George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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His arrangements belong to his educational
apparatus ; although, by the process to which
he subjected them, he transformed works of a
comparatively limited interest into pieces which
may almost deserve a place among his own pro-
ductions. The means by which he succeeded in
infusing a new vitality into his arrangements
vary according to the instruments for which he
adapted them. In the clavier concertos he re-
stricted himself for the most part to internal
change. He strengthened and enlarged the
structure of the bass, and modified the upper
accompaniments with much freedom and often
with the licence of an original composer. The
melody in slow movements he ornamented by
trills, mordents, etc. ; and above all he gave
solidity and sometimes an entirely new character
to a movement by writing a complete melodious
middle part of his own. Of this last method no
more perfect example can be found than that
presented by the ti-eatment of the largo in the
second concerto, in G major. The organ con-
certos display a different sort of versatility.
Here Bach has not limited himself to merely
internal development : he expands and lengthens
his originals, maturing forms which Vivaldi had
only suggested, and giving a ' roundness and
symmetry ' ^ to the whole. Lastly, in tlie con-
certo for four claviers, which was written perhaps
mainly as an exercise in the composition of
ohbligaio parts on a large scale, Bach has not
only added episodes, as in the organ concertos,
but also considerably augmented the contra-
puntal work of the original." [R.L.P.]


QUATRE, vol. i. p. 72S.]

VIVIER, EoGKNE Leok, remarkable horn-
player, born at Ajaccio, 1821. His father was
a tax-collector, and intended him for a similar
career, but his passion for music made him throw
aside all restraints and go to Paris. He knew
encugh of the horn to gain admittance to the
orchestra of the Italiens, and then of the Opera,
and after some instruction from Gallay ap-
peared at concerts as a solo-player. His extra-
ordinary humour and imagination soon showed
themselves, and endeared him to society, in the circles of which he mixed largely. He was
also master of a curious discovery or ti-ick upon the
horn, the secret of which he has never divulged,
by which he can produce three, and even four,
notes at once, so as to play pieces for three horns,
■with full, sonorous triads, and chords of the 6
an. I 6-4 from the one instrument. Vivier soon
made his entrance to Court, and his horn in E,
M'ith which he used to play befoi-e Louis Phi-
lipiie at the Chateau d'Eu, is still preserved at
thu Conservatoire. From this time forward his
fame steadily increased at home and abroad.
Among other artistic tonniccs he came several
times to England after 184S, and was a great

> Spitta, 'J. S. Bach," 1. 415. English translation.

- See rrofessor Spitla's treatment of the whole ."iuliject. I.e., vol. i.
411-416; vol. iii. 149. which is to some extent more complete than
that contained in the original German editiou (Band i. 409-414;
il. C2D). [See also Aur.\ vol. i. S9 6.|

favourite in London for his drollery as much
his music. As a practical joker he had no equ
and good stories might be told of him enough
fill a volume. His powers of mimicry, especia
mimicry of sound, were extraordinary,
would make an English or German speech wi
out saying a word of either English or Germ;
yet so correct as to accent that his hearers w(
puzzled to know why they could not follow 1
argument. His published songs with pianofo
accompaniment, lead one to believe that if he 1
cultivated composition he might have reachei
high rank. His pieces for the horn are still i
printed, and he seems to have given up 1
career of a virtuoso. It is now more than
years since we heard him play ; he then had s
a fine tone, made his instrument sing charming
and fascinated his audience, though keeping ti
very restricted scale and avoiding ditiaculti
As one of the favourites of Napoleon III, Vivie
position since 1870-71 has been rather isolat
but he retained many friends, including the 1;
Victor Mass^ and M. Philippe GiUe. The lat
wrote the preface for Vivier's pamphlet, '1
peu de ce qui se dit tons les jours' (Motterc
printed in green and black, and now extremi
scarce. It was a collection of the ready-ma
phrases which it is so difficult to avoid, a
which are the bane of ordinary conversatii
Men being, according to Diderot, a mass of C(
tradictions, Vivier, who thoroughly apprecia
family life, and is an excellent son, lives ale
with no companion but a pigeon ! His frien
however, have still attractions for him, and tl
cause has induced him during the last few ye!
to spend the winter at Nice. [G.<

VIVO. [See Vivace.]

