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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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the death of luy beloved friend Charles Stokes in April
183J. V.N.

[Page 2.] Handel has borrowed these from Urio's To

Deum as they arise :

■Welcome, mighty King


The Youth inspir'd


The Lord is a man of war

Israel in Egypt.

All tho Earth

Te Deum.

To Thee Cherubin


Also the Holy Ghost


To Thee all angels


Our fainting courage


Battle Symphony


Thou didst open

Te Deum.

Thou sittest at the right hand


O fatal consequence of raga


Lord, in Thee

Te Deum.

"We praise Thee


And we worship


Day by Day


Sweet bird


Ketrieve the Hebrew name


I believe that this curious list is in the handwriting
of Bartleman.i

The 'Italian copy,* which was first Handel's
and then Dr. Howard's, if not that in the Royal
College of INIusic (which is certainly in an Italian
hand), has vanished for the present.

The Te Deum has been published by Dr.
Chrysander (from what original the writer does
not know), as No. 5 of his ' Denkmaler ' of
Handel (Bergedorf, 1871). It has been exam-
ined chiefly in its connexion with the Dettingen
Te Deum by Mr. E. Prout, in the Monthly
Musical Record for Nov. 1871, and we recom-
mend evei-y student to read the very interesting
analysis there given. [G.]

URQUHART, Thomas, an early London
violin-maker, who worked in the reign of Charles
II. The dates on his violins are chiefly in the
seventies and eighties. The model superficially
resembles Caspar di Salo ; it is high, straight,
and flat in the middle of the belly, and has a
rigid and antique appearance. The comers have
but little prominence. The soundholes are ' set
straight,' and terminate boldly in circles, the
inner members being so far carried on and in-
troverted that the straight cut in each is parallel
to the axis of the fiddle. This is Urquhart's
distinctive characteristic. The pui-fling is narrow,
coarse, and placed very near the edge. The
violins are found of two sizes ; those of the larger
size would be very useful chamber instruments
but for the height of the model, which renders
them somewhat unmanageable. The varnish, of

1 This note appears to be in error, as Bartleman's copy is spoken of
)'.ist before as beiug a distinct cue from this.


excellent quality (' equal to that on many Italian I
instruments,' says Mr. Hart), is sometimes yel-j
lowish brown, sometimes red, [E.J. P.] !

USE. A term traditionally applied to the;
usage of particular Dioceses, with regard to varia-
tions of detail in certain Plain Chaunt Melodies
sung in the Service of the Roman Catholic Church,
more especially in those of the Psalm -Tones.
' Heretofore,' says the Preface to the Book of
Common Prayer, ' thei'e hath been great diver-
sity in saying and singing in Churches witliin
this Realm, some following Salishury Use, some
Hereford Use, and some the Use of Bangor, some
of Yorh, some of Lincoln^

The Roman Use is the only one which has
received the sanction of direct ecclesiastical au
thority. In France, the most important varieties
of Use are those observed in the Dioceses o1
Piiris, Rouen, Reims, and Dijon ; all of which
exhibit peculiarities, which, more or less directly
traceable to the prevalence of Machicotage [vol
ii. p. 1S66] in the Middle Ages, can only be
regarded as fascinating forms of corruption. The:
chief Use, in Flanders, is that of Mechlin ; in:
Germany, that of Aachen. In England, not
withstanding the number of those already men-
tioned, the only Use of any great hist0ric.1l
importance is that of Salisbury, or as it is usually
styled, Sarum, which exhibits some remarkable
points of coincidence with the Dominican Use, as
practised in the present day; as, for instance,
in tlie S[)lendid Mixolydian Melody to the Hymn
'Sanctorum meritis' — printed in the Rev. T,
Helmore's ' Hymnal Noted' — which differs from
the Dominican version of the Hymn for Matins
on the feast of Corpus Christi only just enough
to render the collation of the two readings ex
tremely interesting. The Sarum Use is, on the
whole, an exceptionally pure one : but, unhappily,
it excludes many very fine Melodies well-knownf
on the Continent, notably the beautifid Hypo
mixolydian Tune to ' Iste Confessor.' [W.S.R.]

