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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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be mentioned Schubert's B minor Symphony,
Gounod's 'Redemption,' and Parry's 'Prometheus
Unbound.' The president of the Society is Dr.
Stainer, who was also the founder of the Phil-
harmonic Society in 1865. He, however, con-
ducted only one concert, and in October 1866
Mr. James Taylor, organist of New College,
Mus. B. (1873), and organist of the University
(1872), accepted the post of conductor, which he
has held ever since. The compositions perfonned
under his direction include the following : — Bach's
'God's time is the best,' Beethoven's Eb Con-
certo and Choral Fantasia, Cherubini's Requiem
in C minor, Schubert's ' Song of Miriam,' Spohi-'s
'Fall of Babylon,' Schumann's 'Paradise and the
Peri,' Bennett's ' Woman of Samaria,' Benedict's
* St. Peter,' and Ouseley's ' Hagar.'

The attempt to establish Symphony Concerts
in Oxford has so far proved a failure, but the
Orchestral Association, which meets weekly under
INIr. C. H. Lloyd's direction, boasts about fifty
members, many of them belonging to the Univer-
sity. Chamber music owns two strictly academic
a-^sociations. The older of tliese, the University
-Musical Club, originated in the gatherings of
some musical friends in the rooms of the present
Chorngus of the University, Dr. Hubert Pairy,
during his undergraduate days. After him, Mr.
C. H. Lloyd, then a Scholar of what is now


Hertford College, took up the meetings, and in I
1S71 they developed into a public institution.):
The number of members rose rapidly, reaching!;
as high as 138 in 1880. In the following yean
the Club, then under the presidency of Mr,/
Franklin Harvey, M.A., of Magdalen, celebrated;*
its tenth year by a great reunion of past andi^
present members. During the last few years the t
tendency of the Club has been to give good per- ■
formances of chamber music by profession al players ,
and it occurred to some, including the writer
of this notice, that it would be desirable to esta-
blish an association for the development of ama-
teur playing. The scheme was floated in the
summer of 1884, and the 'University Musical
Union ' met with a success far exceeding its pro-
moters' hopes. Over a hundred members were
speedily enrolled, and regular professional instruc-
tion in quartet-playing, etc., has been provided
every week, so that any amateur player who will
work may, during residence, make himself conver-
sant with a large amount of chamber music.

No account of University music in Oxford can
be considered complete without some notice of the
College concerts. The first college that ventured
on the experiment of replacing a miscellaneous
programme of part-songs, etc., with a complete
cantata was Queen's. In 1S73 Bennett's 'May
Queen' was given in the College Hall, with a
band, and since then the following works have
been performed with orchestra : — Bamett's ' An-
cient Mariner,' Bennett's ' Ajax ' music ; Mac-
farren's 'May Day,' and 'Outward Bound,' Gade's
' Crusaders,' Mendelssohn's ' Walpurgis Nacht,' 1
Handel's ' Acis and Galatea,' Gadsby's ' Lord of
the Isles,' Schumann's 'Luck of Edenhall,' Alice
Mary Smith's ' Ode to the North-East Wind,'
and ' Song of the Little Baltung,' Haydn's Sur-
prise Symphony, Mozart's Eb Symphony, and
Bennett's F minor Concerto. For its 1S85 con-
cert the Society has commissioned its conductor.
Dr. IlifFe, organist of St. John's College, to com-
pose a new work, which will be called ' Lara."
For some years Queen's College stood alone in
the high standard of its programmes, but of late
its example has been extensively followed, and
the following complete works were given in the
Summer Term of 1884. Gade's 'Comala' at Wor-
cester, and his 'Psyche' (with small band) at
Keble ; Barnett's 'Ancient Mariner' at New, and
his ' Paradise and the Peri ' (with band) at Mer-
ton ; and Macfarren's 'May Day' at Exeter.

