George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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connected and intelligible narrative ; and in the realistic power with which he fires the whole with
human and historic interest. He has indeed in these details which make up the bulk of this volume
(Vol. IV) achieved a feat of historical genius analogous to tliat of Homer's poetic genius in liis
catalogue of the ships. He narrates the events with so pure a perception of their plan and meaning,
and SQ true and noble a conscience, that they are their own moral and lesson, and rarely fail to
suggest both their causes and their consequences. A history in which vast and varied learning is
combined with indomitable patience, scrupulous accuracy, great literary skill, a fine historical style,
and a fire of eloquent enthusiasm ; which abundantly justify iyvr estimate of the first volume that
it is by far the greatest history of oar day."

'^^ Athenceum, s,B.ys:—

"Extensive reading, unwearying Industry, apt powers of condensation and critical discernment, leave
their Impress in happy combination upon its pages ; forming altogether what is at once a mo»t
I pleasing work and a singularly valuable contribution to the early history of England.

I he London Spectator says: —

1 " We may look far before we find another possessing the wide knowledge, liistoricai and antiquarian,
\ and the passionate love of accuracy, which make the book before us, if not a perfect hiistory, a
' perfect model of historical study."


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(A.D. 1450-1880.)






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VERSE. A term used in church music to
gnify that an anthem or service contains por-
ous for voices soli — duets, trios, etc. The origin
f the term is obscure ; but it is possible that it
rose from a colloquial expression that certain
srvices or anthems contained vert^es (i.e. por-
ons of canticles or of Scripture) to be sung
y soloists. A verse-service or verse-anthem
)metimes includes portions set for a voice solo.
l^hen one voice maintains the chief part of an
athem it is described as a 'Solo-anthem': but
16 expression solo-service is rarely used. Some
Titers only employ the term verse-anthem when
a. anthem commences with voices soli. An
iithem which commences with a chorus fol-
iwed by parts for soli voices is termed 'full with
Brs3.' [J.S.]

VERSICLE (Lat. Versiculum). A short sen-
snce, in the Offices of the Church, followed by
a appropriate Response ; as — ' V. Domine, in
ijutorium meum intends. R. Domine, ad ad-
ivandum me festina.' ' V. God, make speed
) save us. R. O Lord, make liasle to help us.'

The Versicles — or, rather, the Responses which
)llow them — from the Office of Vespers, and
ther Roman Catholic Services, have been har-
lonised by Vittoria, G. B. Rossi, and other
omposers : but none of them will bear any com-
arison with the matchless English Responses,
I all probability set originally to the old Latin
'ords, by our own Tallis, whose solemn har-
lonies have never been approached, in this par-
cular form of music. Some very fine Responses
y Byrd, and other English Composers, will be
mnd, in company with old versions of those of
'allis, in Jebb's Choral Responses. [W.S.R.]

VERT-VERT. Comic opera in 3 acts ; words
y Meilhac and Nuitter, music by Offenbach. Pro>
ucedattheOp^raComique, March 10, 1869. [G.]

VERVE, a French word adopted as the equi-
alent of spirit or inspiration in performance. [G. ]

VESPERALE— The Vesperal. That portion
f the Antiphonarium Romanum which contains
be Plain-Chaunt Melodies sung at Vespers. It
ontains the words and music of all the Psalms,
!anticles, Antiphons, Hymns, and Versicles, used
broughout the ecclesiastical year ; the music
eing printed in the old Gregorian Notation,
'he most correct Vesperals now in print are
hose published at Mechlin in 1870, and at
latisbon in 1875 ; the latter formally author-
5ed by the Congregation of Rites. [W.S.R.]

VESPERS (Lat. Officium Vesperarum, Ves-
lercB, Oratio vespertina, Ad Vesperas). The
1st but one, and most important, of the ' Horae
)iuriiae,' or ' Day hours,' in the Antiphonarium.

