George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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comes into play. This is a register common to
all voices, male and female, and is called by
Manuel Garcia, Falsetto. The third register.
Head-voice, is, in the male, generally known by
this term falsetto, the third register of the female
voice being called Head-voice, and it is difBculfc
to understand on what ground Garcia (the pioneer
of close investigation of the physiology of the voice-
organs) applies the term to the middle register.
It is perhaps somewhat bold to combat the opinion
of this eminent man, but falsetto (a word in general
use in Italy as well as in England) seems very
appropriate to that register which in the male
seems to be scarcely natural, but to belong to
another individual, and even to another sex.

The above-mentioned middle register corre-
sponds to Randegger's ' upper series of chest
notes,' and the 'closing' lor the formation of
this series of notes is a point of the highest im-
portance with Visetti and all foremost Italian
and other teachers.

Unfortunately it is not possible to point out
exactly how the operation is performed. It
can only be arrived at by numerous ideal ex-
planations, and by imitation. In using this
middle register, the chest is still felt to vibrate,
thus justifying the use of the term close chest
notes, but not quite in the same degree as in the




open register. This is possibly due to the fact that '
the vibrations are quicker, on account of higher
pitch, and therefore less easily felt. But the
important diflference between the two is chiefly
brought about by changes in and about the
larynx itself, as well as by some modification of
the pharynx. It is most important to observe
that there is no hard and fast line to be drawn
as to the exact part of the scale upon which the
change (the closing, It. chiudere) is to take
place. It is upon much the same part in all
voices, male and female, but not the same under
all circumstances. It is possible to produce
many notes in both ways, and this is the basis
of the all-important operation of blending the
registers, an operation requiring in some cases
an almost incredible amount of patience on the
part of both instructor and instructed ; and very
frequently voices are ruined, either by their
being in the hands of those who have not the
necessary knowledge or patience, or far more
frequently by the singer himself or herself work-
ing alone in the dark. It is a much greater
fault to carry a lower register too high than
to bring a higher register too low. The term
' Head-voice ' in the male is very frequently ap-
plied to a mixed voice (It. voce mista) ; that is
to say, a voice in which close chest and falsetto
are blended ; and if the blending is perfect (the
result of much work, and much exercise of the
reflective powei's), it is not only a legitimate use
of the voice, but very beautiful in its eff'ect,
being chiefly brought into play in piano passages
upon high notes. The mixed voice, as its name
implies, is, as we have said, not a register, but
the union of two other registers, and the power
of using it well shows vigilant training. In the
mixed voice the larynx is low; in the falsetto,
high. There are some few heaven-born artists
who instinctively blend all the registers, so that
the whole voice becomes one homogeneous wave
of sound.

A new nomenclature for the various registers
is j^roposed by an earnest investigator, Herr
Behnke, but this does not help matters. There
is indeed frequently much difficulty amongst
experts in deciding between mixed voice and
falsetto (in its ordinarily accepted sense). At a
meeting which took place between an eminent
throat physician and some professors of singing
of good repute, for the express purpose of arriving
at conclusions, the want of unanimity of opinion
on this head formed the great obstacle to the
satisfactory settlement of the questions at issue.

But besides the close union of sternum and
larynx in the formation of open chest voice,
there is of course a certain condition of the vocal
cords themselves, this condition changing in each
successive register. In producing open chest
notes it is probable that the whole volume of the
vocal cords or bands will be found to vibrate.
In this state they are susceptible of a certain
amount of tension, and will give therefore a cer-
tain number of notes. When the maximum of
tension is reached, the vocal cords or bands,
acted upon by muscles within the larynx, are


