ways ot Zion. k 2.
Uolder. Evening Service, C.

Anthem, Thou O God.
Creyghtou. Whole Serv., C (Jub.).

-Anthem, I will arise.
.Vldrich. Anthem (from Latin),
We have heard, a 4.
Do. (do.) Why art thou .so. i4.
Do. (do.) My heart is fixed, ki.
Do. (do.) The eye of the Lord,
a 4.



TUDWAY.



TUDWAY.



199



Anthem (do.) God the King.

ki.
Do. (do.) Hold not Thy tongue.

a. 4.
Do. (do.) Give ear Lord. ki.
Do. (do.) Behold now praise.

a 6.
Do. (do.) Hide not Thou. i. 5.
Do. (do.) I looked for the Lord.

k,5.
Do. (do.) O Lord rebuke me

not. i5. (? M.White.)
Do. (do.) how amiable, k 2.
Do. (do.) Haste Thee Lord.

4,2.
Do. (do.) For Sion's sake. 4 2

and 3.
Do. (do.) pray for the peace.
Do. (do,) I am well pleased.
Biyau. Whole Service, in G. a 4.



Bryan. Morning Service.
,rerabosco. Evening Service.
Jackson, Anthem, The Lord said.

al.
Blow. By. Serv., in E. Verse.
Anthem, O Lord I have sinned.
ki.
Do. I said in the cutting off.

k 3. (Oreh.)
Do. The Lord is my Shepherd.
k i. Orch.
Purcell. Anthem, My beloved
spake, a 4. Orch.
Do. Th^y that go down, k 2.

Orch.
Do. My song shall be alway.
al. Orch.
Tudway. Anthem, The Lord hear
thee. Orch.
Do. Quare fremuerunt. Orch.



Henry Tm.l Anthem, O Lord the

Maker.
Bevin. Whole Service, D minor

withBl].
Tomkins. Anthem, O praise the
Lord, a 12.
Do. Glory be to God. k 10.
Do. O God the proud, k 8.
Do. Turn Thou us. a 8.
Uatth. White. Anthem, O praise
God. kS.
Do. The Lord bless us. iS.
Parsons. Anth., Deliver me. k6.
Weelkes. Do. O Lord grant the

king. k6.
Loosemore. Do. Glory be to God.

ki.
Holden. Do. O praise our God.

ki.
Lowe. Do. give thanks, k 4.
Tucker. Do. O give thanks, k 4.

Do. I will magnify, k 4.
Jewett. Do. I heard a voice, k 4.

Org.
Creyghton. Whole Service in Eb.
Anthem. Praise the Lord, k S.
Aldrjch. Whole Service in G.
Anthem, Out of the deep.
Do. O praise the Lord, k 4.
Do. Sing unto the Lord, k 4.
Amner. Whole Service in G
CCtesar'). k5.



Amner. Whole Service, in D min.
CCtesar's').
Anthem, sing unto the Lord.
Do. Lord I am not.
Do. Bemember not.

Tye. Do. God be merciful.

Barcroft. Anthem, O Almighty
God.

0. Gibbons. Do. Lift up your
heads, k 6.

Farrant. Do, O Lord God Al-
mighty, a 4.

Wilkinson. Do. I am the resur-
rection. IL 6.

Laud. Do. Praise the Lord.

Shepherd. Do. Haste Thee, O God.
ki.

Tox. Do. Teach me Thy way. 44.

Gibbs. Do. Have mercy upon me.
4 4.

Hilton. Do. Lord for Thy tender.
4 4.



Wise. Evening Service in Eij.
Anthem, How are the mighty.

Do. I will sing a new song, a4.

Do. O praise God. 4 3.

Do. Behold how good. 4 3.
Turner. Whole Service, in A.
Anthem, O praise the Lord.

Do. The King shall rejoice.
O. Gibbons. Do. Hosanna. a 6.
Aldrich. Do. O Lord grant the

King. 4 5.
Giles. Do. I will magnify, k 5.
Lugg. Do. Behold how good. 45.
Blow. Whole Service, in G.
Anthem, Save me, O God.

Do. OLord God. 4 8.

Do. O God my heart. 4 4.

Do. And I heard a great voice.
4 4.

Do. The kings of Tharsis. 44.