UTRECHT. The Collegium Musicum Ul
trajectinum, or Stads-Concert, is the second oldest
musical society in the Netherlands, if not in
Europe. It was founded on Jan. i, 1631, forty
years after the St. Caecilia Concert of Arnheim, a
society which is still in existence. The Utrecht
Collegium originally consisted of eleven ama-
teurs belonging to the best families of the town,,
who met together every Saturday evening for the
practice of vocal and instrumental music. In
course of time professional musicians were en-
gaged to perform, and in 172 1 friends of the
members and pupils of the professionals were
admitted. In 1766 the society first gave public
concerts; since 1830 these have been under the
leadership of a conductor paid by the town. At
the present day the orchestra consists of over
forty members, mostly musicians resident in
Utrecht, but including a few artists from Am-
sterdam and amateurs. Ten concerts are given
by the society every winter, each programme be-
ing repeated at two performances, to the first of
which only gentlemen are admitted: the cor-
responding ' Dames-Concert ' takes place a week


later. By a mutual arrangement with the simi-
lar societies at Amsterdam, the Hague, Ilotter-
<iam and Arnheim, no concerts take place on the
Eame evenings in any of these towns, so that the
soloists — generally one vocalist and one instru-
mentalist — appear alternately at concerts in the
different places. The concerts are given in tlie
Gebouw voor Kunsten en Wesenschappen ; the
average attendance is from 600 to 800. In 1 88 1
the members of the society numbered over 2co,
so that the subscriptions afford a tolerably certain
income. The present director is Mr. Richard
Hoi, who has filled the place since 1862. On the
occasion of the 250th anniversary of the founda-
tion of the society its history was written by Mr.
van Reimsdijk. His work is entitled 'Het Stads-
MuziekcoUegie te Utrecht (Collegium Musicum
Ultrajectinum) 1631-1881. Eene bijdrage tot
jde geschiedenis des Toonkunst in Nederland'
(Utrecht 1881). [VV.B.S.]

UT, RE, MI (Modern Ital. Do, re, mi). The
three first syllables of the ' Guidonian system of

Whether Guide d'Arezzo did, or did not, in-
vent the system which, for more than eight
centuries, has borne his name, is a question which
has given rise to much discussion. A critical
examination of the great Benedictine's own
writings proves that many of the discoveries
with which he has been credited were well
known to Musicians, long before his birth ; while
others were certainly not given to the world
until long after his death. We know, for in-
stance, that he neither invented the Monochord,
nor the Clavier, though tradition honours him as
the discoverer of both. Still, it is difficult to
ai;ree with those who regard him as ' a mythical
abstract.' Though he writes with perfect clear-
ness, where technical questions are concerned, he
speaks of himself, and his method of teaching, in
terms so naives and familiar, that we cannot af-
ford to despise any additional light that tradition
may throw upon them. We know that he first
"used the six famous syllables. Tradition asserts,
that, from this small beginning, he developed
the whole method of Solmisation in seven Hexa-
chords,^ and the Harmonic (or Guidonian) Hand.
Let us see how far the tradition is supported by
known facts.

In a letter, addressed to his friend Brother
Michael, about the year 1025, Guido speaks of
the value, as an aid to memory, of the first six
hemistichs of the Hymn for the festival of S.
John the Baptist, ' Ut queant laxis.' ' If, there-
fore,' he says, 'you would commit any sound,
or Neuma, to memorj', to the end that, where-
soever you may wish, in whatsoever ^lelody,
whether known to you or unknown, it may
quickly present itself, so that you may at once
enuntiate it, without any doubt, you must note
that sound, or Neuma, in tlie beginning of some
well-known Tune. And because, for the purpose
of retaining every sound in the memory, after
this manner, it is necessary to have ready a
Melody which begins with that same sound,
> See Solmisation. 2 See Hexachord.



I Iiave used the Melody which follows, for
teaching children, from first to last.'