reduced in volume. The same tension as before i
will produce a higher series of notes, the prin- \
ciple being to a great extent that of adopting]
strings of different thickness upon stringed in-1
struments — that is to say, bowed instruments, on j
which diff"erent notes have to be made upon the |
same string. Then in the male head-voice, or \
falsetto, the thin edges only of the vocal cordt 1
are set in vibration. The theory would quite]
well explain difference of pitch, and to somej
extent modifications of quality ; but then how if |
the blending of the registers, that most imi
portant, and in many cases most diflicult part:j
of the art of managing the voice, to be ex-<n
plained ? We know that the notes about the J
changes of register have to partake of both qua-
lities. Can the vocal cords be in two conditions J
at the same time ? We may conclude, however i
that it will be only a question of time to dis-
cover what is at present so difficult to fathom
Is it to be wondered at that a set of small com
plex organs, in great part out of sight, whicl
give to man one of the chief powers (if not th
chief of all powers) that distinguish him froir
the mere animal, and which is capable of pro-
ducing the infinite number of shades of sound ii
the numerous languages of the world, and th<
marvellous faculty of giving expression to th«
feelings in song, should for a long time baffle tb(
researches even of the most earnest and scientifii
investigators ? The theory formerly advanced
that the female voice is only a reproduction o
the male voice an octave higher in pitch, is a
once set aside by the clearly observable fact o
the middle register being common to all voices
male and female. The peculiarity of the femal(
voice is the possession of a large range of fini
head-notes in the place of the male falsetto ; am
of the male voice the possession of a large rangi
of open chest notes. [H.C.D.

VOCES AIIETIN.3E. A name given to tb;
sj'Uables, Ut, Ee, Mi, Fa, Sol, La ; first used b;
Guido d'Arezzo for the purpose of Solmisation
in the early part of the iith century. [See Soi

VOCES BELGIC^. A name ^ven to thi
syllables Bo, Ce, Di, Ga, Lo, Ma, Ni, propose
by the Flemish Composer, Huberto Waelranli
about the middle of the i6th century, as a sub!
stitute for the syllables used for the purpose d
Solmisation by Guido d'Arezzo. As the wor
' Solmisation ' was incompatible with the use c j
the newly-invented formula, it was replaced b
the terms 'Bocedisation,' or ' Bobisation ' ; bu|
the system was not destined to survive the cer '
tury which gave it birth. [See SOLMISATION.] .

A similar attempt was made, at Stuttgart, b
Daniel Hitzler, who, early in the 17th centurj
used the syllables La, Be, Ce, De, Me, Fe, Gi
under the name of Bebisation.

A century later, Graun, under the name c.
'Danienisation,' used Da, Me, Ni, Po, Ti
La, Be. [W.S.R

VOCES HAMMERIANiE. A term applie
to the syllables Do, Ee, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si— ti


Dodem amplification of the series used, in the
:ith century, by Guido d'Arezzo. The name is
if German origin ; and was invented in honour
if Kilian Hammer, Organist of Vohenstraus,
vho first introduced the amplified system to
Jerman Musicians, about the middle of the 17th
«ntury. [See Solmisation.] [W.S.R.]

VOGL, Heinbich, bom Jan. 15, 1845, at Au,
lear Munich, received instruction in singing
rom Franz Lachner, and in acting from Jenk,
tage manager of the Royal Theatre, Munich,
irhere he made his debut on Nov. 5, 1S65, as
klax, in ' Der Freischiitz.' His success was im-
Qediate, _;and he has since been permanently
!ngaged^at the above theatre, where he is the
avourite tenor, making the usual tours in Ger-
Qany and Austria in company with his wife,
(rhom he married in 186S (see below). He
ixcels pre-eminently in the operas of Wagner,
,nd played Loge and Siegmund on the pro-
iuction respectively of 'Rheingold' (Sept. 22,
869) and 'Walkyrie' (June 26, 1870) at Mu-
ich. On the production of the 'Trilogy' at
Jayreuth in 1876 he again played the part of
joge, and made a great hit by his fine declamation
jid admirable acting. On May 5, 1882, he made
lis first appearance in England at Her Ma-
esty's in the same part, and subsequently in
Jiegfried. He was unanimously praised for his
idmirable presentment of these characters, and
in May 18 was heard with pleasure in songs
»y Franz, etc., at a ' Symphony Concert ' at St.
Fames's Hall. In 1871 he was tenor singer at
he Beethoven Centenary Festival. His wife,