Do. Praise the Lord. 4 5.
Aldrich. Ev. Serv., in V. Verse.
Purcell. Whole Service, in Bb.

IJO. Kejoice in the Lord.

Do. Praise the Lord. 4 2.

Do. I was glad,

Do. O God Thou art.

Do. Lord, how long. 4 5.

Do. O God, Thou hast cast. 4 G.

Do. Save me, God. a 5.

Humphrey. Blow, Turner. Anth.

I will alway give thanks.



Mudd. Do. God that hast pre-
pared, a 4.
Wilkinson. Do. O Lord God. 4 4.
Lugg. Whole Service, in D.
Hooper. Anthem, Almighty God.

4 5.
Tye. Do. O Lord deliver me. 45.
Amner. Do. Sing, O heavens. 47.
Hutchinson. Do. Behold how

good. 4 4.
Kamsey. MT-.ole Service, in F.
Locke. Anthem, When the Son
of man.
Do. Sing unto the Lord.
Chr. Gibbons. Anthem, How long

wilt thou?
Blow. Whole Service, in A.
Anthem, I beheld and lo a
great.
Do. O sing unto God.
Do. Why do the heathen?
Do. We will rejoice.



• This Anthem, after having been often attributed to Williai
Mundy, seems now, from evidence discovered at Durham Cathedr;
by Dr. Philip Armes, the Organist there, to be by John Shepherd.



Anthem, Lord Thou hast

searched.
Do. Thy righteousness, O

Lord.
Do. God is our hope. 4 8.
Do. O God wherefore. 4 5.
Purcell. Whole Service, in B b.
Anthem, O give thanks.
Do. Behold I bring you.
Do. Be merciful.
Aldrich. Whole Service, in A.
Anthem, 1 will love Thee.
Do. The Lord is King.
Do. Give the king thy judg-
ment.
Do. If the Lord Himself.
Do. Lord I have heard.
Locke. Anthem, Lord let me
know mine end.
Do. Not unto us.



E. Gibbons. Anthem, How hath

the city sat desolate.
Hall. Whole Service, in E b.
Anthem, Let God arise. 4 2.
Do. O clap your hands. 4 3.
Do. By the waters. 4 3.
Norris. Morn. Service, in G min.
Anthem, Blessed are those.
Do. I will give thanks.
Wildbure. Anthem, Almighty and

everlasting.
Clark. Anthem, The earth is the
Lords. 4 4.
Do. I will love Thee.
Do. Praise the Lord. Full.
Do. Bow down Thine ear. 4 3.
Tudway. Anthem, The Lord hath

declared.
Purcell. Do. Blessed is the man.
Do. Thou knowest. Lord.



Purcell. Te Deum, in D.

Jubilate, in D.
Tudway. Anthem, Is it true ?

Do. Sing we merrily.

Do. My God, my God.

Do. Man that is born.

Do. I am the resurrection.

Do. I heard a voice.

Do. I will lift up.

Do. I cry heavens.

Do. I will sing (Blenheim).

Do. Thou O God.
Evening Service, in Bb.
Turner. Whole Service, in E.
Anthem, The Queen shall re-



VOL. V.

Wilson. Evening Service, in G.
Hart. Anthem, I will give thanks.

Do. Praise the Lord.
Lamb. Even. Service, in E min.
Anthem. Unto Thee have I cried.
Do. O worship the Lord.
Goldwin. Whole Service in F.
Anthem, O Lord God of hosts.
Do. Hear me, <) God.
Croft. Anthem, We will rejoice.

Do. I will sing.

King. Whole Service, in F.

Anthem, Hear, O Lord.

Do. Hear my crying.

Do. Sing unto God.



joice.
Do. Behold now, praise.
Do. Lord. Thou hast been.
Do. The Lord is righteous.
Hawkins. Whole Service, in A.
Anthem, O Lord grant the
Queen.
Do. My God. my God.
Do. Lord, Thou art become.
Do. Lord who shall dwell.
Do. Bow down Thine ear.
Holmes. Anthem, Arise, shine!
Cooper. Do. I waited patiently.
Wanless. Do. Awake up my glory.
Kichardson. Do. O Lord God of

my salvation.
Bishop. Morning Service, in D.
Anthem, Lord our Governor.

