George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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worthy graduates. John K. Paine [vol. ii. p. 632]
has been in charge of this department since 1862
— at first instructor, raised to a full professorship
in 1S76. The Boston University, Boston, Massa-
chusetts, includes a College of Music, estab-
lished 1S72, with a faculty of thirteen professors
and instructors, Eben Touejjee, dean [seep. 154].
Instruction is both theoretical and practical, and
is carried to the point that admits of the be-
stowal of the degree of Bachelor of Music, after
a three years' course. Both sexes are admitted
to the College. At Boston are several private
schools, liberally patronised, with pupils from
all parts of the Union. The largest, the New
England Conservatory of Music, established in
1S67, is under the direction of Eben Tourj^e.
This school has a staflP of instructors in every
branch, numbering 90, and had in the year
18S3-4, 197 1 pupils, with a valuable library
and other resoui'ces in full. The establishment
also includes dormitories and dining-rooms for
400 girl pupils. Over 33,000 pupils have been
registered here since the opening of the institu-
tion. The Boston Conservatory of Music, also
established in 1S67, is under the care of Julius
Eichberg. It has for several years enjoyed a
high reputation for the thoroughness of its violin
school. At each establishment the class system
is rigidly adhered to, and instruction, beginning
at the rudiments, is carried to a high point in
both theory and practice.

In the public schools of the city of Boston
instruction in music forms a part of each day's
exercises. The schools are divided into three
grades, Primary, Grammar, and High. In the
lowest grade the pupils, five to eight years of
age, are taught the major scales as far as four
sharps and four flats, to fill measures in rhythm,
and the signs and characters in common use ;
the vocal exercises consist of songs in unison,
taught by rote. This work is reviewed in the
lower classes of the nest grade, which include
children from eight to eleven years, and in-
struction is continued by written exercises in
transposition and vocal exercises in three- and
four-part harmony. In the higher classes of the
grammar schools — pupils of from eleven to four-
teen years — the triads and their inversions are
learned ; the written exercises include transposi-
tions of themes ; and the vocal exercises consist
of songs and chorales in four-part harmony, all of
greater difficulty than those set before the lower
classes. With very few exceptions the sexes are
separated. When, as has sometimes happened,
there have been found boj's with tenor and bass
voices, a wider range in the selection of exercises
for practice and songs has been possible. Diplo-
mas are awarded, on graduation, to all who reach
a given standard at a vvrritten examination. Still
greater advance is made in the High Schools, the
graduates being from eighteen to nineteen years
old. The exercises are increased in difficulty,
and the lessons include some of the principles of



UNITED STATES.

aannony. All of the instruction in the primary
md grammar schools is given by the regular
eachers, who visit the schools in rotation,
under the supervision of the special instructor
in music. The lessons are mostly oral, with the
aid of blackboard and charts. Four grades of
text-books, especially prepared for the schools,
are used, named first, second, third and fourth
readers, respectively ; the first being used in the
primary schools, and so on. There is also an
advanced reader — a collection of three-part songs
— used in the girls' high school. The system is
the outgrowth .of seventeen years' study and
experience. The department is (1880) in the
charge of a musical director, Julius Eichberg,
who has also the special care of the high schools ;
and three special instructors, Joseph B. Shad-
and, Henry E. Holt and J. Munroe Mason, who
divide the care of the grammar and primary
schools. Director and Instructors are under the
control of a committee on music, consisting of
five members of the school committee, appointed
annually. The entire school committee serve
without pay. There is an annual election to
fill vacancies occurring by the expiration of the
three years' term of a third of the number.
Since 1879 women have been allowed to vote
at this election, and women have served on the
school committee since 1875. Both of these
privileges have been secured to women through-
out the state, by general statutes. From the
official returns for 1884, it appears that the
number of public schools in the city of Boston
was 171 ; of teachers, male and female, nearly
I400; of pupils 58,788; and that the annual
cost of musical instruction was about 11,000
dollars for the special instructors employed.
The system herein set forth has been adopted,
with modifications according to governing cir-
comstances, in many of the cities and large
towns throughout the Union.