1S56 at a meeting at Store Street Music Hs
attended by about 300 amateurs, with the vii
of founding in England an association answerij
to the German ' Gesang-verein.' Many of tj
original members had sung at the concerts givj
shortly before by Mme. Goldschmidt at Exelj
Hall, under the direction of Sir Julius (thenM
Benedict, and he was unanimously elected co
ductor of the new association, Mr. Willis;
Lockyer being elected secretary, and Mr. J. B
treasurer. JNlr. Chas. E. Horsley subsequent
shaved the duties of conductor. In 1857 t
Society gave a series of concerts at the Crysi
Palace, including Mendelssohn's ' First Walpt
gis Night,' and it subsequently gave perfon
ances at St. James's Hall, at one of which t
conductor's opera, 'The Lily of Killarney,' w
sung. The concerts included vocal and instr
mental solos, and occasionally there was an (
chestra, the choir usually numbering 200 voic( .
Among the works given by the Association f
the first time were Spohr's ' Ods to St. Ceoilii
and Challoner Master's operetta, 'The Rose
Salency.' The Association has ceased to exi
for some years. [CM '■

VOCAL CONCERTS. These concerts, tii
first of which was given on Feb. 11, 1792, oi


lated in the secession of Mr. Harrison from.
! Ancient Concerts in 1789, after having been
nember of the chorus from their commence-
nt fourteen years before. Harrison was joined

Miss Cantelo, whom he subsequently mar-
d, and in 1791 by Bartleman, and at the close
that year they circulated proposals for the
if concerts, which were commenced at Willis's
oms under the management of Messrs. Har-
on and Knyvett senior. The performances
first were on a humble scale, the accompani-
nts being furnished by the pianoforte, at
lich the elder Knyvett presided as conductor,
d a quartet of two violins, viola, and cello,
i by Frangois Cramer. Mr. and Mrs. Harrison
i Bartleman were the principal singers, and
re assisted in the glees, which formed the
ncipal feature of the concerts, by Mr. Knyvett,
I., Master W. Knyvett, and others. The pro-
mme of the opening concert, which may be
;epted as a fair sample of the schemes of the
it three seasons, included Atterbury's glee,
ome, let us all a maying go'; Arne's glee,
(Tiere the bee sucks ' ; Callcott's ' Peace to the
lis of the heroes'; Stevens's glee, 'To be
sing on those charms,' and some songs, duets,
;ches, and rounds. The chief vocal writers
the day — including Callcott, Crotch, Spofforth,
■. Clarke, and Stevenson — contributed new
rks to the programmes, and Italian music
s added. In 1793 Mme. Dussek and Miss
ole (afterwards Mrs. Dickons) joined the
:alists, and the brothers Leander, then the
ist celebrated horn-players in Europe, were
led to the little band. The concerts, ten of
lich were given each season, were abandoned

the end of 1794, the subscription having
len off, and Harrison and his wife and Bar-
man returned to the Ancient Concerts, the
ise of their failure being the competition of
loman's concerts (with Haydn's music, and
me. Mara among the singers), the Profes-
nal Concerts (with Pleyel and Billington),
i the Ancient Concerts, rather than any
:k of excellence either in the programmes or
?ir execution. In 1801, when the Ancient
ncerts alone remained in the field, the Vocal
ncerts were revived with the additional attrac-
ns of a complete orchestra and chorus. The
ad was led by Cramer ; Greatorex was organist
d general conductor ; and among the principal
igers, beside the two directors, Harrison and
irtleman, were Mrs. Harrison, Mrs. Bianchi,
iss Parke, Miss Tennant, and Mr. W. Kny-
tt. The programmes provided a wider variety
excellent music than has ever been given in
single series of concerts, the best specimens of
cient work, English and foreign, being inter-
srsed with the compositions of the best con-
nporary writers. In 1802 Mrs. Harrison
;ired from public engagements, and the Kny-
tts withdrew from the management, although
ey still assisted in the concerts, and in 1S03
rs. Billington was engaged, the attraction of
r name bringing a large accession of support.
1 her retirement Mrs. Vaughan, Miss Stephens,



