George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 73 of 194)
Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 73 of 194)
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314


207


Martin sayd to his Man.'






315


208


Almand


2


William Tisdall.


315


209


Fauaua Cliromatica .


3




317


210


Vt. re. mi. fa. sol, la .


23


Dr. Bull .7


321


211


Gipseis Round . . .


7


Wm. Byrd.8


324


212


Fantasia. 4 . . . .




Jhon Pieterson fweel-
Ing. OrganUta a Aui-
stelreda.


S27


213


Corranto


2


■ William Byrd sett.'


328


214


Pauana. Clement Cot-
to. a


3


Wm. Tisdall.


B2S


215


Fauana. 4


3




.329


216


Coiranto


2


'


:i29


217


Alroan


2


Hooper.


329


218


Corranto


3




;i29


219


Corranto


2




330


220


Corranto


2




330


221


Corranto


3




3:i0


222


Alman


3




331


223


Corranto


2


Hooper.


381




Fantasia. 20 ... .




Giles Farnaby.


as


225


Loth to depart. 21 . .


C


9


SM


226


•22. Fantasia' . . .






:)3.>


227


F&utasia. 23 ... .






338


229


24 ... .




" "


310


230


25 ... .


• .


" "


341


231


WaUerEarle'sPauen.26


3


" **


843


23-2


27




" "


3M


233


Fantasia. 28 ... .




" "


346


234


29 ... .




" "


347


235


L. Zouches Maske. 30 .




" "


:m9


236


A Grounde. 31 . . .


14




351


237


Corranto


2




3)2


23J


VpT(ails) An.32. . .


19




STa


239


Thomson's Medley . .


7




356


210


Nowel's (ialiaid . . .


3




3)7


241


Tower Hill


2


Giles Farnaby.


:i58


242


Fraeludium. 33 . . .






338


243


The King's Morisco . .


6




:i59


244


A Duo




Richard Farnaby.


359


245


Alman


2




3)9


216


A Galliard Ground . .


5


William Inglot.


3';2


247


The Leaues bee greene. 2


13




364


248


Fauana


3


W. Eyrd.






Galiarda


3




3W


2.%


Fauana


3


'


3«7


2.51


Galiarda


3




3fi8


252


Pauana ,


3




:!70


258


Pauana Fant{aslica) .


3




370


2.54


Galiarda


3




a7i


255


The Earle of Oxiord's
Marclie


2


.. "


373


2.56


Galiarda


3


■Tehan Oy.stermayre.


374


257


Fantasia




W. ByrJ. 12



J In Ward's List. = Ibid.

' In the margin are some words which Mr. Chappell reads
'R.Eysd Silas.'

•1 In Ward's List. 5 Chappell. p. 70.

<^ In the margin is written 'Mrs. Katherin Tregian's Fauen.'

' Ward calls this ' Fantasia with 23 Variations upon Ut. re, mi, fa,
sol. la.' 8 Chappell. pp. 171.77-2.

» Ibid. pp. 17.3. 70<. T72. 10 Ibid. pp. 190. 773

11 Burney says this is the same as "The Marche before the Batell'
at fol. 13 (, of Lady Nevell's Book.

1- In the margin is written ' Vied P. Fhilippi scrp. la medesima fnga.
rag. 158.' The subj-ct is the same as that of Philips' Fantasia (No. .-4;.
.^gainst the third line is wrineu ' . . . . (illegible; is luga e fugg ra.'



Page.


ber.


S77


258


577


259


378


•2eo


378


261


378


262


379


263


SSI


264


s-*i


265


382


2I!6


3<3


267


3S3


268


384


209


385


270


3S8


271


390


272


391


273


.393


274


394


275


395


276


391)


•JTI


397


ins


39^


279


401


280


403


281


405


282


405


283


400


284


408


285


409


286


410


287


411


288


412


269


413


290


416


291



The Duchesse of Bruns-
wick's Toye.

AToye

Corranto

Corranto Lady Ricbe .