II. The Peabody Institute, Baltimore, Mary-
land, was founded in 1857, by (George Peabody.
In pursuance of the design of the founder ' to fur-
nish that sort of instruction, under able teachers,
in the theory and higher branches of music, for
which there has heretofore been no provision,
and which students have been obliged to seek
abroad,' a Conservatory of Music was organised,
in i868, substantially on the plan of the Euro-
pean conservatories. Mr. Lucian H. Southard,
an American musician, was its first principal.
1871, Mr. Asger Hamerik, a young Danish
mposer, was invited to become its head, a posi-
'on still retained by him (1S84). The Conserva-
ry has had an average of 120 students, both
exes being represented. The requisites for ad-
aission are a knowledge of the rudiments of
'iuusical theory, to which must be allied, in the
case of singers a voice, susceptible of cultiva-
ftion; and the ability to play certain studies of
Plaidy and Czemy and the easier sonatas of
Haydn and Mozart, in the case of piano-stu-
dents. The course of instruction is adapted to
a high degree of musical culture, both tlieoretical
and practical. Diplomas are granted to students



UNITED STATES.



203



who, after a three years' course, pass a satisfac-
tory examination before the government of the
Conservatory. The staff of instructors numbers
six, including the director. The library of the
Institute contains 65,000 volumes, about 1000
of which are scores belonging to the musical
department. About 50 lectures, on literary,
scientific and art topics, by the best lecturers
wliose services can be procured, are given yearly.
The Institute is situated in a fine marble build-
ing, occupying an entire square in the centre
of the city. The Peabody Concerts are given
under the auspices of the Institute.

III. The College of Music, Cincinnati, Ohio,
was incorporated in 18 78. The business affairs
of the college are administered by a directory,
composed as follows in 1880 : — George Ward
Nichols, president ; P. E. Neff, treasurer ;
J. Burnet, jun., secretary; J. ShiUito and K. E.
Springer. It is to Mr. Springer's munificent
generosity that the city is largely indebted for
the great Music Hall in which the college is
held. Thirty-four professors of music and modem
languages made up the faculty, and at their
head was Theodore Thomas. The terms for in-
struction are very low, and students enjoy many
advantages. Class instruction is pursued in
theory, vocalisation, chorus-singing, and en-
semble-playing, but not, as a rule, in the orches-
tral branches. There is a college choir of
200 voices and an orchestra of 65 musicians.
During its first season the college gave, under
Mr. Thomas's direction, twelve Symphony con-
certs and twelve Chamber concerts, the pro-
grammes being invariably of the highest order.
The Music Hall contains one of the largest organs
in the world (96 registers, 6,237 pipes ; built by
Hook & Hastings, Boston), and on this there
were given two recitals in each week. The
college doors were first opened for pupils Oct. 14,
1 8 78. The enterprise has met with a success
far beyond the anticipations of its projectors.
During the first season (1S78-79) over 500 pupils
were enrolled, both sexes and nearly every por-
tion of North America being represented. Mr.
Thomas resigned his position in 1880.

IV. At Farmington, Connecticut, is found Miss
Sarah Porter's school for girls, established about
thirty years ago, which for a quarter of a cen-
tury has been noted for the good training of its
musical students. These, numbering 50 to 70,
have been in the charge of Karl Klauser,
who has edited over a thousand classical piano
compositions in a manner which has won for
him a high reputation among teachers for the
critical care displayed by him. Pupils here
are permitted frequent opportunities of hearing
the best musicians in classical chamber-concerts.

V. Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York,
for girls, was established in 1865. There are
generally from 125 to 150 pupils enrolled. The
musical department has been, since 1867, under
the charge of Frederic Louis Hitter. Eight to
ten concerts of classic music are given yearly.
Wells College, Aurora, New York, for girls, was
incorporated in 1868. During the academic



204



UNITED STATES.



year 1S78-79, the classes in music included 45
pupils, under the charge of Max Piutti. The
Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, for
both sexes, was established in 1871 ; the musical
<lepartment was formed in 1S77. William
Schultze is in charge of this depai'tment. Tlie
pupils numbered 127 in 1S79, about five-sixths
of whom were girls. The degree of Bachelor
of Music is conferred on desei-\-ing graduates.
Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, has a Conserva-
tory of Music. The College was established in
1834, t^^ Conservatory was opened in 1865.
Fenelon B. Rice is its musical director. The
Conservatory is modelled, as nearly as practicable,
on that at Leipzig. The average number of
.students at the College during the decade 1871-
80, has been 120, some two-thirds of whom have
entered the Conservatory, about 30 per cent of
the latter being boys.

VI. As already intimated, it is not possible to
name all of the reputable institutions, public or
private, in theUnited States, where music is taught
by trained and competent instructors. Neither has
it been possible to do more than suggest the ful-
ness of the means which, in each instance cited,
are at the command of students, such as libraries,
lectures and concerts. In addition to the collec-
tions of treatises and scores which are found at
eacli of the institutions named, there exist seve-
ral large and carefully made up libraries, which,
being generally of a public or g!<a* /-public cha-
racter, present another means of education. At
Boston there is the Public Library, open to every
inhabitant of the city, without distinction, in
which is a collection of rare text-books and
tcores. The library of the Harvard Musical
Association is also of great value. At the li-
brary of Harvard University, and at the Astor
Library, New York, collections of musical litera-
ture and works have been begun. The private
library of Joseph W. Drexel, of New York,
noted as the richest in the Union in old and
rare musical works, will eventually form a part
of the Lenox Library of that city.

A feature peculiar to the L'nited States should
also be noted — ' Normal Musical Institutes,'
held in the summer, at some seaside or mountain
watering-place, by leading professors, for the
purpose of giving advanced instruction to stu-
dents who intend to fit themselves for teaching.
Once a j-ear, also in the summer, there is held at
a place previously agreed upon, a meeting of
2uusic teachers from all parts of the Union, under
the name 'The National Music Teachers' Asso-
ciation,' whereat matters of interest to the pro-
fession are discussed, and lectures delivered.
.From this has sprung (1884) an institution. The
American College of Musicians, the purpose of
which is to examine musicians who desire to be-
come teachers, and to grant graded certificates of
ability. The hope of the projectors is that by
this means the standard of capacity among music
teachers will be raised and maintained. [t'.H.J.]

UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETIES.
Of these there are four in the British Isles re-
quiring notice.



UNIVERSITY SOCIETIES.

I. C.VMBRiDGE. The Cambridge University
Musical Society (C.U.M.S.) was founded as the
'Peterhouse Musical Society,' in Peterhouse (now
modernised into ' St. Peter's College ') by a little
body of amateurs in Michaelmas Term 1843. The
earliest record which it possesses is the programme
of a concert given at the Red Lion in Petty Cury
on Friday, Dec. 8 : —

Part I.

Symphony . . . No. 1 Haydn.

(ilee . . ' re breezes softly blowing'. . Mozart.
Solo Flute Portuguese air with Variations. Nicholson.
Song . . 'In native worth' (Creation!. . Haydn.
Uverture . . . Masaniello. . . . Auber.

Part U.
Overture . . . Semiramide. . . . Eossini.
Ballad ' As down in the sunless retreats.' . Dikes.
Walzer . . . Elisabethen. . . . Strauss.
Song . . . ' yra poco a me.' . Donizetti.