Therese Vogl, whose maiden name was
Phoma, was born Nov. 12, 1846, at Tutzing,
Liake Starnberg, Bavaria, learnt singing from
Jauser at the Munich Conservatorium, and in
:865 first appeared in opera at Carlsruhe, In
Dec. 1866 she made her debut at Munich as
iJasilda (Auber's 'Part du Diable '), and has
)een permanently engaged there ever since,
vhere she is very popular as a dramatic soprano.
5he was the original Sieglinde at Munich. On
May 6, 1882, she made her first appearance in
England, at Her Majesty's, as Brunnhilde, and
)layed the part throughout the trilogy with great
iuccess. In the second ' cycle ' of performances
ihe played with equal success her old part of
sieglinde, having resigned Brunnhilde to I\Ime.
Eleicher-Kindermann (since deceased), who had
)een the Fricka in the first cycle. [A.C.]

VOGL, JoHANN Michael, distinguished opera-
inger, and, with Baron von 'Schonstein, one
)f the principal interpreters of Schubert's songs,
jom Augr 10, 1768, at Steyer in Upper Austria.
^ chorister in his native town at seven, he was
lystematically grounded in singing, theoretically
md practically, and thus early acquired flexibility
if voice and purity of intonation. He had his
general education in the monastery of Krems-
niinster, and took part there in little Singspiele
)y Siissmayer, giving considerable promise both
18 singer and actor. He next went to the

» See vol. ill. p. 253.



University of Vienna, and was about taking a
permanent post in the magistracy of the City
when Siissmayer engaged him for the Court-
opera. He played with the German Opera Com-
pany formed by Siissmayer in the summer of
1 794, and made his d^ut as a regular member
of the Court Opera in the following May. From
that period till his retirement in 1822 (his last
appearance was inGr^try's ' Barbe-bleue,' 1821),
he was a great favourite, and held an important
position as a singer and an actor in both German
and Italian opera. Gifted with a baritone voice
of sympathetic quality, his method was excellent,
and his phrasing marked by breadth, intelligence,
and great dramatic expression. Such parts as
Oreste (Iphige'nie en Tauride), Jakob (Schweizer-
familie), Count Almaviva (Le Nozze di Figaro),
Micheli (Deux Journees), Kreon(M^d^e), Telasco
(Ferdinand Cortez), and Jacob (Mehul's Joseph),
show the range of his powers. He became ac-
quainted with Schubert somewhere about 181 6,
through the latter's friend Schobeb,- and the two
quickly learned to appreciate and esteem each
other. Vogl recognised Schubert's genius, urged
him to produce, and did his best to make him
known by singing his songs both in public and
private. The ' Erl-Konig ' was first introduced
by him to the general public at a musical enter-
tainment at the Karnthnerthor Theatre (March
7, i82i),thoughit had been sung before at a soiree
of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Jan. 25) by
Herr von Gymnich, an excellent amateur. Vogl
in his diary calls Schubert's compositions * truly
divine inspirations, utterances of a musical 'clair-
voyance,' and Schubert, writing to his brother
Ferdinand, says, ' when Vogl sings and I accom-
pany him we seem for the moment to be one,
which strikes the good people here as something
quite unheard of.' In the summer of 1825 the
two friends met at Steyer, and made a walking
tour through Upper Austria and Styria, singing
Schubert's songs like a couple of wandering
minstrels at all their resting-places, whether
monasteries or private houses. Schubert pub-
licly testified his esteem by dedicating to Vogl
3 Lieder (op. 6), published in 1821.