Corranto

A Gigge

AToye

The Primerose . . .

The Fall of the Leafe .

Farnaby's Conceit . .

AUemauda

Pauana. Canon. 2parts
in one.

Pescodd Time ....

Fauana Delight . . .

Galiarda



Miserere, 3 parts . . .
Tell mee. Daphne . .

Mai Sims

JIunday's Gioy . . .
Rosseter's (ialiard . .
The Flatt Puuan . .

Pauana

Why aske you . . . .
Farmer Pauen . . .
Balling Alman . . .
The Old Spagnoletta .
Lachrimae I'auan . .

Meridian Alman . . .

Pauana

Muscadin

Lady Montegle's Pauen

(laliarda. 5

F'antasia

Hanskin



Martin Peerson.
Martin Peere,<on.
Giles Farnabye.



Edward Johnson. Sett

by Will Byrd.
Edward Jolinson. Sett

by Wm. Eyrd.
Dr. Bull. 3
Giles Farnaby .4

Munday.

Sett by G iles Farnaby.^

Giles Farnaby.



Giles Farnaby.

J.D. Sett by Giles Far*

naby.
Sett by Giles Farnaby.*
Orlando (iibbons.
(Jiles Farnaby.io
Wm. Byrd.
Wm. Tisdall.
Giles Farnaby.
Richard Farnaby, U



Tlie music ends on p. 418. At the end of the
volume is an index of the contents siu'ned ' Henry
Smith Richmond, scripsit, from a MS. Index in
the Possession of Mr. Bartleman. 24 March,
1 8 16.' In this pieces, copies of which occur in
Lady Nevell's book, are marked with an asterisk.

2. My Laclye Nevelh Bodke. This valuable
collection of Byrd's Virijinal music belongs to
the Marquess of Abergavenny, in whose family
it has remained since it was written. It is an
oblong folio volume, beautifully bound in mo- j
rocco enriched with gold, green, and red, and' \
lined with blue watered silk. On the title-page j
is an illuminated coat of arms and the monogram, 1
' H. N.' The music is written on a 6-line stave
in square-headed notes, and was copied by John
Baldwin of Windsor, a fine volume of whose
transcribing is preserved in the Queen's Library
at Buckingham Palace. Hawkins, who alludes
to this MS. in vol. iii. (p. 288) and vol. iv. (p. 386)
of his History of Music, states that the book was,
given by Byrd to his scholar, Lady Nevili, but
there is no evidence in suppurt of this assertion.
The MS. was examined by Mr. Chappell when

1 In Ward's List. A copy is in Cosyn's Book. p. 199.

2 Chappell, p. 196. Same air as No. 59 (p. 108). See Lady Nevell's
Book. fol. 40.

.■: In Ward's List. 4 Chappell. p. 1&«. ■' Ibid. pp. 177. 789.

6 Rossiter published a volume of ' Consort Lessons ' in 1609.

7 In the margin is written ' Vedi Mor. 287.' This refers to a curlotis
piece of plagiarism, section 3 of Morley's Pavan, on p. 287, befn^
nearly identical with section 3 of Farnaby's on p. 4(10.

» At p. 59 of Cosyn's Book is a setting nf this air signed 'B.C..' and
at fol. 93 h of Add. MSS. 30,485 is another by Bull, Vide lupra, p. 279.
9 Vide stijtra. p. '2'22.

10 The air of this is the same as that of Xo. 19.

11 Chappell, p. '23.



VIRGINAL MUSIC.



VIRGINAL MUSIC.



311



vriting his -work on English Music, in which
'olume it is frequently referred to. The follow-
ng is a list of its contents : —



Tutn-
ber.


Same.


Folio.


CoiJiposer.


1


My Ladye Xevel's srownde .


1


Mr. W. Birde.


a


Qui passe : for my Ladye Xevel


8


•■ ••


3


The Marche before the bat-
tell.i


13i




4


The Souldiers Sommons : the
Marche of Footemen.


19






The Marche of Horsmea . .