To sum up, we have in Oxford every yea'* *"'>"■
concerts of the highest class, two given
Philharmonic, and two by the Choral ; wi
two concerts of chamber music every we I
each Term; any instrumental player has a w«
chance of practising both orchestral and chai
music, and at least six colleges may be depen
on to perform a cantata of considerable dimensi
every year. The following works will be hei ,
in Oxford with orchestra during the early part , >t
1S85: — Beethoven's 'Mount of Olives,' Stainer il,
' St. Mary Magdalen,' Mozart's ' Twelfth Mass ' (so
called), Mendelssohn's 114th Psalm and Refor-
mation Symphony, Spohr's ' Christian's Prayer,





Lloyd's ' Hero and Leander,' Handel's ' Alex-
ander's Feast ' and ' Acis and Galatea,' Goring
Thomas's 'Sun Worshippers,' Mackenzie's 'Bride,'
Gade's ' Erl King's Daughter,' and IlifFe's 'Lara.'
There wiU also be performances of three other
works, but the details are not yet (Nov. 1S84)
settled. [J.H.M.]

III. Edinburgh.— The germ of the first stu-
dents' musical society established in Scotland is
traceable to a ' University Amateur Concert ' of
February 1867, 'given by the Committee of Edin-
burgh University Athletic Club, the performers
consisting of members of the University, assisted
by the Professor of Music, by amateurs of tbe
Senatus Academicus, and by members of St. Ce-
cilia Instrumental Society.' The following winter
the Association was organised, and in 1868,
1869, and 1870 concerts were held. An arrange-
ment having been made for elementary instruc-
tion to members deficient in previous training,
the society was recognised as a University insti-
tution by an annual grant of £10 from the
Senatus. But its numerical strength was weak,
and at a committee meeting in Nov. 1870 it was
resolved ' to let the society, so far as active work
was concerned, fall into abeyance for the session
of 1870-71, in consideration of the difficulty in
carrying on the work from want of encourage-
ment from the students.' In the winter of 1S71
the present Professor of Music, warmly supported
by some of his colleagues, was able to get the
matter more under his control, and he was elected
president and honorary conductor. Amongst
reforms introduced were the use of his class-
room and of a pianoforte for the practisings, and
the drawing up and printing of a code of rules
and list of office-bearers. The latter consists of
a president, vice-presidents, including the prin-
cipal and some half dozen professors, honorary
vice-presidents, a committee of some ten stu-
dents, with honorary secretary and treasurer,
and with choirmaster. Subsequently the Duke
of Edinburgh complied with the request of the
president that His Royal Highness should be-
come patron. — The main object of the Society, as
stated in the rules, 'is the encouragement and
promotion amongst students of the practical
atudyy f choral music' After the reorganisation
of ijV^i considerable impetus was given to the
mat^, and the annual concert of 1S72 evinced
ma// 'id advance and higher aim. Besides a
stronger chorus, a very fair orchestra of pro-
fessors and amateurs, with A. C. Mackenzie
as leader, played Mozart's G minor Symphony,
^ome overtures, and the accompaniments ; and
the president and conductor was presented by
his society with a silver-mounted baton. Recent
years have brought increased success, both as to
annual concerts and as to numbers, which in
five years rose from 64 to 236, the average
number being some 200. The twelve concerts
annually given since 1872 have been very popu-
lar, and on the whole well supported. Although
the annual subscription is only 5s., and expenses
are considerable, in 1883 the balance in hand
was about £200, enabling the society not only to

present to the Senatus a portrait of the presi-
dent, but also to subscribe £50 towards the
expenses of an extra concert given during the
tercentenary of the University in 1884, and a
large collection of music for men's voices, with
orchestral accompaniment specially scored, for
mucb of it has been acquired out of the yearly
balances in hand. A gratifying outcome of this
new feature in Scottish student-life is that each
of the other Universities of Scotland have fol-
lowed the example of Edinburgh — Aberdeen, St.
Andrew's, and Glasgow, each possessing a musical
society giving a very creditable annual concert.
The formation of such a student-chorus. East
and West, North and South, cannot fail to raise
choral taste amongst the most educated portion
of the male population of Scotland, and to afibrd,
as in the days of Queen Elizabeth, opportunity of
taking part in most enjoyable artistic recreation.
And by no means the least part of the value of
University musical societies is that their associa-
tions tend through life to foster and cement stu-
dents' regard for their 'Alma Mater.' [H.S.O.]

