George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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lessons from Vogler, and Kneeht the organist
and Gottfried Weber were very directly influenced
by him. His pupils conceived the deepest regard
for him. ' Mere association with him,' says Gans-
bacher, ' was a kind of school.' Vogler was not
only a most judicious and sagacious teacher,^ he
was also the kindest and most generous of friends,
and he reaped the reward of his kindness by
finding that his old pupils after passing into the
world were ever ready to return to his side.*
Few scenes of artistic life are more charming
than the picture of the details of Vogler's
last Tonschule at Darmstadt. After the Abbe
had said Mass, at which one of his scholars
played the organ, all met for a lesson in coun-
terpoint. Then subjects for composition were
given out, and finally each pupil brought up his
piece to receive the criticism of his master and
fellow-pupils.' Every day a work of some
great composer was analysed. Sometimes the
Abbe would propound a theme for improvit-ation.
Not unfrequently he would play himself, as he
never played except when alone with his ' three
dear boys,' in the empty church. From the mind
of one of these 'boys,' the impression of these
performances was never eflfaced, for Weber always
described them as a thing not to be forgotten.
Anon we get glimpses of Weber at work on 'Abu
Hassan ' or on ' Papa's ' biography, while the ' old
gentleman ' looks on, aud advises or composes,
consuming ' enormous quantities of snuff.' By
way of varying the regular routine the master
would take his scholars with him to organ recitals
in neighbouring towns. The pupils, in their turn,
would diversify the common round by writing an
ode to celebrate 'Papa's' birthday.® A happier
household can hardly be imagined. When the
master died, his pupils felt as if they had lost a
father. * Reiner . . announced to me yesterday,*
wrote Weber to Gansbacher (May 13, 1814), * that
on the 6th our beloved master Vogler was sud-
denly snatched from us by death . . . He will
ever live in our hearts.'

A list of Vogler's works in various departments
is appended.

arranged as far as possible in chronological order, with the places
where they were first perlormed.
Ino, cantata by Eamler. Darmstadt. 1779.

Lampedo (or Lampredo), a melodrama. Darmstadt, about 1779.
Hamlet, overture and entractesfor the play of. At Mannheim, 1779.
Der Kaufmann von Smirna. operetta. At Mannheim. 1771.
Albert 111. von Baiern. opera in 5 acts. At Munich. 17-0.
La Kermesse, opera. At the Comedieltalienne in I'aris, Kov. 15, 1783.

2 Winter afterwards objected to be called a pupil of Vogler. appa-
rently without good reason. Compositions of his appear iu the ' ilanu-
heimer Ton-^chule.'

3 As for instance when he made' C. M. v. Weber go back to the
study of the great old masters in 1803.

* E. g. Kraus in 1779, B. A. Weber in 1790, C. M. von Weber in 1809.
GUnsbacher in 1810.

5 GSnsbacher tells us that Moses Mendelssohn's Translation
of the Psalms was a favourite text-boolc for the daily exercise
at Darmstadt. 'At first,' he adds, ' we took the exercises in the afier-
noon, but the Abbe, who almost daily dined with the Grand Duke,
used to go to sleep, pencil in hand We therefore agreed to take
our exercises to him henctorward in the morning.'

6 In 1810. Weber wrote the words, Giiusbacher two solos, Meyerbeer
a terzet aud choi us.




Le Patriotisme, opera. Versailles, 'ou occasioa of Siege of Gib-
raltar.' 1783.

(-'astorand Pollux, opera iaS acts. At the Italian Opera in Munich,
during the Carnival of 17R4.1

Egle. French opera. At Stockholm. 17*7.

La Patriotisme. opera. Written lor the Paris Academie in 1788,
but rejected or, at all events, not performed.

Athalie. choruses in Racine's play of. At Stockholm, 1791.

tJustav Adolf. Swedish opera. At Stockholm, March. 1792.

Hermann von Unna. overture, choruses, dances, and one song. At
Copenhagen, in the early part of 1800.

Die Hussiten vor Naumburg im Jahr 14.12. ' Schluss-Chor ' to
Kotzebue's drama of. At Leipzig. September, 1802.

Samori. opera in 2 acts, words by F. X. Huber. At the Theatre
an-der-Wien, Vienna, May 17, 1S04.

IJer Admiral, comic opera. Darmstadt, 1810.

Epimenides.— Erwin und Elmire.— Der gewonnene Prozess.— Les
Kendezvous de Chasse.— Die Kreuzfahrer ; overture.— Der Eremit auf
Formentarra, ditto. —Prolog, <3omodie.— Sceua de Fulvia. — Jiiger-
ballet.— Schmied-ballet.

Also probably a number of similar works, par-
ticulars not now attainable. Certainly an overture
for a play called 'Die Kreuzfahrer,' and either an
opera called 'Agnes Bernauerin' or incidental
music to a play ot that name. A letter of Weber,
Jan. i8ii, says 'Papa is composing a little opera
... it will be ready in a few days.'

1. M.iSSES.
No. 1. Missa solennis in D min. for 4 Voices, Orchestra, and Organ.
No. 2. Missa pastoricia in E. for 4 Voices, Orchestra, and Organ,
Missa de Quadragesima in F, for 4 Voices and Organ ad lib.
Missa pro Delunctis (Requiem) in Eb for 4 Voices and Orchestra.2
Missa Agnus Dei.