VOL,
Croft. Morn.Serv., in D. Orcli.
Tudway. Anthem. My heart re-
joiceth. Orch.
Do. Behold how good.
Do. O praise the Lord.
Do. Arise shine.
Do. Plead Thou.
Do. Give the Lord the honour.
Eoseingrave. Anthem, Arise,

shine. Orch.
Nalson. Morning Service, in G.
Lamb. Anthem, If the Lord Him-
self.
Do. I will give thanks. 4 3.
Goldwin. Anthem, Ascribe unto
the Lord.
Do. Thy way. OGod.
Hall. Do. Comfort ye my people.
Do. The souls of the righteous.
Finch. Te Deura in G minor.

Anthem, Grant we beseech Thee.
Hawkins. Whole Service, in G.
Anthem. Blessed be Thou.
Do. O Lord my God.
Do. Blessed is he.
Hawkins, jun. Anthem, praise
the Lord.



Holmes. Anthem, 1 will love Thee,

O Lord.
Williams, Even. Serv., in A min.
Woolcot. Morning Service in G.

Anthem, O Lord Thou hast cast.
Bowman. Anthem, Shew your-
selves joyful.
Croft. Anthem, Praise the Lord,
O ray soul.
Do. I will always give thanks.
Church. Whole Service, in F.
Anthem, O Lord grant the
Queen.
Do. Bighteous art Thou.
Do. Praise the Lord.
Do. Lord Thou art become.
Weldon. Do. Hear my crying.



Eitharrlson. Even. Service, in 0.

J713.
Goldwin. Anthem, O praise God.
4-2.
Do. I wilt sing. 4 4.
Do. O be joyful.
Brodeiip. Whole Service, in D.

Anthem, God is our hope.
Jones. Evening Service, in F.
Greene. Anthem, sing unto the
Lord. 4 5.
Do. Bow down Thine ear. 4G,
C. King. Evening Service, in Bb.
Greene. Anthem, O God, Thou
art ray God. Solo.
Do. give thanks.
Walkly. Morning Service, in Eb.
Cliurch. Whole Serv., in E rain.
Anthera. Turn Thy face from
my sins.
Do. Blessed are those.
Hawkins. Anthem, MercifulLord.
Croft. Anthem, Offer the sacrifice.
4 4.
Do. I cried unto the Lord.
Hendale (Handel). Te Deum and
Jubilate, in D. (Orch.) 1713,



TJ.



U'BERTI, GiULio, poet, patriot, and tejiclier
of declamation, Ijorn 1S05. Together with
his friends, Modena and Mazzini, by the
power of the pen he succeeded in raising the
youth of Italy to action against the tyranny of a
foreign domination, and to the establishment of
the national independence. His poems are noticed
:it length by Cesare Cantu in his History of
Italian Literature. Born at Milan, he lived there
the greater portion of his life engagfd as a teacher
of declamation. He numbered Malibran and
Grisi amongst his pupils, and was the last of
the masters of declamation who still preserved
the old traditions of classical tragic acting. He
died by his own hand in 1S76, a patriot, but a
republican to the end. [J.C.G.]

U. C. (Ital. una covda; Fr. fctile jjedale ;
Germ, mit Vei-Kchichu7ig). An indication of the
use of the left pedal of the pianoforte, by means
of which the action is shifted a little to the
right, and the hammers made to strike a single
string (in modern instruments generally two
strings), instead of the three which are ordinarily
struck. The return to the use of three strings is
indicated by the letters t. c, tre corde, tuite le
corde, or sometimes tiUto il cembalo. The shift-
ing pedal, the invention of which dates from
about the end of the iSth century, is an im-
provement on the earlier Cileste pedal (also
called Sourdine) in which the sound was dead-
ened by the interposition of a strip of leather, or
other material, between the hanmiers and the
strings. This arrangement, which is now used
only in upright pianos, where from lack of
space or from the oblique direction of the strings
the shifting action would not be available, gives
a dull, muffled sound, which in small instruments
is often so weak as to be practically useless ; tiie
sliifting pedal, on the contrary, produces a beau-
tiful and delicate quality of tone, arising from
the sympathetic vibrations of the unused strings,
which is by no means tlie same thing as the
ordinary inanudnio, but is of the greatest ser-
vice in producing certain special effects. Bee-
thoven uses it frequently, in the later Sonatas
(from op. 1 01), and in the Andante of the G
major Concerto, op, 58, the whole of which
movement is to be played a una corda, except
the long shake in the midtUe, in wliich Beethoven
requires the gradual addition of the other strings,
and afterwards the gradual return from three
strings ^to one. His directions are ' due, e poi
tre corde,'' and afterwards 'due, poi una corda,'
but it is not possible to carry them out strictly
on the modern pianoforte, as the shifting action
now only reduces to two strings instead of one.