Quadrille . . . Eoyal Irish. . . . Jullien

In its early days the Society was mainly de-
voted to the practice of instrumental music, the
few glees and songs introduced being of secondary
interest. The Peterhouse Society had been in
existence for about eighteen months, and had held
ele\en 'Public Performance Meetings,' when the
name was changed to that of the Cambridge Uni-
versity Musical Society. The first concert given
by the newly -named Society was held on May i,
I S44 ; it included Haydn's * Surprise ' Sjonphony,
and ' Mr. Dykes of St. Catharine's College' sang
John Parry's ' Nice young man' and (for an en-
core) the .same composer's ' Berlin wool.' The Mr.
Dykes who thus distinguished himself was after-
wards well known as the Rev. J. B. Dykes, the
composer of some of the best of modern hymn-
tunes. There is not much variation in the pro-
grammes during the early years of the Society's
existence. Two or three overtures, an occasional
symphony or PF. trio, with songs and glees,
formed the staple, but very little attention was
given to choral works. The conductors were
iLsually the Presidents of the Society. In 1846 '
Dr. Walmisley's name frequently appears, as in
his charming trio for three trebles, 'The Mer-
maids,' and a duet concertante for piano and oboe.
In 1S50 the Dublin University Musical Society,
having passed a resolution admitting the mem-
bers of the C.U.M.S. as honorary members, the
compliment was returned in a similar way, and
the Cambridge Society subsequently entered into
negotiations with the Oxford and Edinburgh
University Musical Societies, by which the mem-
bers of the diflerent bodies received mutual re-
cognition. In Dec. 1852 professional conduc^^ _
began to be engaged. One of the earliest"^!
these (Mr. Amps) turned his attention to th
practice of choral works. The result was show
in the performance of a short selection from Men
delssohn's 'Elijah' (on March 15, i8-;3). '-A-n
tigone' music (May 28, 1855), and ' (Edipus
(May 2f), 1857), when Dr. Donaldson read his
translation of the play. On the election of
Sterndale Bennett to the professorial chair of
Music, he undertook whenever time would allow
to conduct one concert a year. In fulfilment of
this promise, on Nov. i-j^iS^O, he conducted a
concert and played his own Quintet for piano



UNIVERSITY SOCIETIES.

md wind, the quartet being all professionals.
[n the next few years the Society made steady
progress, the most notable performances being
Mozart's Requiem ; Bach's Concerto for 3 PF.s ;
Beethoven's ' Kuins of Athens ; ' the 'Antigone '
again ; a selection from Gluck's ' Iphigenia in Au-
lis' ; Beethoven's Mass in C and Choral Fantasia ;
and a concert in memory of Spohr (Dec. 7, 1859).

In i860 the Society gave its first chamber con-
cert (Feb. 21). In the following year the Societj'
gave a performance of the ' Oedipus ' in the Hall
of King's College, the dialogue being read by
tlie Public Orator, the Rev. W. G. Clark. At
a subsequent performance of the 'Antigone' in
the Hall of Caius College (May 20, 1S61) the
verses were read by the Rev. Charles Kingsley.
On March 9, 1S62, the name of Schumann occurs
for the first time to the beautiful Andante and
Variations for two pianofortes (op. 46). In the
following year the Society produced for the first
time in England the same composer's Pianoforte
Concerto (op. 54), played by Mr. J. R. Lunn.
Other achievements worth mentioning were the
performance in 1863 of the Finale to Act I, of
•Tannhauser,' of Schumann's Adagio and Allegro
(op. 70) for PF. and hom, his Fest-overture (op.
123, first time in England), and of the march
and chorus from ' Tannliauser.'

The concerts of the next nine years continued
to keep up the previous reputation of the Society,
and many standard works were during this period
added to the repertory.