and Mrs. Salmon succeeded as principal English
singers, whilst Catalan!, Bellochi, Fodor, and
Camporese were heard on the foreign side.
Braham sang for one if not two seasons after
Harrison's death in 181 2, and Tramezzani, Nal-
di, Fischer, and Ambrogetti played in the
orchestra. The death of Bartleman and the de-
creasing popularity of the vocal part-music of
the English school, added to the increasing
attractions of the Philharmonic Society's Con-
certs, gradually reduced the subscription to the
Vocal Concerts, and after trying the effect of
reducing the number of concerts and the amount
of the subscription, they were finally abandoned
in 182 1. As an episode in their history it may-
be mentioned that an opposition series, under the
name of ' Messrs. Knyvett and Vaughan's Vocai
Subscription Concerts,' was begun in iSii with
six or seven hundred subscribers, including the
Dukes of Kent, Sussex, and Cambridge ; the
programmes of 181 2 included the first acts of
'Don Juan' and 'Figaro,' the finale to the
second act of ' Don Juan ' and other pieces
from Mozart's operas; but in 1812 the death
of Harrison led to a union of the two schemes,
which was accomplished in 1813. [CM.]

VOCAL SCORES. One of the admirable
collections of the late Mr. John Hullah, It is
printed in type in ordinary music size, and was
published by John W. Parker in monthly num-
bers, one sacred and one secular, beginning on
Jan. I, 1S46. Its contents are as follow : —

Crotch. Motet, Methinks I hear. iJIcMurdie. Canon, Agne Dei.

a 5. I 4 in 2.

Telemann. Motet, Amen, Bless- j Weellves. Anthem, All people,

ing and Glory. 2 Choirs. clap. !i 5.

McMurdie. Canon, Quis est Kex?iCroft. Anthem, O give thanks.

4 in 2. 2 Choirs.

Hiiser. Hymn, Oh! remember. Zingarelli. Motet, Haste Thee O

a ^. God. k 4.

T. F. Walmisley. Hymn, Lord of|Anon. Canon, Sing, sing aloud

all Lord:

Palestrina. Gloria in Excelsis. aG.
Klein. Anthem, Like as the hart.

a 4.
Leisring. Hymu, Redeemer ! now.

2 Choirs.

G. Gabrieli. Hymn, Benedictus.

3 Choirs.

J. C. Bach. Chorale, O Sing unto

God 1 k 5.
Anon. Anthem, O Lord grant the

King, a 4.
Palestrina. Sacred Madrigal, Why

art thou ? a .5.
Graun. Motet, Lift up your heads.

a 4.

unto God.
McMurdie. Canon, Hallelujah.

4 in 2.
O. Gibbons. Anthem, Hosanna,

Xares. Anthem. Blessed is he. a ."i.
Spohr. Fugue, O magnify, i. 4.
De Gouy. I'salm, O God of Jacob.

Homilius. Paternoster, ki.
Palestrina. Motet. Merciful Lord.

a 4.
Ives. Canon, Si Deus nobiscum.

Sin 1.
Haser. Slotet, Put me not to re-
buke, a f).
[Xares.] Anthem, O Lord grant.

Callcott. Canon. Thou, Lord, hast 1

been. 4 in 2. | a 5.

Palestrina. Collect, Saviour of. Tye. Gloria in excelsis. k6.

the world, a 4. |Graun. Chorus, Thou art the

Lotti. Credo, a 4.

Aldrich. Anthem, give thanks.

F. Schneider. Motet, All thy

works, a 5.
KoUe. Motet, The Lord is king.

Byrd. Anthem, Sing unto God.

Croce. Motet, O that I had wings'.

T. A. Walmisley. Canon, Praise

the Lord. 4 in 2.
Carissimi. Motet, O be joyful in

God. is.
T. A. Walmisley. Hymn, Hail

gladdening Light, k 5.
Palestrina. Hymn. I will call, i4.
Marcello. Psalra. We have heard.

a 4.

T. F. Walmisley. Canon, I will
praise. 4 in 2.

Arne. Canon, Help me O Lord.

Foggia. Motet, 1 will magnify
thee, i 4.

O. Gibbons. Anthem. Lord in-
crease my faith, a 4.

John Bishop. Hymn, When
brightly shines, ii 4.