20






Now foloweth the Trumpetts :


21






the Trumpetts.








The Irishe Marehe ....


226






The Bagpipe


21






And the Drone


24






The Flute and the Droome .


25






The Marche to the Fighte . .


2ri






The Eetreat. Xow foloweth








a Galliarde for the Viclorie.






B


Thefialliarde


32


Jlr. W. Birde.


6


The Barelye BreaJce . , . .


31


Mr. W. Birde Gentle-
man of Her Maiestie's
Chappel.


7


A Galliards Gygge


€3


Mr. W. Birde organiste
of Her Maiestie's
Chappell.


8


TheHuntesTpp


46


Mr. W. Birde. Laus sit
Deo .2


9




4(V>


)


10




.5ti


J Finis Mr. W. Birde.


n


The Galliard foloweth . . .


616


»


yi


The II Pauian


C3


>, 1* tf


13


The Galliarde


65


•» t* t»


i4


The III Pauian


67


tp 1. If


15


The Galiarde to the same . .


696


.» »» »•


16


The IIII Pauian


716


..


17


The Galliard heer foUoweth .


736


Mr. W. Birde. Uomo
memorabilis.


18


The V Pauian


756


1 Mr. W. Birde. Laudes


19


The Galliarde


71-6


/ Deo.


20


Pauana the VI. Kinbrugh.
Goodd.


£06


Mr. W. Birde.


sa


The Galliarde folows ....


81


Laus sit Deo. Mr. W.
Birde.


22


The Seventh Pauian ....


£6


Mr. W. Birde Gentle-
man of the Chappell.


IB


The Eighte Pauian ....


ta


Mr. W. Birde of the
Chappell.3


'A


The passinge mesures Pauian
ofMr. W. Birdes.


92


Mr. W. Birde.


23


The Galliarde foloweth. The


996


Mr. W. Birde of the




Galliarde.




Chappell.


26


A Voluntarie for my Ladye
Xevell.


1056


Finis Mr. W. Birde.4


27


Will you walke the woods so


109


Finis Mr. W. Birde.




wylde.




Anno 1590.


28


The Maidens songe ....


113


Mr. W. Birde.5


29


A Lesson of Voluntarie . . .


1196


Finis. Mr. W. Birde.


3D


The Seconde Grownde . . .


126


Mr. W. Bird.


31


Haue with you to Walsing-


135


Finis -Maister W.




hame.




Birde.s


32


All in a garden grine ....


1426


Mr. W. Bird.7


33


Lord Willobles welcome home


1166


Finis Maister Willm.
Birde.8


31


The Carman's Whistle . . .


119


Finis Maister Willm.
Birde.3


35


Hugh Astons Grownde . . .


1.T36


Mr. W. Birde. 10


S6


Afaiicie


161




37


Sellinger's Kowude ....


1666


Finis. Mr. W. Birde."



1 A copy of numbers 3, 4. and 5 is in the Christ Church Library,
iiford. This curious piece was known as 'Mr. 'Bytd's Battle.' At
)1. 296 occur the words: ' Tantara tantara, the battels be joyned.'
ee vol. ti. p. i'i^ " ; vol. iii. pp. 35 6 and 611 a, Hawkins, vol. iv. 386.

2 Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, no. 59.

> Forster's Virginal Book, p. 217. Queen Elizabeth's Book, no. 56.
< Queen Elizabeth's Book, no. 67.

5 \ copy ol this is in Add. 3ISS. 31,10?.

6 Queen Elizabeth's Bock, no. es. Forster's Book, p. 74. Add.
[SS.30.1S.5.

' Ou fol. 115 6 is written : ' Here is a falte, a pointe left out wch ye
liall finde prickte, .after the end of the nexte songe, upon the lis
afe." Queen Elizabeth's Book, p. 191.
8 Forster's Book, p. 22.

5 Queen Elizabeth's Book, no. 58. Forster's Book p. ISO. .\dd.
ISS. 31.1fj3, and SO,l.?o.
10 Queen Elizabeth's Book no. 66.
" Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, p. 120.



ber.