In music for string instruments, the direction
o una corda is occasionally given, to denote that
the passage is to be played upon a single string,
instead of passing from one string to the next,
in order to avoid any break in the quality of tone
produced. [See also Pedals, SoEDI^'I, Ver-
bCHIEBUXG.] [F.T.]



UGALDE, Delphixe, nee Beauce', was born
on Dec. 3, 1S29, at Paris or at Larne. She
received instruction in singing from Madame
Moreau-Sainti, and in 184S made her debut as
Angela in 'Le Domino Noir' at the Op^ra Com-
ique where she became a great favourite. Her
repertoire included Henriette in Auber's 'L'Am-
bassadrice,' and cliaracters in many new operas by
A. Thomas, Halevy, Mass^, etc. On June 12,
1S51, she made her debut at Her Majesty's
Theatre, London, as Nefte on the production,
in England, of Auber's 'L'Enfant Prodigue,' and
during the season also played Gorilla in Gnecco's
' La Prova,' but though favourably received,
did not appear to her usual advantage. Accord-
ing to the ' Musical World,' June I4, 1851, she
could ' execute passages with a facility rarely ever
heard equalled or surpassed — she sings like a
musician and a thorough artist, and in her
acting betokens singular esprit and fine comic
powers.' Chorley considered that ' with all her
vocal cleverness and audacity, and a dash of true
dramatic instinct here and there, she was always
an unattractive singer. A want of refinement
as distinct from accuracy or finish ran through
all her performances ; she was too conscious, too
emphatic and too audacious ; she came with
great ambitions to make her first appearance as
Semiramide with not one solitar3' requisite, save
command over any given number of notes in a
roulade.' In 1S53 she retired for a time from
the Op^ra Comique, through loss of voice, and
played at the Varietes, but returned Jan. 26,
1857, as Eros on the production of Psyche .
(Thomas). In 1S59-60 she sang at the Lyrique
as Suzanne (' Le Nozze'), and in 'La Fe'e Cara-
bosse' (Masse) and 'Gil Bias' (Semet) on their
production. She afterwards sang in opera bouBTe,
and, with her second husband VarcolHer, for a
short time undertook the management of the
Bouffes Parisiens.' She is now living in retire-
ment. She also devoted herself to teaching,
among her pupils being Madame Mai-ie Sass;
also her daughter,

Margueiute, who made a successful debut in
iSSo at the Opera Comique, in 'La Fille du
Regiment,' and played Xicklausse on the pro-
duction of 'Contes d'Hoffman ' (Offenbach), and
was recently singing at the Xouveautes. [A.C.]

ULIBISCHEW. The German mode of spelling
the name which the author himself spells OCLI-
bichef. [Vol. ii. p. 616.] [G.]

ULRICH, Hugo, a composer of great ability,
whose life was wasted owing to adverse circum-
stances, and probably also to want of strength of
character. He was bom Kov. 26, 1827, at
Oppeln in Silesia, where his father was school-
muster. By twelve he had lost both his
parents, and was thrown helpless on the world.
He then got into the Gymnasium or Convict at
Breslau; in 1846 went to Glogau, and lastly to
Berlin. From Mosewius, the excellent director
of the University of Breslau, he had an introUuc-



ULPJCH.