Allison. Psalm. Ye children, i 4.

Tallis. Anthem, Hear the voice
and prayer, k 4.

Farrant. Anthem. Call to re-
membrance, a 4.

W. Lawes. Psalm, Sing to the
king of kings. 4 3.

Willaert. Canon. Amen. 4 in 2.

[Byrd. Anthem, SiugjoyfuUy. aC.




Wilbye. Mailripil. Sweet honey jHajes. Koiind, May dotli every.

sucking bees, il r>. I "^ •^■

Horsley. Olee, Cold is CadwaUo's.Hutcliinsim. Madrigal. Eetum

tongue, a S. my limely maid, a 4.

VTeellces. Madrigal. Three wood- Ward. Madrigal, Die not fond

land nymphs, a 4. | man. a 6.

Stevens. Glee. Sigh no more ladies. Mornington. Madrigal, As it fell.

Callcott. Glee, snatch me swift.

a 5.
Stevens. Glee, O mistress mine.

Mendelssohn. Part-song, For the

woods, a 4.
■Wilbve. Madrigal, Fly Love

aloft, kx
.T. Eennet. Madrigal, All creatures

now. a 5.
■\Vebbe. Glee. When winds breathe

soft, a 4.
Wilson. Part-song. From the fair

Lavinian. a 3.
Horsley. Glee, See the chariot.

a 4.
Morley. Pallet. Xow is the month

of Slaying, a .5.
J. Stafford Smith. Part-Song.

Hark the hollow, i 4.
Croce. Madrigal, Cynthia thy

song, k 5.
McMuidie. Glee, Py the dark

rolling' waters, k 4.
J. S. Smith. Glee, Blest pair ol

a 4.

Stevens. Glee, O Nightingale, a 5.

Corfe. Part-song, The yellow-
haired laddie, i 4.

Maelarren. I'art-song. There was
a man. a 4.

Converso. Madrigal, When all
alone, a 5.

Corfe. Part-song, How blithe each
morn, k 4.

T. F. Walmisley. Glee, From
flower to flower, a .5.

Spotiurth. Glee, Health to my
dear, k 4.

J. Bennet. Madrigal, Sing out ye
nymphs, a 4.

W. S. Bennett. Fart-song, Come
live with me. k 4.

Wilbye. Madrigal, Lady when I
behold, a C.

Wehbe. Elegy. The death of fair
Adonis, kn.

Eock. Glee. Beneath a church-
yard yew. a 4.

.\non. Canon. Summer is a com-
ing in. a 6.


do. 4 .1.

Danby. Glee, When Sappho tuned,

4 3.
Tieck. Part-song, Softly, softly.

a 4.
McMurdle. Eound, The daisies

peep, il 3.
Dowlaiid. Part-song. Eest awhile.

a 5.

Sir J.L. Ri'gers. Part-song, Hears^Mozart. Pound, Come follow me.

not my Philli?. a 6. | 4 3.

Dr. Cooke. Glee, As now the Este. JIadrigal, How merrily we

shades of eve. 4 4. | live. kX

Callcott. Glee, Who comes so T.F. Walmisley. Pound, O'erthe

dark. 4 3. glad waters. 4 4.

Hilton. Madrigal, Gifts of feature. Hullah. Part-song, Song should

4 3. breathe. 4 4.

Wilbye. Madrigal, Flora gave me. Byrd. Part-song, My mind tome.

4 5.

Horsley. Ode. Daughter of faith.
2 choirs.

BattishiU. Glee, Amidst the myr-
tles. 4 5.

O. May. Part-song, Come follow
me. 4 4.

Gibbons. Madrigal, The silver

4 5.
Cobbold. Madrigal, With wreaths

of rose, a 5.
Morley. Ballet, Sing we and chant

it. 4 5.
Anon. Ode, Daughter of heaven.

4 4.