IV. Dublin. — The University of Dublin Choral
Society, like many other similar Societies, origin-
ated with a few lovers of music among the students
of the College, who met weekly in the chambers
of one of their number ^ for the practice of part-
singing. They then obtained permission to meet
in the evening in the College Dining Hall, where
an audience of their friends was occasionally
assembled. These proceedings excited consider-
able interest, and in November 1837 *^® Society
was formally founded as the ' University Choral
Society,' a title to which the words ' of Dublin '
were afterwards added, when the rights of mem-
bership were extended to graduates of Oxford and
Cambridge. [See Trinity College, Dublin.]

In 1837 the amount of printed music available
for the use of a vocal association was small. The
cheap editions of Oratorios, Masses, and Cantatas
were not commenced until nine years later, and
it was not until 1S42 that the publication of
Mr. Hullah's Part Music supplied choral socie-
ties with compositions by the best masters.
The Society therefore for some time confined its
studies to some of Handel's best-known works,
such as ' Messiah,' ' Israel in Egypt,' ' Judas
Maccabseus,' 'Jephthah,' 'Samson,' 'Acis and
Galatea,' and ' Alexander's Feast,' Haydn's
'Creation' and 'Seasons,' Romberg's 'Lay of the
Bell,' and the music to ' Macbeth ' and the
'Tempest.' In 1845, however, an important
advance was made by the performance, on May 23,
of Mendelssohn's nmsic to 'Antigone,' which
had been produced at Covent Garden Theatre in
the preceding January, and from that time for-
ward the Society has been remarkable for bring-
ing before its members and friends every work
of merit within its powers of performance.

The following list shows the larger works
(many of them frequently repeated) which, in
addition to those mentioned above, have been
performed at the Society's concerts : —

1 Mr. Hercules H. G. Mac Donnell.




Bach, rasslon (St. John) ; Mag-
Balfe. Wazeppa.
Beethoven. Blass In r ; Mount of

Olives; Buiusul Athens; King

Carissimi. Jonah.
Cherubini. Kequiem Mass.
Costa. Eli.
Cowen. The Corsair.
Gade. The Erl-King's Daughter ;

Spring's Message ; Tsyche ;

The Crusaders.
Gadsby. The Lord of the Isles ;

Alice Brand.
GoUmick. The Heir of Llnne.
Handel. Saul ; Joshua ; Esther ;

Theodora; The i)ettiugeu Te

Hiller. Lorelei.

Macfarren. The Sleeper Awak-
ened ; John the Baptist.

Mendelssohn. St. Paul ; Lauda
Slon ; Athalie ; Christus ; The
First Walpurgis-Xight; Lore-

Monk. The Bard.

3Iozart. Kequiem.

Rossini. Stabat Mater.

Smart. The Bride of Dunkerron.

Spohr. Last Judgment ; Psalm K4.

Stewart. A Winter Night's Wake ;
The Eve of St John (boih
written for the Society).

Sullivan. Martyr of Antioch ; Te
Deum : On Shore and Sea,

Van Bree. St. Cecilia's Day.

Verdi. Kequiem Slass.

Weber. Jubilee Cantata ; ^lusic
in Freciosa ; Liebe and Xatur.

Ssveral large selections from operas containing
a choral clement have been given, as Mozart's
'Idomeneo,' ' Zauberflote,' and 'Don Giovanni ';
Weber's ' Der Ercischiitz ' and ' Oberon,' etc.

Por many years the old-fashioned regulations
compelled the Society to employ only the chor-
isters of the Cathedral for the treble parts in
the chorus, and on occasions where boys' voices
•were inadequate, to give its concerts outside the
college walls ; but in 1 870 permission was granted
to admit ladies as associates, and since that
time they have taken part in the concerts of
the Society.