tion to A. B. Marx ; but poor Ulrlch had no
money to pay the fees. With Meyerbeer's help,
however, he became a pupil of Dehn's for two
years, and then produced his op, i, a PF. trio,
followed by two symphonies, all of which excited
much attention. The B minor Symphony (1S52)
went the round of Germany, and the Sinfonie
Triomphale obtained the prize of 1500 francs from
the Royal Academy of Brussels in 1853, and was
very much performed and applauded. In 1855
lie went off to Italy and lived for long in the
various great towns, but was driven back by
want of means to Berlin. He brought with him
an opera, ' Bertrand de Born ' (still in MS.). He
taught for a short time in the Conservatoire,
but teaching was distasteful to him ; he had
not the strength to struggle against fate, and
after attempting a third symphony (in G), he
appears to have broken down , or at least to have
relinquished his old high standard, and to have
betaken himself to pot-boilers of various kinds.
Amongst these his an-angements of symphonies
and other orchestral works are prominent, and of
first-rate merit. His wretched life brought on a
most painful nervous illness, which carried him
off on March 23, 1872, and thus ended a life
which in happier circumstances might have pro-
uuced great results. He left a quartet, two over-
tures, a cello sonata, and various PF. works. [G.]
UMLAXJF, Ignaz, popular di-amatic com-
poser in his day, born 1756, in Vienna, where he
died June 8, 1796. In 1772 he entered the
orchestra of the Court Theatre as violin-player,
in 177S became Capellmelster of the German
Singspiel, in 1789 deputy Capellmeister (with
Salieri as chief) at the Court Theatre, and later
was associated with Weigl in a similar manner
at the Opera. His first opera, ' I Eovinati,' was
composed to Italian words by Boccherini (Court
Theatre, 1 772). "When the Emperor Joseph
instituted the national Singspiel (for which
Mozart composed the ' Entfiihrung') he pitched
upon Cmlauf to start it, and his 'Bergknap-
pen' was the first German Singspiel produced
at the Burgtheater (Feb. 17, 1778). This
was succeeded by 'Die Apotheke'; 'Die puce-
farbenen Schuhe,' or 'Die schiine Schusterin'
(long a fii.vourite with the charming singer ,
Mine. Weiss in the principal part) (1779) ; ' Das
Irrlicht,' comic opera in 3 acts, with Mme.
Lange; and 'Der Oberamtmann und die Sol-
daten' (after Calderon), a 5-act play with airs
and serenade (1782); 'Die gliicklichen Jager,'
and 'Der Ring der Liebe,' both Singspiele (1786).
These operas are all distinguished by a pleasing
style, a fine flow of melody, and plenty of strik-
ing tunes. Umlauf never left Vienna but once,
and that was in 1790, when he went with Salieri
and a part of the Court band to the Coronation
of the Emperor Leopold II. at Frankfort.' A
set of variations on the favourite air from ' Das
Irrlicht,' 'Zu Steffan sprach in Traume,' com-
posed for the celebrated bass-singer Fischer, was
long attributed to Mozart, but they were really

1 Mozart was there too, but in a private capacity, and at Lis own
«p«use ; he gave a coucerl, at which he plajed hinjself.



UNGER.



201



written by Eberl (see Kochel's 'Mozart Cata-
logue,* Appendix V. No. 288). Pianoforte scores
appeared of 'Die schone Schusterin' and 'Daa
Irrlicht,' while several of the airs from the other
Singspiele were published singly or in arrange-
ments. Umlauf's son

Michael, born 1781 in Vienna, died June 20,
iS42,at Baden, near Vienna, was violinist at the
opera, in 1804 began to compose ballets, was
Capellmeister of the two Court Theatres from
1810 to 1825, and engaged again in 1840. He
is said to have been a clever musician, published
PF. sonatas, etc., and composed a Singspiel, ' Der
Grenadier' (Karnthnerthor Theatre, 1812). His
chief interest however is the important part he
took in the performance of Beethoven's works.
On these occasions they both acted as conductors,
Umlauf standing by the side of, or behind, Bee-
thoven ; but it was his beat only which the
orchestra followed, as Beethoven, either carried
aw^ay by his impetuosity went too fast, as at the
performance of Fidelio in 1814, or, owing to his
deafness, lost the time altogether, as at concerts
in 1814, 1819, and 1S24. At the first two per-
formances of the 9th Symphony in May 1S24,
Beethoven merely gave the tempo at the com-
mencement of each movement, an arrangement
which the programme announced in the following
diplomatic terms, ' Herr Schuppanzigh will lead
the orchestra, and Herr Capellmeister Umlauf
conducts the whole performance. Herr L. v.
Beethoven will take part in conducting the whole
performance.' [C.F.P.]