In I S 70 Mr. Charles Villiers Stanford (then an
undergraduate at Queen's) made his first appear-
ance at a concert on Nov. 30, when he played
a Xachtstiick of Schumann's, and a Waltz of
Heller's. In 1S73 he succeeded Dr. Hopkins as
conductor, and one of his first steps was to admit
ladies to the chorus as associates. This was
effected by amalgamating the C.U.M.S. with the
Fitzwilliam Musical Society, a body which had
existed since 1858. The first concert in which
the newly-formed chorus took part was given
on May 27, 1873, when Sterndale Bennett con-
ducted ' The May Queen,* and the ' Tannhauser '
march and chorus was repeated. In the follow-
ing year the Society performed Schumann's
'Paradise and the Peri' (June 3, 1S74), and on
May 2, 1875, li'S music to 'Faust' (Part III)
for the first time in England. The custom of
engaging an orchestra, consisting mainly of Lon-
don professionals, now began, and enabled the
C.U.M.S. to perform larger works than before.
"^ e number of concerts had gradually been

minished, and the whole efforts of the chorus

ere devoted to the practice of important com-
lositions. By this means the Society has acquired

J reputation as a pioneer amongst English musical
ocieties, and within the last few j-ears has pro-
duced many new and important compositions,
besides reviving works which, like Handel's 'Se-
'mele ' and ' Hercules,' or Purcell's ' Yorlcshire
Feast Song,' bad fallen into undeserved oblivion.
A glance at the summary of compositions per-
formed, at the end of this article, will show the good
work which it is doing for music in England.



UNIVERSITY SOCIETIES.



205



In 1S76 a series of Wednesday Popular Con-
certs was started, and has been continued without
intermission in every JMichaehnas and Lent Term
to the present time. Tliese are given in the
small room of the Guildhall, and generally consist
of one or two instrumental quartets or trios, one
instrumental solo, and two or three songs. The
performers consist of both amateur and profes-
sional instrumentalists. More important chamber
concerts are also given in the Lent and Easter
Terms ; and to these, Professor Joachim — an
honorary member of the Society — has often given
his services. The Society, as at present (Nov.
1884) constituted, consists of a patron (the Duke
of Devonshire), 16 vice-patrons, a president (the
Rev. A. Austen Leigh), three vice-presidents,
secretary, treasurer, librarian, committee of eight
members, ladies' committee of nix associates, con-
ductor (Dr. C. V. Stanford), 280 performing, 130
non-performing members and associates, and 20
honorary members. The subscription is 21s. a
year, or los. a term. Besides the popular con-
certs once a week in Michaelmas and Lent Terms,
there is usually a choral concert every Term, and
in Lent and Easter Terms a chamber concert of
importance, and choral and instrumental prac-
tices once a week.

The following is a list of the most important
works produced and performed by the C.U.M.S.
Numerous overtures and symphonies and much
chamber music, by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven,
Schubert, Brahms, Bennett, etc., have been
omitted for want of space. The works marked
with an asterisk were performed by the Society
for the first time in England.



Astorga. Stabat Jlater.

r.ach, C. P. E. Symphony. No. I.

Bach. J. S. Concerto for 3 Tianos ;
Concerto for 2 Pianos ; Suite
for Orchestra, B minor; 'My
spirit Tvas in heaviness' : Vio-
lin Concerto ; 'Xow shall the
Grace ' ; »Halt im Gedachtniss.

Beethoven. Euins of Athens ;
Mass in C ; Choral Fantasia ;
Meeresstille und gliickliche
Fahrt ; Choral Symphony.

Bennett. Exhibition Ode ; The
May Queen ; The Woman of
Samaria.

Brahms. Kequiem ; Song of Des-
tiny: *Symphony. No. I ; Lie-
beslieder; »Rhapsodie, op. 53 ;
Es ist das Heil ; Concerto, Vio-
lin, op. 77 ; Tragic Overlure,
op. SI.

Cherubini. oMarche Eeligieuse.

Garrett. »The Triumph of Love;
»The Shunammite.

Gluck. Selection from Iphigenia
in Aulis.

Goetz. ♦Sonata for Piano (4
hands) ; ' Xenia"; •PF. Sonata,
4 hands.

Handel. Selection from The Mes-
siah ; Ode on St. Cecilia's Day;
Dettingen Te Deum; Selection
from Samson ; Funeral An-
them : Coronation Do. ; Selec-
tion from Alexander's Feast ;
Acis and Galatea; Semele;
Israel in Egypt ; Hercules ;
Concerto G minor.