Xame.


Folio.


3.S


Munser's.\lmaine . . . .


1736


39


The Tennthe Pauian : Mr. W.
Peter.


1805


10


The Galliard


1316


11


.\Fancie


1806


42


A Voluntarie


191



Finis. Mr. W. Birde.l
Finis. The Galliarde

foUoweth.
Finis Mr. W. Birde.

Finis Mr. W. Birde,
Gentleman of the
Queen's Chappell.

At the end of the volume is ' The Table for
this booke,' after ■which is the following colo-
phon : ' Ffinished and ended the leventh of
September in the yeare of our Lorde God 1591
and in the 33 yeare of the raigne of our sofferaine
ladie Elizabeth by the grace of God queene of
Englande, etc. By me Jo. Baldwine of Windsore.
Laudes Deo.'

3. Will. Forder's Viif/inal Boole. This vo-
lume, which belongs to Her Majesty the Queen,
is preserved at Buckingham Palace, and consists
of 23S octavo folios ruled in 6-line staves. The
water-marks are a shield surmounted by a coro-
net, bearing a fleur-de-lis on the escutcheon, and
a pot with the initials 'E. 0. R.' The book pro-
bably belonged to Sir John Hawkins, and has
been bound in modern times in half red morocco
and paper boards. At the beginning is a ' Table
of the Lessons,' written in the same hand as the
rest of the book, and signed '31 Januarie 1624.
Will. Forster.' The following is a list of the
contents of the volume : —



28



A Grounde of Mr. Bird's . .
I. The French Coranto . . .
The Second French Coranto .
The 3rd French Coranto . .

ALevolto2

Lo. Willobies wellcome home

Felix Nunquam 3

A Home pipe

Kapasse

Wilson's Wilde ■!

An Almalne

As I went to AValsingham j .

Galliarde

Quadra Pavine

Almayne

Pavin

The Wood soe wylde 6 , . .
Pavin

Farludam

A Galliard

The New Medley

3 voc. Praise the Lord.
Psalme 103.

The Lord, executeth righte-
ousness, a 3 voc.

For looke howe highe. a 3 voc.

The DaiesotMan.il 3 voc. . .

The Lord, a 3 voc

Have Mercie. Si 3 voc



Page.


Coiupo'er.


2


Bjrd.


ji





16


^^


18


,^


20




22





21




50


Byrd.


63


^^


70




72




71


Byrd.


88


Thomas 3Iorley.


96


,, ,,


liu




111


Byrd.


lis




127


Byrd.


130


,, 7


133




137




143




150


John Ward.


152


>.


l.Tl




156


*, „


l.'iS


„ „ 8


160


,> .. ^



1 Forster's Book, p. 360. A different setting in Queen Elizabeth's
Book, p. 114. ■' «. «■ a LavolU.

3 This composition is attributed in Queen Elizabeth's Book to
Tallis, and dated 1561 : the name should be ' Felix Namque.'

4 The first note only has been written in. In the Table of Lessons,
this composition is attributed to Byrd.

5 In the ' Table ' called ' Walsingham ' only.

6 A mistake is made in the pagination here. Pages 118 and 119 are
the same.

7 In the Table this is called 'Ground.' It is the well-known ' Car-
mans Whistle.'

8 • The .5th and last of the 103 Psalme."

9 • The 1 of the 51 1'salme.'



312



VIRGINAL MUSIC.



yiim-

Irr.


ICame,


Page.


Co:


ipo^er.


W




1G2
1C4


:: ;■.


1


SO


Turne Thye Face




SI


Deliver mee


IM


•1 *(




32


The Marchant's Dreame . .








SS




176






S4




182
186
1.88


4
Byrd.
Englitt.
Bull.




So













87




196




38


The Quadrant Tavin ....


W2




S9


Passa Measures ravin . . .




Byrd.




40


Fassa Measures Galliard . .