About the year 1839 the Church Music Society,
of which Mr. J. Rambaut was conductor, was
founded in Trinity College. It appears to have
restricted itself to the practice of psalmody, and
to have had but a brief existence. [G. A.C.]

TJPHAM, J. Baxter, M.D., a citizen of Eos-
ton, U.S.A., where he has for long occupied
a prominent position in the musical life of the
city. He was for nearly thirty consecutive
years (1S55-1S84) president of the Music Hall
Association, and it was largely through his
personal exertions that the great organ, built by
Walcker of Ludwigsburg, was procured for the
hall. Before concluding the contract for the
organ. Dr. Uphara consulted the most notable
builders in Europe, as well as with organists and
scientific authorities, and personally inspected
the most famous organs in the Old World, with
the view of securing an instrument that should
be in all respects a masterpiece.^ For 10 years
(1S60 to 1870) Dr. Upham was president of tlie
Handel and Haydn Society, and it fell to him
to prepare and deliver the historical sketch of
the society at its bicentenary festival in May,
1S65. For 15 years (1857-1872) he officiated
as chairman of the Committee on Music in
the public schools of the city, and through his
active supervision the system of music-training
in Boston acquired much of its thoroughness.
[See United State.s.] [F.H.J.]

sition of the ordinary long grand piano to a
vertical position, so that it might stand against
a wall. The upright piano was derived from the
upright harpsichord, and like it, its introduction
was nearly contemporaneous with the horizontal

' The organ wa.s sold and taken down In the snmmer of 1R84. and
rtored awaiting ilie erection of anew concert hall, lor which it was

instrument. Tlie upright harpsichord (Fr. Clave-
cin, Vertical) is figured in Virdung's ' Musica
getutscht,' etc., A.D. the ' Claviciterium,'
but, like all Virdung's woodcuts of keyboard
instruments, is reversed, the treble being at the
wrong end. He does not figure or describe the
Arpichordium, but we know that the long horizon-
tal instrument was in use at that time, and con-
structive features are in favour of its priority.
Upright harpsichords are now rarely to be met
with. One decorated with paintings was shown
in the special Loan Exhibition of ancient Musical
Instruments at South Kensington in 1872, con-
tributed by M. Laconi of Paris. Another, in
a fine Renaissance outer case, was seen in 1883
at Christie's, on the occasion of the Duke of
Hamilton's sale. The museums of the Conser-
vatoire at Brussels, and of Signor Kraus, Florence,
contain specimens. There is also an upright
grand piano at Brussels, the oldest yet met with.
It was made by Frederici of Gera, in Saxony, in
1745. This was the very time when Silbermann
was successfully reproducing the Florentine Cris-
tofori's pianofortes at Dresden, which were hori-
zontal grand pianos. [See Pianoforte ; Cris-
TOFORi ; and SiLBERiiANN.] Frederici, however,
made no use of Cristofori's action. Neither did
he avail himself of a model of Schroeter's, said
to be at that time known in Saxony. M. Victor
Mahillon, who discovered the Frederici instru-
ment and transferred it to the Museum he so
ably directs, derives the action from the Ger-
man striking clocks, and with good reasons.
Frederici is also credited with the invention of
the square piano, an adaptation of the clavicliord.
The earliest mention of an upright grand piano
in Messrs. Broadwoods' books occurs in 17^9,
when one ' in a cabinett case ' was sold. It wks,
however, by another maker. The first uprigOt
grand piano made and sent out by this firm was
to the same customer, in 1799. Some years be-
fore, in 1795, William Stodart had patented an
upright grand pianoforte -with a new mechanism,
in tlie form of a bookcase. He gained a con-
siderable reputation by, and sale for, this in-
strument. Hawkins's invention in 1800 of the
modern upright piano descending to the floor,
carried on, modified, and improved by Southwell,
Wornum, the Broadwoods and others, in a few
years superseded the cumbrous vertical V'and
piano. [A.J' H.]