VOCAL SOCIETY, THE. Established 1832
• to present the vocal music of the English school,
both ancient and modem, including that of the
church, the chamber, and the theatre, with the
addition of foreign compositions of excellence,' the
23romoters of the society urging among other rea-
sons in favour of their enterprise, not only that
the compositions of native musicians were at the
time nearly banished from the concerts of the
metropolis, but that the regulations of the exist-
ing societies for the cultivation of glee-singing
precluded the presence of ladies, and were at-
tended with considerable expense wholly uncon-
nected with their musical objects. In other
words, the Society aimed at giving concerts of
English vocal solos and part-mu,<ic. Its first
programme at the King's Concert Rooms, Hano-
ver Square, on Monday, Jan. 7, 1S33, included
the sestetto and chorus from Webbe's 'Ode to
St. Cecilia'; Eenet's madrigal, 'AH creatures
now'; Attwood's glee, 'In this fair vale';
Cooke's glee, 'Deh dove'; Bishop's serenade,
•Sleep, gentle lady'; Webbe's catch, 'Would

Sirens. 4 5. J. S. Smith. Canzonet, Stay shep-

Hullah. Madrigal, Wake now my I herd slay. 4 4.

Love. 4 6. ;Pilkiiigton. Part-song, Eest sweet

Arn3. Part-song, Where the bee

sucks. 4 4.
Morley. Ballet, Fire, Fire! my

heart. 4 5.
O. Gibbons. Madrigal, O that the

learned poets, a Ti.
Webbe. Glee, Glorious Apollo.


you know ' ; solos from Haydn, Hummel, M
zart, and Purcell, and an instrumental quintet
Beethoven's. Mr. T. Cooke was leader ; at tl
organ and pianoforte were Messrs. Turle, Gos
and Horncastle ; and the vocalists included Mi
Clara Novello, Mrs. Bishoi^, Miss George, ar
Messrs, Bennett, Parry, Pliillips, Hobbs, ar
Braham. The affairs of the Society at its cor
mencement were managed by a committee co
sistins: of Messrs. Bellamy, T. Cooke, Homca-stl
Hawkins, C. Taylor, E. Taylor, and Turle. Tl
original intention of presenting mainly Englif
music was departed from in the first year of tl
Society's existence, for we find in its programni'
the names of Palestrina, Pergolesi, Bononcii
Beethoven, !Mozart, and other foreign composer
and from a notice of the last concert given
1838 we learn that, 'with the exception of lhr»
glees and a madrigal, the performance consist*
entirely of the works of foreign artists.' 3
1837 the Society gave the first performance
this country of Spohr's oratorio, 'The Cruc
fixion,' with Mrs. Bishop, Mrs. Seguin, Mi
Hawes, and Mr. Balfe as principal vocalists, ai
]\Ir. Turle at the organ. On another
Beethoven's Choral Fantasia was performed, wi(
Mrs. Anderson at the piano. [CM

VOCALION. An ' organ ' or instrument
the free-reed kind, exhibited by James Baill
Hamilton, Esq., in the International Inventioi
Exhibition, London, 1885. The first patent w;
taken out Nov. 13, 1S72, by John Farmer (
Harrow), for a combination of reed with strii
or wire — eitlier as a continuation of the reed 1
as a coil fastened to the back thereof — and w;
succeeded by many more, taken out in the nam'
of ^Ir. Hamilton and others. The first attemp
gave a beautiful and very peculiar quality of soua
but by degrees the combination of reed at
string from which this proceeded has had to 1
given up. for practical and commercial reason
and the instrument as now exhibited is virtual
a Harmonium with broad reeds, giving grei
rigidity of action and therefore purity of
large channels, and acted on by high pressure
wind — not suction. A main peculiarity of tl
Vocalion is that the reeds are placed above tl
pallets and below the slides, and that though tl
sliding ' plug ' of three reeds is only of the widi
of the groove, the cavities are more than twi-
as wide. This is expressed in Mr. Hamilton
latest patent (U.S.A., March 25, 1884) as 'tl,
combination of pallets, soundboard, and ree<
with cavity -boards, one above the other, tl.'
lower one containing the nostrils and the upp'
one the mouths, and an intermediate controllii