The Office begins with the Versicle and
lesponse, ' Deus in adjutorium,' followed by
Lve Psalrns. On Sundays, these are usually
'ss. cix, ex, cxi, cxii, and cxiii (corresponding
Pss. cx-cxiv in the English Prayer- Book ver-
ion) ; on other days, they vary. Each Psalm
s sung with a proper Antiphon, which, on
ertain Festivals, is doubled — i. e. sung entire,
lolh before and after the Psalms. On Ferial
VOL. IV. PT. 3.



days, the first two or three words only of the
Antiphon are sung before the Psalm, and the
entire Antiphon after it. The Psalms are fol-
lowed by the Capitulum ; and this by a Hymn,
which varies according to the Festival or the
day of the week. After this, ' Magnificat ' is
sung with a special Antiphon. Then follows the
Prayer (or Collect) for the day ; succeeded b}' the
proper Commemorations. Should ComplinefoUow,
the Office of Vespers ends here. If not, the Com-
memorations are followed by one of the 'Antiphons
of Our Lady,' with which the Office concludes.

The music sung at Vespers is more solemn
and elaborate than that used at any of the other
Hours. The proper Plain-Chaunt Melodies are
found in the Vesperal. [See Vesperale.] The
Melodies of the Antiphons are of extreme aur
tiquity. The Psalms, are sung to their proper
Gregorian Tones ; for tlie most part, either
entirely in Unison, or in alternate verses of
Unison and Faux Bourdon. Many Faux Bour-
dons, by the great Composers, are still extant.
Proske has included some by B. Naiiini, F. Anerio,
and others, in vol. iii. of his *Musica Divina';
and a copy of a MS. collection, entitled ' Studij
di Palestrina,' will be found among tlie Burney
MSS. in the British Museum. Proske has also
printed a very fine setting of the opening Ver-
sicle and Response, by Vittoria ; and Ambros
another, by G. B. Rossi, first printed in 1618.

Polyphonic Magnificats are necessarily very
elaborate ; for during the Canticle the High
Altar is incensed, and sometimes the Altar in
the Lady Chapel also — a ceremony which often
occupies a considerable time. [See Magnificat.]

The Hymns for the various Seasons have also
been frequently set, in very elaborate form, by
the Polyphonic Composers ; Palestrina's ' Hymni
totius anni' is a complete 'collection, of unap-
proachable beauty. Some fine isolated specimens
will also be found among the works of Tallis,
Byrd, and other Composers of the English School ;
and Proske has published many interesting ex-
amples, collected from various sources. The four
'Antiphons of Our Lady' — Alma Redemptoris,
Ave Regina, Regina Cceli, and Salve Regina —
have been treated by many good writers, includ-
ing Palestrina, Anerio, and O. Lasso, in the form
of highly developed Motets.

With so large a repertoire of Compositions of
the highest order, the Office of Vespers may be
made a very impressive one; and, indeed, with
little more than Plain-Chaunt, treated in Unison,
and very simple Faux^Bourdon, it is sung at
Notre Dame de Paris, S. Sulpice, and other
large French churches, with a solemnity well
worthy of imitation. [W.S.R.]


LIENNES, LeS, p. 2386.]

VESTALE, LA. Lyric tragedy in 3 acts;
words by Jouy, music by Spontini. Produced at
the Grand Opera, Paris, Dec. 16, 1807. [G.]

VESTRIS, Lucia Elizabeth, 1 or Eliza
Ldct,^ born either Jan. 3 or March 2, 1707, in