URBANI. [See Valentini.] "^

URHAN, Chretien, born Feb. 16, 1790, at
Montjoie, near Aix-la-Chapelle, was the son oif
a violinist. He early showed great taste foB
music, and while still untaught began to compose
for his two favourite instruments, the violin and il
piano. The Empress Josephine happening to hear j
him at Aix-la-Chapelle, was so struck with hisf'
precocious talent that she brought him to Paris,
and specially recommended him to Lesueur.
The composer of ' Les Eardes ' was then at the |
height of his popularity both with the public
and the Court, and his countenance was of as '
much service to Urban as his lessons in compo- 1
sition. Urban entered the orchestra of the


Op^ra in 1816, was promoted first to a place
among the first violins, and finally, on Baillot's
retirement (1S31), to that of first violin-solo. As
a concert-player he made his mark as one of the
foremost violinists of the day with Mayseder's
brilliant compositions, which he was the first to
introduce in Paris. He was frequently heard at
the Concerts du Conservatoire, of which he was
one of the originators, and where his perform-
ances on the viola and the viol d'amour excited
great attention. He also contributed to the
success of tlie memorable evenings for chamber-
music founded by Baillot, and of Eetis's Concerts
historiques. TJrhan had studied all instruments
played with the bow, and could play the violin
with four strings, the five- and four-stringed viola,
and the viol d'amour, in each case preserving the
characteristic quality of tone. He had a par-
ticular method of tuning, by which he produced
varied and striking effects of tone. Charmed with
his talent and originality, and anxious to turn
to account his power of bowing and knowledge
of effect, Meyerbeer wrote for him the famous
viol d'amour solo in the accompaniment to the
tenor air in the 1st act of the ' Huguenots.'

Short in stature, and with no personal attrac-
tions. Urban dressed like a clergyman, and was
looked upon, not without reason, as an eccen-
tric ; but his religion was untainted by bigotry,
and he was kind and charitable. He pushed his
asceticism so far as to take but one meal a day,
often of bread and radishes; and during the
30 years he sat in the orchestra of the Op^ra,
either from religious scruples, or fear of being
shocked at the attitudes of the hallerine, he
never once glanced at the stage. As a com-
poser he aimed at combining new forms with
simplicity of ideas. He left 2 string quartets;
2 quintets for 3 violas, cello, double-bass, and
drums ad lib. ; PF. pieces for 2 and 4 hands ;
and melodies for i and 2 voices, including a
romance on two notes only, all published by
Richault, and now almost unprocurable. Urban
styled all his music ' romantic' He died after a
long and painful illness at Belleville (Paris),
Nov. 2, 1845. Urban was godfather to Jules
Stockhausen the singer. [G.C.]

URIO, Francesco Antonio, a Milanese
composer of the 17th and 18th centuries. The
title of his first ^ published work, of which there
is a copy in the Library of the Liceo Musicale
of Bologna, is as follows : —

Motetti di Concerto a due, tre e quattro voci, con vio-
lini, e senza. Opera prima. Compost! e Dedicati all'
Eminentissimo e Keverendissimo Prencipe II sif?nor Car-
dinale Pietro Ottoboni ... da Franceso' Antonio Urio da
Milano Minora Conventuale, Maestro di Cappella nell'
Insigne Basilica de' Sante Dodici Apostoli di Koma. In
Eoma MDCxc nella Stamperia di Gio. Giacomo Komarek,
Boemo, etc.

Between this date and that of his second work
— also contained in the same Library — he had
migrated from Rome to Venice, and was chapel-
master of the church of the Frari.

' I am indebted for this fact, unknown to F^tis, to the kindness of
the Cavalieie Castellani, Chief Librarian to the Bibliotheca E. del
VDWersit.!, at Bologna.

VOL. IV. PT. 2.



Salmi concertati a' ti'6 voci con Violini a beneplacito
del Padre Francesco Antonio Urio Maestro di Cappella
nella Chiesa dei Frari di Venetia. Opera Seconda dedi-
cata all' Kccelenza del signor Don Filippo Antonio
Spinola Colonna, Duca del Sesto, Gentilhuomo della
Camera di S. M. Cattolica, suo Generale della Cavalleria
nello Stato di Milano, e Castellano del Castel Nuovo di
Napoli, etc. In Bologna per Martino Silvani 1697, etc.