230






41


Mr. Bird's Galiard


240







42


Mounser's Alman


344






43




2.V2
2iS


••




44


A Grounde




43


A Ground


203







46


Parsons Innominey (sic) . .


272








Johnson's delights




■ ■ »




4S


The Galliard to the Paviu
aforesaid.


284


"




49




2S8







60


The Galliard


3(12






Bl




311
319






52


The Galliard




63




322


.,




54


Goe from my Wlndoe . , .


3J4






K




331


,. 7




S6


A Pavan


310






57


Doctor Bull's GalUiard). . .


347


Bull.




fts




SCO
366


B.vrd.




59






60


Mounser's Alman




61


Harding's Gall(iarJ) ....


38S






62


A Parludam


SSfi


Byrd.




63


A Grounde


390


,.




64




404
412
416






65


Galliard




6G


An Alman




€7




420
426






es


The Galliard




69


Bobbin Hood


430






70


If my Complaints, or Py-
per's Galliard.


442






71


The King's Hunt


447


BuU.




72




466

458






73


Fraeludiam




74


Watkins Ale


4C0






75




462






76




464
466






77


The same a noate lower . .






7ii




4C8







4. Benjamin CofJjn's Virginal Bool. This
fine folio volume, like the last-mentioned collec-
tion, is the proijerty of Her Majesty, and is pre-
served at Buckingham Palace. The binding is
of English workmanship, and contemporary with
the MS. It consists of calf with gold tooling.
The letters ' B. C are stamped both on the front
and the back, and part of the tooling has been
stamped above the letters ' M. 0.' — probably the
initials of an earlier owner. The book has been
shut by brass clasps, but these are now broken
off. At the beginning is an index, divided into
' A Table of these Lessons followinge made and
sett forth by Ben Cos,' ' A Table of these Les-
sons foUowinge made by Mr. Docter Bull,' 'A
Table of these Lessons following made by Mr.
Or. Gibbons,' ' These lessons following are made
by Tallis and Byrd,' after which comes a list of
six services contained in the same volume, at the
end of which is written ' These are yo six services
for the Kings Royall Chappell.' The same page
also contains ' A Catch of 9 parts in one,' * Let



I 'Sof.veSlPsalme.'

> 'Marcthant's Dreame ' (Table).

' A Pavan.

' 'I.achramy ' (Table).



' The last of the 51 Psalme.'

< 'Byrd '(Table I.
■ The Galliard to it (Table).



VVRGINAL MUSIC.

us goe pray for John Cook's soul,' and ' A Table
of all these lessons generally contained in this
Booke are in Nomber : g6. By me Beniamin
Cosyn Right owner of this Booke.' Hawkins
(Historj', vol. iii. p. 421) says that Benjamin
Cosyn was 'a famous composer of lessons for the
harpsichord, and probably an excellent performer
on that instrument,' that he flourished about the
year i6oo, and that ' there are many of his les-
sons extant that seem in no respect inferior to
those of Bull.' The last statement looks as if
Hawkins had been acquainted with the Virginal
Book, for many of the lessons in it against which
Cosyn's name appears, Are undoubtedly the
compositions of Bull and of other authors : indeed
it is probable that further research would show
that Cosyn had very little to do with any of the
compositions in the book. His name is found in.
no other collection, and who he was is not known.
A John Cosyn is mentioned by Anthony k Wood
(Bodleian Library, Wood, 19 D. (4) 106) as
organist of Charterhouse.

The following is a complete list of the contents
of the volume : as the old pagination is in places
irregular, the pages have been numbered freshly.
The titles in the index are sometimes different
from those in the body of the book : when these
variations occur, they have been noted in the
last column : —



1 A Prelude . . . . ,

2'APavin

3 The Galliard to Itt . .
4,Lacrime Pavin , . .
5JThe Galliard tout . ,

c!-\Pavin

7JThe Galliard to itt . .

i-'A Grounde

9! A Grounde

10 Sermone Blando . . .

11 A Galliard

13'Pakinton'sPownde. .