1 Register of deatbs.

2 Signature at secuud mairiaye'



London, daughter of Gaetano Bartolozzi, artist,
and grand-daughter of Francesco Bartolozzi,
the celebrated engraver. On Jan. 28, 1813,
she married Armand Vestris, dancer and ballet-
master at the King's Theatre, and grand-
son of the celebrated Vestris. [See Ballet,
). p. 132.] It was on the occasion of his
benefit at that theatre (July 20, 1815) that
his wife, having received instruction in singing
from Corri, made her first appearance in public as
Proserpine in Winter's ' II Ratto di Proserpina. '
Her success that season was great, in spite of her
then limited ideas of acting and want of vocal
cultivation. She re-appeared in 18 16 in Win-
ter's * Proserpina ' and 'Zaira,' Martini's 'Cosa
Eara,' and Mozart's *Cosi fan Tutte' and
'Nozze' (Susanna), but with le>;s success, her
faults becoming more manifest with familiarity.
In the winter she appeared at the Italian Opera,
Paris, and at various theatres there, including
the Fran9ais, where she played Camille in ' Les
Horaces,' with Talma as Horace. About this
time Vestris deserted her. (He died in 1825.)
On Feb. 19, 1820, she made her debut at Drury
Lane as Lilla in 'The Siege of Belgrade';
made an immediate success in that and in
Adela ('The Haunted Tower'), Artaxerxes,
Macheath, and 'Giovanni in London,' and
remained for many years a favourite at the
patent theatres, not only in opera, but in
musical farces and comedies. In certain of these
she introduced well-known songs — ' Cherry ripe,'
'I've been 'roaming,' 'Meet me by moonlight
alone,' and others, which gained their popularity
at the outset through her very popular ballad
singing. On April 12, 1826, she played Fatima
on the production of 'Oberon.' With her sub-
sequent career as manager of the Olympic,
Covent Garden, and Lyceum, we cannot deal,
save to mention that during her tenancy of Covent
Garden, in conjunction with Charles Mathews the
younger (whom she married July 18, 1838), opera
was occasionally performed, viz. 'Artaxerxes,'
'Comus,' etc., English versions of 'Norma,' 'Elena
di Feltre' (Mercadante), and 'Figaro,' with Miss
Kemble, Miss Eainforth, etc., and with Bene-
dict as conductor. In Figaro she played Cheru-
bino, but resigned 'Voi che sapete' to Miss
Kemble. She died at Fulham Aug. 8, 1856.

'As a girl she was extremely bewitching, if
not faultlessly beautiful — endowed with one of
the most musical, easy, rich contralto voices ever
bestowed on singers, and retaining its charm to
the last — full of taste and fancy for all that was
luxurious, but either not willing, or not able to
learn, beyond a certain depth.' (Athenaeum,
Aug. 17, 1856.) At the Italian Opera, says
Chorley (Musical Eecollections), 'if she had
possessed musical patience and energy, she
might have queened it, because she possessed
(half Italian by birth) one of the most
luscious of low voices, great personal beauty,
an almost faultless figure, which she adorned
with consummate art, and no common stage
address. But a less arduous career pleased

> Introduced Into Mozart's Figaro, 1820. (Parke.) |


her better ; so she could not — or perhaps woulc
not — remain on the Italian stage.' [A.C."

novel, by Lemifere, from which Spohr took th«
plot of his ' Jessonda.' ^ It has been burlesquec
in ' Le Veuf du Malabar' by Siraudin and Bus
set, music by Doche (Opera Comique, May 27
1846) ; and under its own title by Delacour anc
Cremieux, music by Herv^ (Variet^s, April 26
1873)- [G.i