M. Arthur Pougin, in his Supplement to F^tis's
Biographie, states that Urio wrote a Cantata di
camera (1696), and two oratorios, 'Sansone*
(1701) and ' Maddalena convertita' (1706) for
Ferdinand de' Medicis, Prince of Tuscany ; but
neither the authority for the statement nor the
place where the works are to be found can now
be ascertained. A 'Tantum ergo' for soprano
solo and figured bass is in the library of the
Royal College of Music, London, No. 1744.
Urio's most important known work, however, is
a Te Deum for voices and orchestra, which owes
its interest to us, not only for its own merits,
which are considerable, but because Handel used
it largely,^ taking, as his custom was, themes
and passages from it, principally for his Det-
tingen Te Deum (10 numbers), and also for ' Saul '
(6 numbers), 'Israel in Egypt' (i ditto), and
'L' Allegro' (i ditto).

Of this work three MSS. are known to be
in existence, (i) In the Library of the Royal
College of Music, which is inscribed 'John
Stafford Smith, a,d. 1780. Te Deum by Urio
— a Jesuit of IBologna. Apud 1682.' Over the
Score : ' Te Deum. Urio. Con due Trombe,
due Oboe, Violini & due Viole obligati & Fagotto
a 5 Voci,' (2) In the British Museum (Add.
MSS. 31,478), 'Te Deum Laudamus con due
Trombe, due Oboe et Violini, et due^ Viole obli-
gati. Del Padre Franco Uria {sic) Bolognese.'
This title is followed by a note in ink, appa-
rently in the handwriting of Dr. Ttiomas Bever,
Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, and a collector of
music in the last century :

This curious score was transcribed from an Italian
Copy in the Collection of Dr. Samuel Howard, Mus. D.,
organist of St. Bride's and St. Clement's Danes. It for-
merly belonged to Mr. Handel, who has borrowed from,
hence several Verses in the Dettingen Te Deum, as well
as some other passages in the Oratorio of Saul. T. B.

This copy was written by John Anderson, a Chorister
of St. Paul's 1781. Pri. \l. Ss. Orf.

Above this in pencil, in another hand :

In the copy purchased by J. "W. Callcott at the sale
of Warren Home, the date is put at 1661. 4

(3) The copy just mentioned as having been sold
at Warren Home's sale came into the possession
of M. Schoelcher (as stated in a note by Joseph
Warren on the fly-leaf of No. 2), and is now in
the Library of the Conservatoire at Paris. It is
an oblong quarto, with no title-page, but bearing
above the top line of the score on page i, 'Te
Deum, Urio, 1660.' The following notes are
written on the fly-leaves of the volume.'

2 First publicly mentioned by Crotch in his Lectures (see the list,
p. 122, note), and then by V. Novello (Preface to Purcell, p. 9).

3 In the score itself these are given as ' Violetta ' (in alto clef) and
' Violetta tenore ' (in tenor clef).

4 More accurately 1660.

5 I owe these notes to the kindness of my friend M. G. Chouquet,
keeper of the Mus^e of the Conservatoire.

210 URIO.

[Page 1.] Edm : T : 'Warren Home.

N.B. — 5Ir. Handel was much indebted to this author,
as plainly appears by his Dettingen Te Deum, likewise a
Dnett in Julius Csesar, and a movement in Saul fur
CariUous, etc., etc., etc.

J. "W. Callcott, May IC, 1707,

Vincent Novello. May day, 1S30.
(it) Dean Street, Soho Siiuare.

There was another copy of this extremely rare and
curious Composition in the Collection of Mr. Uartleman,
at whose death it was purchased by Mr. Greatorex. At
the sale of the musical Library of Mr. Greatorex the
MS. was bought by Charles Hatchett, Esq., 9 Belle Vue
House, Chelsea, in whose possession it still remains.
V. Novello, 1S32.

This copy was kindly given to me by Mrs. Stokes on

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