14 A Galliard

15 Dum Aurora . . . .

16 Whie aske you . , .

17 The Queene's Com-
I mande.

18 FiUiday Floutes me .

19 My Self

20 Miserere

21 What you Will . . .

22 A Galliard



Composer.



1 Benj. Cosyn



Title 111 Index.



jOrl. Gibbous
lEenj. Cosyn



|InE, La, Mi.
la A, Be.



The Lo. Lumlye's PaTln

In A, Re.
In Gam, Ut,

.InFf.fa, ut.
|lnD,sol, re.

I A cross-handed Galliard
I

' Why aske yu '.
In the Index attributed

to Cosyn.
18. 'FUUda.'



23 The Kings Hunt . . .'

24 Thomas Lupoes Gal-
I liard.

25 My Lo. Burrows Gal-

I liard. I

26 Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la .'



27| A Galliard



28 3Ir. Stroude's Galliard
29 1 The Galliard to Doct.

BuUes Fantastick

Pavin.
30,Preludiem ....
31 ; The Quadren Pavin.

32 The balliard to itt .

33 I'avana



34 1 A Pavin in A. re. ,
35|The Galliard to itt ,

36 Pavana

37jGalUard



Orl. Gibbons
Benj. Cosyn



'Finis. Doct
Bulles Ffan-
tasticall Pa-
vine'

Doctor Bull



My Lo. Eich. his Gal-
liard.'



In the Index attributed

to Cosyn.
'Er Bobert Southwell'*

Gall.'



A Prelude in Gamat.'



The Phantastlcall Pa-
vin.



A Pavin In D, sol, re."
The Galliard to itt.'



VIRGINAL MUSIC.



VITTORIA.



313



unsvick's T07 .



vana . • • • •
lliardo ....

Tana

e Galliard . . •
ike Galliard. . .
cter BuUe's Jewell

iretto

Salliard ....



Prelude
Salliard



ntasia ,

vana

e Gallard to itt . ,

I went to Walking-

lam.

lix Namque. . • .

e from my windoe ,

Galliarda. . . . ,



A Jla^ke .
Galliard .



& Fancy .
A Toy. .
Galliard .
Almaine .



Almaine • •
Allmaine . .
Fantasia . .
Uiard ....



t Goldfinch .
rana . . .
rana . . .



maine.
lliard .
itasia .
illudem

iila5ia .



nme



itasia

Allmaine . . .
maine ....
Fancy for a Double
irgaine.
itasia ....



Composer.



Title in Index.



"The Duke of Bruns-
wick."
' The Trumpet Favin."
'The Galliard to it.'
' The Lo.Lumlies Favin."
'The Galliard to it.'
'Wake's Galliard.'



"The Lo.Hunsden's Gal-
liard.'

In ff, fa, ut.

The Galliard to Favaa
no. 70.

' K Fancy."

' The Mallincholyravin."



Thos. Tallis
Will. Byrd
Orl. Gibhons,

*Bachellor

of Musik.'
Orl. Gibbons ' The Hunt's up."



The La. Eatten's Gal-
liard.'



Attributed to Orlando
Gibbons in the Indei.

'The Ffrench Allmaine.'

' Another Allmaine.'

' A Fancy.'

'Sir Richard Latener's
Galliard,'



Orl. Gibbons



Bei(j. Cosyn



Doctor Bull
Mr. Yves sett

forth by B.

Cosyn

Orl. Gibbons



The Vautins Ga'.liard.'



Homine

Bulles Greefe . .

liard

. Bevan's Morning
1 Evening Service,
ny Sonne Absolon .
ming and Evening
ervice in D.
rning and Evening
ervice in D.
ruing and Evening
ervice in D.

nite in F

rning and Evening

ervice in F. I |

rning Service in F. | 284 ITho. Weelks

er Majesty the Queen has graciously allowed
writer to examine and describe the two

syn's name does not occur In the Indei: no. 96 consists of
•eum,Benedictus, Kyrie, Creed, Magnificat, and Nunc Diniittij,
le whole service is attributed to Gibbons.