Haydn. Mass. No. I.

Joachim. •Elegiac Overture;
Theme and Variations for Vio-
lin and Orchestra.

Kiel. •Requiem.

Leo. •Dixit Dominus.

Mendelssohn. Selection from Eli-
jah ; Music to Antigone ;



Music lo Oedipus ; Psalm
XLII , Psalm CXV ; ' To the
Sons of Art ' ; Lauda Slon :
Violin Concerto ; Walpurgis
Night ; St. Paul.

Mozart. Jupiter Symphony ; Ke-
quiem : Mass, No. I ; jlass,
No. XJI ; »Minuets for 2 Vio-
lins and Violoncello.

Palestrina. Hodie Christus; Se-
lection, Missa Papae Marcelli.

Parry, C. H. H. Scenes from Pro-
metheus Unbound ; •Sym-
phony in F; PF. Trio in E mi.j
PF. Quartet in A minor.

Purcell. Yorkshire Feast Song.

Romberg. Lay of the Bell.

Schumann. Andante and Varia-
t'ons, op. 46 ; ^PF. Concerto,
op. 54; Adagio and Allegro,
op. 70 : •Fest Ouverture. op.
123 ; Paradise and the Peri ;
•Faust (Part III); The Pil-
grimage of the Rose.

Spohr. Selection from The Last
Judgment ; Selection from
Calvary; ' God Thou art great.'

Stanford. •Pianoforte Concerto ;
•Trio. Piano and Strings ; •Re-
surrection Hymn ; •Sonata,
Piano and Violin ; •Psalm
xlvi ; •Elegiac Symphony ;
"Awake, my heart.'

Steggall. •Festival Anthem.

Stewart. •Echo and the Lovers.

Volkmann. •Serenade for Strings,
op. 63.

Wagner. Finale, Act I of Tann-
hauser ; March and Chorus.
Do.; Kaiser-Marsch ; Prelude
to Die Meistersinger ; Sieg-
fried-Idyll.

Walmisley. •Trio, "The Mer-
maids ■ ; •Duet - Concertanle,
Oboe and Flute.



[W.B.S.]



206



UNIVERSITY SOCIETIES.



II. Oxford. — At the close of the last and the
befinning of the present century, Oxford concerts
were probably superior to any in England outside
London. A performance was given once a week
in Term-time, and the programmes in the Bod-
leian show that at least one symphony or concerto
was played at each. But the old Oxford Musical
Society disappeared, and the societies now existing
are of comparatively recent date. There has been
no Choral Society on a large scale confined to
members of the University since the disappear-
ance of the ' Miinnergesangverein ' some seven
years ago ; but there are two important societies
largely attended by members of the University,
the Oxford Choral Society and the Oxford Phil-
harmonic Society. The former was founded in
1819, but in its present shape may be said to date
from 1869, when the late Mr. Allchin, Mus. B.,
St. John's, became conductor, a post which he
held till the end of iSSi. Under his direction
the Society became exceedingly prosperous, and
the following works, besides the usual repertoire
of Choral Societies, were performed : — ' Israel in
Egypt,' the ' Reformation Symphony,' Schu-
mann's ' Pilgrimage of the Rose,' and Wagner's
' Siegfried-Idyll.' The following English com-
positions were performed by it in Oxford almost
as soon as they were brought out : — Barnett's
'Ancient Mariner,' Macfarren's 'St. John the
Baptist' and 'Joseph,' Stainer's 'Daughter of
•Tairus,' and Sullivan's 'Martyr of Antioch.'
Mr. Allchin was succeeded as conductor by Mr.
Walter Parratt, Mus. B., organist of Magdalen,
and on his departure from Oxford in 18S2, Mr.
C. H. Lloyd, M.A., Mus. B., organist of Christ
Church, assumed the baton. Amongst the most
notable works given under their direction may



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