Vogl's early conventual education left its
traces in his fondness for serious study, to which
all his spare time was devoted, his favourite
authors being Goethe and the Greek classics.
In 1823 he went to Italy, and on his return in
the following spring astonished his friends by
announcing his marriage with the daughter of
the former director of the Belvedere, whom he
had long treated as a sort of pupil. One of his
last appearances in public was at a soiree of the
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 1833, when he
sang the ' Wanderer.' His last years were
passed in great bodily suffering, cheered only by
intellectual occupatiofi. He died in 1 840, Nov. 19,
on the same day on which his friend Schubert had
departed 12 years before, and was buried in the
clmrchyard of Matzleinsdorf, where rest Gluck
and his wife (1787), Salieri (1825), and the
eminent singer Forti (1859), Staudigl (1861),

i See vol. iii. p. 206, 327 6. 3 See toI. iil. p. 327.

Y 2

The inscription on his tomb- i

324 VOGL.

and Ander (1864)
stone runs —

Here lies Job. Michael Vogl,
the Gei-man minstrel,
born 10 Aug. 1T6S, died 19 INov. 1810.
To the revered and tenderly loved „ -,

Husband and Father. [C.l • r.J

VOGLER, Geohge Joseph, the Abbe, is one
of the most curious and striking f'S^l^.'^^ll
Lnals of music. He was born at Wurzburg
<yn Tune m I74Q, ^^^ evinced from an eaily
a'e a religious cSt of mind and an aptitude for
m°usic. His attachment to the organ dated from
Ss tenth year. Both his father and his step-
father, one Wenceslaus Stantmger \vvere violin-
niakers. While learning the organ his step;f ather
let him haveapedalier attached tohisharpsichorc,

and Vogler practised with such determination all
nicvht that no one would live on the floor below
At the same time his independent turn of mind
exhibited itself. He elaborated a new system of
fincering.^ and contrived to learn the violin and
other instruments without a teacher ; and even
while a pupil at the Jesmts' College he played
much in the churches, and made a nanie for him-
self in the contrapuntal preludes which were
regarded as the test of an organist s skill. Mow
Ion- this sort of life lasted is not very clear,
but°Vogler himself declares that he was at Wurz-
burff as late as 1 769.

His departure must have taken place very
shortly after this. He proceeded in the first
place to Bamberg to study law. In 1771 he went
from Bamberg to iMannhein., then one of the chiet
musical centres of Germany, and o;^*^";^^ permis-
sion to compose a ballet for the Court Theatre
which produced such an impression that the
Elector; Karl Theodor, was led to provide hmi
^vith funds to go to Bologna and study counter-
point under Padre Martini. Starting about the
beginning of 1773 Vogler travelled by way of
Venice. He there met Hasse, and also a pupil
of Padre Valotti, from whom he first heard ot the
system of harmony that he subsequently advocated
with such vehemence.* The original object of
his iourney was not achieved, for, though kindly
received by Martini, they speedily conceived a
repugnance for each other. Vogler could not
tolerate a slow and graduated course of counter-
point ; and Martini complained that his pupil
had neither perseverance nor aptitude. Vogler
soon abandoned the trial, and repaired to Padua
with a view of studying for orders, and learning
composition from Valotti, who had been for nearly
fifty years musical director of San Antomo. But
the old organist's method of teaching was wholly
distasteful to his disciple, and in hve months
Vocrler went on to Kome, where he was ordained


1 Of Voder's family we only hear further that poor relatives were a
dmin on his purse. Christmann speaks of him as ™P'°ve"shed by
fws rcumstance in 1781-2, and GSnsbacher makes the same

'•? 'Zza"^ deSes this system as ■ miserahle.' letter Jan. 17 1778.