The result of this is a charming variety a:
purity of tone, especially where the music is n
in too many parts; and also great force ar
richness of sound. This is well expressed 1 ,
Sir Arthur Sullivan in a letter dated New Yor I
July 3, 1885, as follows : — ' You have achiev< :
an instrument which shall possess all the pow
and dignity of an organ, without the cumberson
and expensive aid of pipes. And in doing thi


u have obtained a totally different tone from
at of Harmoniums and other reed organs. I was
Tticularly struck with the nobility and purity

the sound, and also with the great variety in
e timbre which the instrument displayed.'
The VocaHon exhibited is 6 ft. square, and
mds on a somewhat larger pedestal, contain-
5 the bellows, wind-chest, etc. It has three
anuals, denominated Choir, Great and Swell ;
'o stops in the pedals and three in each
mual, as well as three extra ones of lighter
ality, called 'complementary.' In the suc-
ssive steps of the invention since 1874, it is
iderstood that Mr. Baillie Hamilton has been
ich assisted by the practical knowledge and
ill of Mr. Hermann Smith. [G.]

VOCALISE and VOCALIZZO are the French
i Italian terms for an exercise or piece of music
be vocalised. [H.C.D.]

^lise is, as its name implies, to sing upon a
yel, whether one note or a series of notes, in
itradistinction to singing to separate syllables,
icalisation is therefore one part of the operation

pronunciation, the other being articulation,
rfect vocalisation involves purity of whatever
svel-sound is at the moment being sung, and
s purity of course requires that only those
rts of the organs of speech be called into action
it are absolutely necessary to biing about the
sition of the resonance chambers proper to its

rhis sounds like a truism too obvious to re-
ire statement, but it must be remembered that
is quite possible to bring into play or convulse
rts of the mechanism that are not necessary,
ihout altering the vowel-sound, though the
ility of the voice, the production, suffers, and
11 be tonguey, throaty, palatal, or veiled, ac-
'ding to the part thus unnecessarily brought

play. In such cases, if the resonance-pitch of
i vowel-sound could be ascertained, it might be
indto be precisely the same unci erlhese different
iditions, while the tone of voice, pure in the
3 case, might be very bad in the other. No
icial organ or mechanism should present itself
the mind of the hearer. So far as to the pro-
ction or a single note. In a succession of notes,
lether slow or quick, the passage from note to
ie should take place without the smallest
inge either of vowel-sound or of tone-quality,

1 without the slightest escape of useless breath,
i consequent cessation of vocal sound between
; notes, or evidence of mechanical effort. The
isage must in fact be a portamento or carrying
the voice, but so quickly executed that the
;es shall be perfectly distinct and the porta-
nto unrecognisable, except where in slow
usages it is required for special expression.
3sages of agility {fioritura, coloratura) executed
the manner above indicated give that gorgeous
xi of musical sound which was one of the many
.8 of the great soprano Jenny Lind. [H.C.D.]

70GE DI PETTO, Chest voice (Ger. Brust-
nme) ; VOCE DI TESTA, Head voice {Kopf-

'01. IV. PT. 3.



stimme). Terms applied in some cases to certain
registers or series of notes produced by a special
mechanism or state of the voice organs ; in others
to a different mode of producing the same notes.
Nearly the whole question of registers, and in
great part of quality or timbre, is involved in
uncertainty — indeed, it is scarcely too much to
say, mystery. All voice is produced in the
larynx. The sound thus given forth can be
modified both in pitch and quality by numerous
pairs of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles,
muscles acting upon the trachea or windpipe, on
the pharynx, on the soft palate, on the throat,
tongue, and nostrils, front and back, on the lips
and cheeks. All these parts are concerned in the
formation of the resonance chambers. The bare
fact that the voice is produced in the larynx is
ascertainable by anybody through the medium
of the laryngoscope, but to arrive only thus far
the throat has to be forced into a position directly
antagonistic to the production of those very qua-
lities of tone that form the subject of desired
investigation. Open chest voice, there is every
reason to believe, is in great part produced by
the drawing down of the larynx by means of the
sterno-thyroid muscles, so that it becomes part
of a compact mass of bone, tissue, and cartilage
all vibrating together. This arrangement of
parts is aided by the elasticity and compress-
ibility of the windpipe ; and since the lowering of
the larynx (carrying down with it, as it does, a
considerable portion of the root of the tongue),
brings about a corresponding lengthening and
enlargement of the throat, the vibration of the
chest, and the sonority imparted to the sound by
the resonance chambers above the larynx, go to
make up together what we call the open chest
register. The second, or close chest register, next

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 75 of 194)