UT que -ant lax • is


HE - so - na - re fi • bris


Mi - - ra ges - to -rum


FA-mu-li tu • - o-rum


SOL . . . ve pel - lu - ti

a G a F G a a

LA - bi - i re - a - turn


Sane - te lo - an - nes.

'You see, therefore,' continues Guido, 'that this
Melody begins, as to its six divisions, with six
different sounds. He then, who, through prac-
tice, can attain the power of leading off, with
certainty, the beginning of each division, which-
ever he may desire, will be in a position to
strike these six sounds easily, wheresoever he
may meet with them.' *

The directions here given, by Guido himself,
clearly indicate the Solmisation of a typical
Hexachord — the Hexachordon naturale — by aid
of the six initial syllables of the Hymn. Did
he carry out the development of his original
idea ? Tradition asserts that he did, that he
extended its application to the seven Hexa-
chords, in succession, and even to their Muta-
tions;' illustrating his method by the help of
the Harmonic Hand. And the tradition is
supported by the testimony of Sigebertus Gem-
blacensis, who, writing in II 13, says, in his
'Chronicon,' under the year 1028, that 'Guido
indicated these six sounds by means of the
finger-joints of the left hand, following out the
rising and falling of the same, with eye and
ear, throughout a full Octave.' Guido himself,
it is true, never recurs to the subject. But
he does tell Brother Michael, in another part of
his letter, that ' these things, though difficult to
write about, are easily explained by word of
mouth ';^ and surely, with Sigebert's testimony
befoi'e us, we can scarcely escape the conclusion
that he really did afterwards explain the fuller
details of his system to his friend, viva voce,
and teach them in his school. But, whether he
did this or not, he has at least said enough to

3 ■ Si quam ergo vocem vel ncumam vis ita memoriae commendare.
ut ubicumque velis, in quocumque cantu, quera scias vel nescias,
tibi mox possit occurrere, quateuus mox ilium indubitanter possis
enuntiare. debes ipsam vocem vel neumam in capite alicuius notis-
simae symphoniae notare. Et pro una quoque voce memoriae reti-
nenda huiusmodi symphoniam in promlii habere, quae ab eadem
voce Incipiat : ut pote sit haec symphonia, qua ego docendis pueris
imprimis atque etiam in ultimis utor.'

4 ' Vides itaque, ut haec symphonia senis particulis suis a sex di-
versis incipiat vocibus? Si quis itaque uniuscuiusque particulae
caput ita exercitatus noverit, ut conlestim quamcumque particulam
voluerit, indubitanter incipiat. easdeui sex voces ubicumque viderit
secundum suas proprietates facile pronuntiare poterit.'

5 See Mutation ; also the Table of Hexachords. vol. i. p. 7S4 b.

« 'Quae omnia cum vix litteris utcumque slgniflcemus, faciUto-
tum culloqulo denudamus.'




convince us that it he who first endeavoured
to remove ' the cross of the little Choir-Boys,
and the torture of learners' {crux tcnellorum
puerorum, el torfura disceiitium), by the use
of the syllables, Ut, Ee, Mi, Fa ; and that to
him, and to him alone, belongs the honour of
having invented, even if he did not perfect,
the method of Sulmisation which stiU bears his

The Hymn 'Ut queant laxis ' is given, in
modern notation, in vol. iii. p. 550. The poetry


is known to have been written by Paulus Dia-

conus, though Albertus Magnus attributes it
to S. Jerome — a fact which did not escape the
sharp observation of Hermann Finck. The
Melody is a very early one. in Mode II. (the
Hypodorian). A comparatively late Galilean
version is given in the Mechlin Vesperal (1870).
The version given in the latest Roman Vesperal i
(Ratisbon, 1875) is scarcely recognisable, and p
does not comply with G-uido's conditions in any i
of its sections except the second. [W.S.R.3