3 See also the Graduale (De Protundis) of the M.ssa Pastor c.a.

< The account in the text follows the statements usually made
With reference to Vogler's proceedings at Eologna and Padua^ But m
the Musikalische Correspondenz of Spires f°[ ,1'««;, ^° "• .^^J^'^'.
Christmann asserts that the Elector Palatine himself directly recom-
mended Vogler to Valotli.


priest at the end of I773-' 1° ^^^/^^""^ ^A^l
was made Apostolic Protonotary and Chamberlam
io the Pope, knight of the Order of the Goldea
Spur, and membe°r of the Academy of the Arca-
dians. He also found time to gam some instruc-
tion from the Bohemian musician ^ly^^J^'^^fJ^'
and armed with these ecclesiastical e'^edentiala.
and musical experience he returned in 775 ^^
Mannheim.^ The Elector at 0°^/ ^appointed him
Court Chaplain, and he proceeded orthwith to
compose a 'Miserere' with orchestral accompam-
meu?s, and was made second Kapelhneis er a
1 result partly owing to the influence of some ladj^s
of the court, if Mozart may be trusted. The
' I^Iannheim orchestra was then the finest m
Europe, and it was there that Vogler obtained
his knowledge of orchestral effect. It was there
also that he first put himself forward as a teacher
and established the first of his thj^\«^^7^
He maintained that most previous teachers had
pursued erroneous methods, and P'^o^;^^^^ Jj.
Lake his pupils composers by a '^«'^?,.«'^Pf,f;°"^
system. Into this task he threw himself with
the greatest energy, publishing expositions of his
theory (see list of works), and editing a monthly
nia-azine which recorded the proceedings of the
school. All this naturally provoked ^^^^^ oppos -
tion but, to judge by its frmts, his school must
S had soie merits, for amongst those who
were actually students or came directly under
its influence were Winter, Ritter, Kraus, Danzi,
and Knecht-an ardent disciple. A.t Mamiheim
Vocrler made enemies as well as fnentls, and it
is probable that when Mozart visited Mannheim
i^Te winter of 1777 he fell into that section of
the musical world there. On no other supposit^
can we fully explain the tone m which he speaks
of Vogler [n his letters, which will not concede
to the Abb.5 a single redeeming feature Vogkr
at any rate was studiously attentive to Mozart
and after having several times in vain invited
Mozart to call on him, put bis pnde m his pocket
and went to call on the new-comer.' During
Mozart's visit the Elector-Palatine became
Elector of Bavaria, and in the same year (i , 7»>
removed the Court to Munich. \ ogler s devo-
tioTto his school kept him at Mannheim, and
he did not, in all probability, go to Muni^
till 17S0. His five years at Mannheim are i
marked by other achievements than the loa
"Lie. At the end of X777 we find hmi opening
a new or<^an built after his design at iranK
Lr The next yenr, in all likeHhood, he
was' smnmoned to Darmstadt by the heir ap-
parent-the Prince who provided hm- >vith »
home in his last years-to compose the m^o
for a melodrama called 'Lampedo (or Lam
predo').« Another work was the overture anj
ZXL to 'Hamlet; brought out at Mani^^
in 1779. These were succeeded by an operet«
'Der Kaufmann von Smirna,' written about 17SJ
for the theatre at INIayence. I

e tc rd^gVas^affment in his -Choral ^-Vfem ' fp- «) H wo, fe
.^.jrthajhe learnt the hasis ^-^^i^ - ^,',™'- 17. 1778
; ^?r'rde."aI^dVc7Junt see the A.M. Z. .oi. i. aos. 23 and 2^


The next twenty years of Vogler's life present
p-eat difficulties to his biographer. Although
lominally settled at Stockholm from 1786 or 87
» 1 799, he was really constantly travelling, and
;he records of his journeys are so fragmentary
ind contradictory, that it is impossible to con-
itruct a complete narrative. Thus, though he
indoubtedly extended his travels to Spain, Por-
.ugal, Greece, and Africa, nay even to Armenia
ind Greenland,* the authorities are by no means
igreed as to when he went. One writer* gives
t in 1783-1786, another^ in 1792, while the
lates at which he appears in other distant spots
nake it difficult to understand how such an
ixtensive tour could have been managed at all.
iVe shall therefore only give some idea of his
wanderings and proceedings by noting detached