UlSr ANNO ED UN GIORNO (i.e. 'A year
and a day'). An opera bufFa in one act, by
Sir Julius Benedict. Produced at the Teatro
Fondo, Nai)les, in 1836, for the dtbut of F. La-
blache and Mile. Bordogni. It was repeated at
Stuttgart in 1S37. [G.]

UNDA MARIS (The sea-wave), a name for
the undulating organ stop more generally known
as Voix Celeste. [G.]

UNDINE. A cantata for solos, chorus, and
orchestra ; words by John Oxenford, music by
Sir Julius Benedict, composed for and produced
at the Norwich Festival, Sept. 1S60. [G.]

UNEQUAL. ' Equal voices ' is the term to
denote that the voices in a composition are of one
class — female voices, as sopranos and contraltos ;
or male voices, as altos, tenors, and basses. When
the two classes are combined, as in an ordinary
chorus, the term ' Unequal Voices ' is used. [G.]

UNGER, Cakolin'e, a great singer of the
last generation, was born Oct. 28, 1S05, at
Stuhlweissenburg, near Pesth, where her father
was master of the household ( Wirthscha/tsrath)
to Baron Hakelberg. Unger was one of Schu-
bert's friends, and recommended him to Count
Johann Esterhazy in 1S18, so that his daughter
must have been brought up in the midst of mu-
sic. She was trained by no meaner singers than
Aloysia Lange, Mozart's sister-in-law, and Vogl,
Schubert's friend and best interpreter,^ and is

2 Eer own statement, in SohVs ' Eeethovea." m.4£6.



205



UXGER.



said to have made her debut at Vienna, Feb. 24,
1821, in 'Cos! iiin tutte.' Early in 1S24 Sontag
and she came into contact with Beethoven in
studj'ing the soprano and contralto parts of his
Mass in D and Choral Symphony. No efforts or
representations could induce the master to alter
the extreme range of their parts. ' I remember
once saying to him,' writes linger, ' that he did
not know how to write for voices, since my part
in the Symphony had one note too high for my
voice.' His answer was, ' Leani away, and the
note will soon come.' On the day of performance,
May 7, the note did come; the excitement of
the audience was enormous, and it was then, at
the close of the Symphony, that the happy idea
occurred to Unger of turning the deaf Beethoven
round to the room, in order that he might see
the applause which he could not hear, and of
which he was therefore unaware. After this she
took an engagement from Barbaja in Italy, and
sung there for many years, during which Doni-
zetti wrote for her 'Parisina,' 'Belisario,' and
* Maria di Rudenz ' ; Bellini, ' La Straniera ' ;
Mercadante, ' Le due illustre Eivali ' ; Pacini,
'Niobe,' etc., etc. In October 183:; she sang in
Paris at the Theatre Italien for one season only.
It was perhaps on this occasion that Rossini is
said to have spoken of her as possessing ' the
ardour of the South, the energy of the North,
brazen lungs, a silver voice, and a golden talent.'
She then returned to Italy, but in 1840 married
M. Sabatier, a Florentine gentleman, and re-
tired from the stage. In 1869 she was in
London, and at one of the Saturday Concerts
at the Crystal Palace confirmed to the writer of
this article the anecdote above related of her
turning Beethoven round. Her dramatic ability
•nnd intelligence, says Fetis, were great ; she was
large, good-looking, and attractive ; the lower
and middle parts of her voice were broad and
fine, but in her upper notes there was much
harshness, especially when they were at all
forced. She died at her villa of ' La Concezione,'
near Florence, March 23, 1877. Mad. Regan
Schimon was one of her principal pupils. [G.]

UNISON. Simultaneous occurrence of two
sounds of the same pitch. Passages in octaves
are sometimes marked Uuis., but this is not
strictly correct. [C.H.H.P.]

UNITED STATES. The means and oppor-
tunities presented in the United States for musical
study and improvement have been, within the
past two decades, largely amplified and greatly
strengthened. It is now possible for students
to find institutions where nothing necessary for
a thorough musical education is omitted from
the curriculum. It is the purpose of this article
to indicate the extent and importance of these
means, without, however, attempting to name
all of the establishments in the Union where the
instruction is in the hands of competent pro-
fessors, or which have been recognised as worthy
of patronage.

I. At Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts, music is an 'elective' study. The in-



UNITED STATES.

struction, which is purely theoretical, embraces
a course of three years. The degrees of Master
of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy are conferred on



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