VACCAJ, XlcOLA, a prolific composer of Ita-
lian operas, born at Tolentino March 15,
1 790. He passed the first 10 or 1 2 years of
his life at Pesaro, a few more at Rome with the
view to the law, and it was not till his 17th or
iSth year that he threw off this, and took lessons
of Jannaconi in counterpoint. In iSii he went
to Naples and put himself under Paisiello for
dramatic composition, and there wrote a couple
of cantatas and some church music. In 1814 he
brought out his first opera, ' I solitari di Scozia,'
at Naples. The next seven years were passed
at Venice, each one with its opera. None, how-
ever, were sufficiently successful, and he there-
fore took up the teaching of singing, and practised
it in Trieste and in Vienna. In 1 824 he resumed
opera composition, and in 1825 wrote amongst
several others his most favourite work, 'Giulietta
e Romeo,' for Naples. In 1829 he visited Paris,
and stayed there two years as a singing master
in great popularity. He then passed a short
time in London, and in 1 83 1 we again find him
writing operas in Italy, amongst others ' Marco
Visconti' and 'Giovanna Grey' — the latter for
Malibran. In 1838 he succeeded Basili as
head and principal professor of composition of
the Conservatorio of Milan. In 1844 he left his
active duties, returned to Pesaro, and wrote
a fresh opera, ' Virginia,' for the Argentino
Theatre, Rome. It was his last work, and he
died at Pesaro Aug. 5, 1848. His works contain
15 operas besides those mentioned above, 12
Ariette per Camera (Cramer, London), and a
Method (Ricordi). 'Giulietta e Romeo' was
performed at the King's Theatre, Haymarket,
London, April 10, 1832. [G.]

VAET,' Jacques (or Jacob), Flemish com-
poser of the i6th century,^ attached to the im-
perial Kapelle at Vienna in the capacity of
chanter and apparently also of court-composer,
as early as 1520-15 26, when he wrote a motet
' in laudeui serenissimi principis Ferdinandi
archiducis Austriae.' After a long life of this

• The name is also written Vaedl and Waet. Owing to the latter
spelling the composer was often confused with an entirely different
person. Jacques (or Glaches) de Wert, a mistake which appeared
in the first edition of Feiis' Dictionary. Compare the remarks
of M. Vander Straeten. La Musique aux Pays-bas iii. 397 f. ; 1675.

3 Vaet's birthplace is unknown, but one Jean Vaet, who may be of
his family, has l)een discovered u living at Ypres in 1499: Vander
Straeten, i. 120; 1SC7.

service 'he was appointed * obrister Kappel-
meister,' Dec. i, 1564, and died Jan. 8, 1567.
That he remained active as a composer to the
court, is sho\vn by his motet ' in laudem invic-
tissimi Romanorum imperatoris Maximiliani 11.,'
who ascended the throne in July 1564. *Both
motets were printed in P. loannelli's * Novus
Thesaurus Musicus,' Venice, 156S, which also
contains a motet ' in obitum lacobi Vaet.' F,
Haemus, in his 'Poemata' (Antwerp 1578), ha»
an elegy ' in obitum lacobi Vasii, Caesaris Maxi-
miliani archiphonasci,' which is quoted by 'M.
vander Straeten.

*■ Vaet's compositions are principally comprised
in the ' Novus Thesaurus ' just mentioned, which
includes 25 motets, 8 'Salve Regina,' and one
'Te Deum' of his ; and in the five volumes of the
'Thesaurus musicus' published at Nmremberg
in 1564 (all motets). Other motets, 'Sententiae
piae,' etc., appear in several collections of Tylman
Susato, Montanus, Phalesius, and Buchaw ; and c
three French chansons are found respectively in u'
Phalesius' first book of 'Chansons' (1554), in; >
Waelrant and Laet's 'Jardin musical' (1556), j
and in Buchaw's 'Harmoniae' (1568). Vaet's (
reputation among ''contemporaries stood very.)
high. Among modem critics, *Fetis admires'
the correctness, want of affectation, and reli-
gious character, of his writing ; he did not care,
like so many of the composers of that time, to
strain after merely learned, or pedantic, effects.
^Ambros, commenting on the richness and no-
bility of Vaet's style, and the variety of his treat-
ment, singles out his 'masterpiece,' the 8-voice
'Te Deum,' and a 'Miserere' in 5 parts, which he i
regards as worthy of special distinction. [R.L.P.] i

VAGANS, ?. e. wandering, uncertain — the old i
name for the Quinta Pars in a mass or motet, i
so called because it was not necessarily ofji
any particular compass, but might be a second!
soprano, or alto, or tenor ; though usually a
tenor. [G.]

acts ; words translated or imitated from the

3 Vander Straeten, v. 79. 102; 1880.

* Compare F^tis Tiil. 291 a (2nd ed.) ; Ambros, Geschichte del
Musik. iii. 324. sVol.I. U9f.