About 1780 Vogler followed the Electoral
Jourt to Munich. He there employed himself
n perfecting the education of the celebrated
inger Madame Lange, in teaching composition
o B. A. Weber, and in composing an opera
a five acts entitled 'Albert III. von Baiern,'
rhich was represented at the Court Theatre in
781. It did not prove successful, and disgust
,t the want of appreciation that he found in
lermany seems to have induced him to appeal

foreign musicians. With this view he sub-
litted an exposition of his system to the Aca-
[^mie Roy ale des Sciences, probably in 17S1,
nd to the Royal Society in 1783.'' In 1782
le was in Paris' and the next year perhaps
rossed the Channel to England.^ Returning
rom England, if indeed he really visited it at
his time, he again attempted to obtain success
s an opera composer. But his comic opera
La Kermesse,' produced at the Theatre de la
Jomedie Italienne on Nov. 15, 1783, proved a
ead failure, and could not even be finished. An-
ther efibrt in Germany was crowned with suc-
ess. ' Castor and Pollux,' produced at Munich
1 17S4, was not only received with applause but
9ntinued a favourite for years.'' The close of
784 and commencement of 17S5 appear to have
een occupied with the journey to Africa, Greece,
ad the East. At all events the next definite
race of him is on Nov. 22, 1785, at a gi-eat
rgan recital in Amsterdam, for which no fewer
lan 7000 tickets were sold.' In the next year
e entered the service of the King of Sweden
3 Kapellmeister, resigning his posts at Munich,
here he had become chief Kapellmeister on
le death of Holzbauer in 1783.* At Stockholm

1 A. M. Z. voL lii. p. 268 ; vol. Ix. p. 386.

^ F^tis. 3 A. M. Z. vol. ixlii. p. 2.i7.

• Choral System pp. 1—5. The records of the Roval Society afford no
ace oFa communication from Vogler oranything else bearing on the
lestion. The Journal des Scavans for 178*2 has an anonymous article
mparing the Tonometers of Pythagoras, the Greeks, and the Abb^
3gler. which states that his instrument had been presented to the
»d(!mie Koyale des Sciences together with the inventor's new
usical system, which he proposed to publish shortly.
5 So at least we may infer from the date of his ' Essai de diriger Is
at." etc. published in Paris.
' I'horal System, p. a.

' Fetis assumes that ' Castor and Pollux' was produced at Mannheim
1"91, but contradicts himself elsewhere (see his account of Mile,
reiner). For the date here given see A. 3i. Z. vol. viiL p. 318.
s A. M. Z. vol. i. p. 575.
> F^tis speaks as if Vogler resigned his Bavarian appoiQtmeiits la



he established his second Tonschule, but neither
that nor his official duties put much check on
j his roving propensities. He signalised his arrival
I with a French opera, 'Egle,' produced in 1787,
j but the next year he is at St. Petersburg,'"
and in November 1789 at Amsterdam. He ar-
rived in London at the beginning of 1 790, and
was very successful. His performances were
applauded and he was entrusted -with th&
reconstruction of the organ in the Pantheon.
According to Gerber " he introduced organ pedals
into this country, and their introduction by the
organ-builder England certainly belongs to the
year of his visit.*^ His last performance at the
Pantheon took place on May 31, and the pro-
ceeds of his visit amounted to £1000 or £1200.
One of his most admired performances was 'The
pastoral festival interrupted by a storm,' which
seems to be the piece by Knecht which was the
precursor of Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony.
[See Knecht, vol. ii. p. 66 a ; and Programme
Music, vol. iii. p. 39 a.] He went to the Handel
Festival in Westminster Abbey,'^ but was not
much impressed. He complains that the chorus
was too loud, that the performers were too
nurnerous for any music but Handel's, and that

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