VIADANA, LuDOvrco, was bom at Lodj
about 1565. Of his education we know nothinij
save that he adopted the monastic professior
In or before 1597 he was in Eome, to which cit;
his musical style is properly affiliated. He wa
chapelmaster in the cathedral of Fano in Urbinc
and at Concordia in tlie states of Venice ; bu
the order of his preferments is doubtful. A)
that is certain is that he occupied the same offic
ultimately at Mantua, where he is known t
have been living as late as 1644. H^ compose'
and published a number of volumes of canzonets
madrigals, psalms, canticles, and masses : bu
the work upon which his historical significanc
rests is a collection of ' Cento concerti ecclesi
astici a I, a 2, a 3, e a 4, voci, con il bass
continuo per sonar nell' organo. Nova invenzion
comoda per ogni sorte di cantori e per gli orgs
nisti,' Venice 1603 (or, in some copies, 1602) i
five volumes. In consequence of this publics
tion Viadana has been commonly regarded s
the inventor of the (unfigured) hasso continuo \
accompany the voice on an instrument — a judj
ment expressed, but, as ^Ambros thinks, ur
fairly, in the remark of a contemporary, Praet(
rius. As a matter of fact, hasso continuo ha
been employed in the accompaniment of reciti
tive some years earlier by Caccini and Peri an
others before them. Viadana however was t\
first thus to accompany solemn church-compos
tions, and therefore the first to use the organ f<
the purpose. He is also the inventor of the nan
hasso continuo. Nor had any one previous
thought of writing pieces for a solo voice, or f
two or three voices, expressly with the object
their being accompanied by a thorough-basi
The way thus opened by Viadana enabled him
employ a freer and lighter style than hisconter
poiaries of the Eoman school. Building up I,
compositions (in his ' Cento concerti ') from ti
bass instead of from a cantus firmus, he succeed'
in creating real self-contained melodies ; and
he cannot be justly regarded as the inventor
the notion of hasso continuo, he at least w
led by it to a not far-off view of the mode
principle of melodic, as Opposed to contrapunti
composition, [E.L.I

VIAGGIO A EEIMS, IL, ossia l'albeb.
DEL GiGLio d'oka. Opera in one act; words
Balocchi, music by Eossini. Produced, with
wonderful cast, at the Theatre Italien at Par
June 19, 1825, as part of the festivities at t

1 See his 'Selbstb'oitraphie.' II. 149.

a ' Geschichte dor Musik.' It. 248. etc.

» See on the whole question F6tis, ylil. 3»4 6—337 o.


ponation of Charles X. The music was after-
irds adapted to the new libretto of ' Le Comte
■y,' and produced at the Grand Opera, Aug.
i, 1828. [See vol. i, p. 383 ; iii. 171 a.] [G.]

VIARD-LOUIS, Jenny. [See p. 342.]

VIARDOT-GARCIA. Michelle Feedt-
1.NDE Pauline, a great lyric actress and singer,
unger sister of Maria Malibran, is the daughter
the famous Spanish tenor and teacher, Manuel
1 Popolo Garcia, and of his wife, Joaquina
tchez, an accomplished actress. She was born
Paris July 18, 1821, and received her names
>m her sponsors, Ferdinand Paer, the composer,
d the Princess Pauline Galitzin. Genius was
mline Garcia's birthright, and she grew up
»m her cradle in an atmosphere of art, and
long stirring scenes of adventure. She was
ly three years old when her father took his
nily to England, where his daughter Maria,
irteen years older than Pauline, made her first
pearance on the stage. His children were
th him during the journeys and adventures
■eady described, and Pauline has never for-
tten her father being made to sing by the
igands. [See Garcia, vol. i. p. 581.]
The child showed extraordinary intelligence,
th a marvellous aptitude for learning and
taining everything. At that time it would
ive been hard to determine where her special
nius lay. Hers was that innate force which
a be applied at will in any direction. She
irned languages as if in play. Her facility for
inting, especially portrait-painting, was equally
eat. Her earliest pianoforte lessons were given
r by Marcos Vega, at New York, when she
IS not four years old. At eight, after her
turn from Mexico, she played the accompani-
mts for her father at his singing lessons, ' and
think,' she wrote afterwards, ' I profited by
B lessons even more than the pupils did.' She
as acquired a knowledge of Garcia's method,
ihough she never was his pupil in the usual
ase, and assures us that her mother was her
nly singing-master.' Her father worked her
rd, however, as he did every one. In his
a,wing-room operettas, composed for his pupils,
ere were parts for her, 'containing,' she says,
lings more difficult than any I have sung since,
itill preserve them as precious treasures.'
rhe piano she studied for many years with Mey-
iberg, and afterwards with Liszt ; counterpoint
d composition with Eeicha. Her industry

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 60 of 194)