« Eitner. Bibliographie der Musik-Sammelwerke, pp. SS6-888 ; cp
Fetis viii. 291 b.

7 See for instance the extract in Vander Straeten iv. 64 ; 1S78.

8 Vol. viii. 292 ». 9 Vol. iii. 325.


Jermaii of Richard Wagner, music by Dietsch.'^
Produced at the Grand Opera, Paris, Nov. 9,
1842. [G.]

VALENTINI, PiETKO Feancesco, a great
iontrapuntist, scholar of G. M. Nanini ; died
it Rome 1654. Various books of canons, ma-
higals, canzonets, etc., by him, were published
)efore and after his death, of which a list is given
)y F^tis. His canons were his greatest achieve-
nent, and two of them are likely to be referred
o for many years to come. The first, on a line
"rom the Salve Eegina, is given by Kircher
Musurgia, i. 402), and was selected by Mar-
)urg, more than a century later (1763), as the
;heme of seven of his Critical Letters on music, oc-
iupying 50 quarto pages (ii. 89). He speaks of
;he subject of the canon with enthusiasm, as one
>f the most remarkable he had ever known for
jontaining in itself all the possible modifications
lecessary for its almost infinite treatment — for
he same qualities in fact which distinguish the
lubject of Bach's 'Art of Fugue ' and the ' Et
dtam venturi ' of Cherubini's great * Credo. '

The first subject is : —







11 - los tu - OS mi - se - ri - cor - des o




- los ad nos con - ver - te.

which gives direct rise to three others ; viz.-
Second sabject, the first in retrograde motion.



( = ^ o -

Third subject, the first inverted.




- ^

Fourth subject, the second in retrograde.

f-f-^-^^ ^

Each of these fits to each or all of the others in
plain counterpoint, and each may be treated in
imitation in every interval above and below,
md at all distances, and may be augmented or
iiminished, and this for 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 voices.
Kircher computes that it may be sung more than
5000 difl'erent ways.

The second canon — ' Nel nodo di Salomo
like a Solomon's knot) a 96 voci ' — consists of
he common chord of G,

1 PiEEEE L0D13 Philippe Dietsch, a French composer and coii-
nctor, was bom at Dijon, March 17, ISOS. was educated by Ohoron
id at the Paris Conservatoire, was JIaitre de Chapelle at S. Eus-
iche. and in ISCO became chief conductor of the Grand Opera.

and may be varied almost ad infinitum, with in-
sufferable monotony it must be allowed, (See
also Burney, Hist. iii. 522.) [G.]

VALENTINI, Valentino Ubbani, commonly
called ; a celebrated evirato, who came to London,
Dec. 6, 1707, very early in the history of Italian
opera in England. Nothing is known of his
birth or early career ; but he seems to have ar-
rived here, possessed of a contralto voice of small
power, whicli feU afterwards to a high tenor, and
with an opera, 'II Trionfo d'Amore,' in his
pocket. The translation of this piece he en-
trusted to Motteux ; and he subsequently sold to
Vanbrugh,- for a considerable sum, the right of
representation. The Baroness, Margherita de
I'Epine, Mrs. Tofts, and Leveridge, sang with him
in this opera ('Love's Triumph'), and, if the
printed score may be trusted, they all, including
Valentini, sang English words. The piece was
produced at the end of February, 1708, and he
took a benefit in it on March 17. Meanwhile,
he had already sung (Dec. 1707) as Orontes, a
' contra-tenor,' in ' Thomyris,' Hughes under-
studying the part. Valentini's dress ^ in this
piece cost £25 17*-. 3cZ., a very large sum in
those days ; his turban and feathers cost £3 los.,
and his 'buskins' 12 shillings. We find him*
(Dec. 31, 1707) joining with the 'Seigniora
Margaritta [de I'Epine], Mrs. Tofts, Heidegger,
and the chief members of the orchestra, in a
complaint against the dishonesty and tyranny of
Eich. They claimed various amounts, due for
salaries, ' cloaths,' etc. Valentini's pay was fixed
at £7 los. a night, as large a sum as any singer
then received ; but he seems to have had diffi-
culty in extracting payment of it from Van-