Bevin

Tallis

Strogers

Byrd



272 Benj. Cosyn 1
27-1 Orl. Gibbous



'A Pavin in Gamut flatt."
■ Mr. Yves his Allmaine."



The Coranto to itt."



' A Fancy."
A Prelude."
'A Fancy."



A Fancy in Gamut
flatt.'

A Fancy in C, fa, ut."

Another Fancy in C,
fa, ut.'

A l-ancy in A, re."

The Galliard to no. 87.

The T.a. Lucie's Gal-
liard.'

Queene Elizabeth's Fa-



coilections of Virginal Music at Buckingham
Palace ; his thanks are also due to the Marquess
of Abergavenny, for permission to examine and
describe Lady Nevell's Virginal Book, preserved
at Eridge Castle ; to Mr. E. Maunde Thompson,
Dr. Charles Waldstein, Mr. W. G. Cusins, and
particularly to Mr. Bertram Pollock and Mr.
Birkitt, who have respectively been of great
assistance in different points which have arisen
with respect to this article. [W.B.S.]

"VIRTUOSO. A term of Italian origin, ap-
plied, more abroad than in England, to a player
who excels in the technical part of his art. Such
players being naturally open to a temptation to
indulge their ability unduly at the expense of
the meaning of the composer, the word has ac-
quired a somewhat depreciatory meaning, as of
display for its own sake. Virtaositdt — or vir-
tuosity, if the word may be allowed — is the
condition of playing like a virtuoso.

Mendelssohn never did, Mme. Schumann and
Joachim never do, play in the style alluded to.
It would be invidious to mention those who
do. [G.]

VITALI, ToMASO, an eminent violinist and
composer, was born at Bologna about the middle
of the 1 7th century. He appears to have held
appointments as leader of orchestras at Bologna
and Modena successively, and, according to
Eetis, published 5 sets of Sonatas for i and 2
Violins with Bass. His name has in our days
again been made known to the general public by
a Chaconne with variations, which was edited by
F. David (' Hohe Schule ') and has frequently
been played in public by Mme. Neruda and
others. This work, which has rightly been de-
scribed as a worthy precursor of Bach's famous
Chaconne, proves Vitali to have been a musician
of great skill and remarkable talent. [P-D.]

VITTORIA, ToMMASO Ludovico da — or, to
give the name in its Latin form, Victoria,
Thomas Lddovicus de — is, next to Palestrina,
the greatest musician of the Roman school of
the 1 6th century. Though Vittoria is assigned
to the Roman school, that must not be under-
stood as if he ever became a mere follower or
imitator of Palestrina, as he is sometimes con-
•sidered. He was Spanish by birth, and always
remained Spanish in feeling ; but, like Escobedo,
Morales, Soto, etc., he made Rome the principal
sphere of his activity. It is perhaps on this
account that it is not usual to reckon a distinct
Spanish school of music, as well as on account
of the general affinity of style of these Spani.sh
composers to their Roman contemporaries. We
should not however forget that the Roman school
itself was partly formed and largely influenced
by these Spanish musicians. Palestrina, in whom
the Roman school is practically summed up, must
have learnt as much from his Spanish predeces-
sors who held office in the Papal chapel, Escobedo
and Morales, as from his immediate master
Goudimel. If from Goudimel and older Nether-
landers Palestrina learned his science, his fami-
liarity with all the technicalities of his art.



314



VITTORIA.



and if from Arcadelt he caught the gift
of sweet and natural expressiveness, from the
Spanish masters he acquired something of that
depth of feeling which is their special charac-
teristic. Proske, speaking of the Spaniard Mo-
rales, says ' the reform of the pure church style,
which was afterwards perfected by Palestrina,
is happily anticipated in many parts of the
works of Morales, for his style is noble and
dignified, and often penetrated with such depth
of feeling as is hardly to be found in any other
master' (Musica Divina, III. xiv.). Ambros too



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