There ,is extant a curious letter, in which
M. de I'Epine appeals to the Vice-Chamberlain
(Coke) for 'juste reucmge' for the'impertinan9e'
of which ^ cette creature^ [Valentini] had been
guilty, in preventing her from singing one of her
songs, a few days before ; and declares that she
would never suffer 'ce monster, ennemi des homes
des fatties et de Dieu ' to sing one of her songs
without her singing one of his ! The letter is
simply endorsed by the Vice-Chamberlain, 'Mrs.
Margarita about Mr. Valentin.'

Valentini sang, with Nicolini, in ' Pyrrhus and
Demetrius,' a part which he resumed in 1709.
Nicolini and he sang their music to the Italian
words, while the rest of the company sang in
English, as was not unusual in the ffallimau-
fries^ of the time. Valentini reappeared (1710)
in ' Almahide,' and (1711) in the original cast
of 'Einaldo,' as Eustazio, a tenor. In 17I2
he sang another tenor part, that of Silvio
in ' Pastor Fido ' ; and in the following year
another, Egeo in 'Teseo,' as well as that of
Eicimer in 'Ernelinda.' In that season (1713)
he again joined in a petition, with Pepusch and
his wife, la Galeratti, and other artists, for the
better regulation of their benefits. Then, as in
modem times, operatic affairs were too frequently

2 The Coke papers, in the writer's possession. 3 Ibid.

4 Busby. 5 The Coke papers.



enlivened with petitions, squabbles, and liti-
gation : impresarios were tyrants, and singers
were hard to manage. Valentini sang again in
' Creso,' 1 7 14, after which his name appears no
more ' in the bills.'

Galliard says of him that, ' though less power-
ful in voice and action than Nicolini, he was
more chaste in his singing.' [J.M.]

VALENTINO, Henri Justin Aumand
Joseph, eminent French conductor, born at
liille, Oct. 14, 1787. His father, of Italian ori-
gin, was an army-chemist, and intended liim for
a soldier, but his talent for music was so decided
that he was allowed to follow his own bent. At
1 2 he was playing the violin at the theatre, at
14 was suddenly called upon to supply the place
of the conductor, and henceforth made conducting
his special business. In 1S13 he married a niece
of Persuis, the composer, on whose recom-
mendation he became in 181 8 deputy-conductor
of the Opt^ra under R. Kreutzer, and in 1820
was rewarded with the reversion of the title of
first conductor conjointly with Habeneck. The
decree did not take effect till Kreutzer's resigna-
tion in 1824, when the two deputies had long
been exercising the function of conductor in turn.
Amongst the works produced under Valentino's
direction between 1827 and 1830, maybe men-
tioned 'Moise,' 'La Muette de Portici,' 'Guil-
laume Tell,' and ' Le Dieu et la Bayadere.' He
also held from April 10, 1824, the reversion
after Plantade of the post of Maltre de chapelle
honoraire to the King, but this he lost by the
Revolution of 1830, which also brought about
changes at the Opera. Dr. Veron, the new
director, inaugurated his reign by cutting down
salaries, and Valentino, determined not to sacri-
fice the musicians who served under him to his
own interests, resigned. He soon after succeeded
Cr^mont as chief conductor of the Opera Comique,
an enviable post which he occupied from April
1S31 to April 1836. Here he produced ' Zampa,'

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 49 of 194)