<ierman Mass for 4 Voices and Organ (about 1778.)
German Mass lor 4 Voices and Orchestra.

2. Psalms and Motets.

PsiitZms.— Psalmus Miserere decantandus a quatuor vocibus cum
Orgaiio et basis. S. D. Pio VI. Pontiflcicompositus (about 1777;.

Miserere in Eb for 4 Voices. Orchestra, and Organ.

Miserere, * Ps. 4.'— In exitu, ' Ps. 5.'

Memento Domine, orch.— Psalm, ' Jehova's Malestlit.*

Davids Buss-Psalm, nach Moses Mendelssohn's Uebersetzung im
Choral-Styl. For 4 real parts, one. the Tenor, ml lib. (about 1807).

Kcce quam bonum (133rd Psalm) for 4 Men's Voices with PF. ad lib.

Motets .— Suscepit Israel (composed for Concert Spirituel at Paris)

apparently before 1780).
Itorate Coeli. for 4 Voices with PF (ed. by G. Weber, with

German words ; wiih English and Latin words in Vocal Anthology.)
AveRegina. for 4 Voices with Org. or PF. (Latin and tierman words.)
Cantate Domino, for 4 Voices with Org. or PF. (Ditto.)
Laudate. for Soprano solo, chorus. Organ obbligato and Orchestra.
Postquam impleti (Sereniss. Puerperse sacrum), 4 Voices and Orch.

3. Hymns, etc.

Te Deum in D. for 4 Voices and Orchestra.

Kyrie, with Orch. (Oct. 1776).

Magnificat, with Orch. (1777).

Stabat Mater, with Orch. ace.

Ecce panis angelorum (about 1777).

Ave Maris Stella, and Crudelis Herodes for 2 Choirs with Org. or PF. 3

Venl Sancte Spiritus, Graduale in Bb, for 4 Voices, Oichestra, and

Beatam me dicent, Orch.

AlmaRedempturis. Urch,

.lesu Redemptor, Orch.

Kegina coeli and Laudate Dominum, Orch.

Ave Regina, Org.

Salve Regina inF. for 4 Voices with Org. or PF. ad lib.

Salve Regina. Ave Eegina, and Alma Bedemptoris, for 4 Voices with
Org. or PIT. ad lib.

Cantus processlonalis pro festo corporis Cbrlsti,

Vesperaj de Paschale (14 Apr. 1805).

Vesperie chorales modulls musicis ornatae, with Orch. aco. [These
Vespers may be identical with the work next mentioned.]

Vesperse chorales 4 Vocum cum Organo.

4 Latin Hymns, for 4 Voices with PF. ad lib.

1 This was one of Vogler's most successful works. The chorus of
Furies was sufficiently popular in 1821 to lead an unscrupulous
manager at Munich to introduce it into the^naie of the second act of
' Don Giovanni '!

^ The composition of this Requiem for himself occupied most of
Vogler's later years. It was esteemed his finest work, and is a very
striking composition. Besides the ordinary constituents of a requiem
it contains two Agnuses. a ' Libera me, Domine." in 4 movements, and
an ' Absolutio ad Tumbam.'

3 In the library at Darmstadt is a 'Crudelis Herodes," with orch
dated Jan. 1776. and also a ' Hymnus Ave iMaris Stella, a 4 vocibus
senza InstromeDti," possibly identical with the works in the text.

6 Hymns for 4 Voices with Org. or PF. ad lib. (Latin and G(
words— ed. by Gottfr. Weber.)

12 Church Hymns for 3, 4, or 8 Voices unacc. (First Series),
6 „ ,, „ (Second Series).

6 „ „ „ (Third Series).

6 „ „ „ (Fourth Series),

6 „ „ ., (Fifth Series).

3 Hymns, for 4 Voices with PF. ad lib :— Defectio tenuit (F i
Deus caritas est (A) ; O Salutaris (0)

Heilig (1809).— Chorale (1813).— O God vi lofve dig, Orch.— Hes
Vater unser, Orch.

4. Miscellaneous.
Pie Auferstehung Jesu.

I'aradigma modorum ecclesiasticorum (about 1777).
Fugues a 4. on themes of Pergolesi's Stabat Mater (about 1777
S. Kilian's Lied (for 2 Choirs).<


Op. 1. 6 Trios. PF. Violin, and Bass. — Duos for Flute and Vl(

Op. 2. 6 easy Sonatas. PF.

Op. 3. 6 easy Sonatas, PF. and Violin.

Op. 4. 6 Sonatas , in the lorm of Duets, Trios, and Quartet!
Violin, Viola, and Bass.

Op. 5. 6 Concertos. PF. (in two books, each containing 3 piece

Op. 6. 6 Trios, PF. Violin, and Bass.

Op. 7. 6 Trios. PF. Violin, and Bass.

Op. 8. 12 easy I)ivertissements of national character. PF. (two 1
six in each).— Concerto, PF. (played before the Queen of France

Op. 9. 112 easy Preludes for Organ or PF. (about 1804).

Concerto PF.. printed with a Concerto by Kornacher, about 1
Nocturne, PF. and Strings.5— Quatuor Concertante, PF, Violin,
and BaS5.-6 Sonatas for 2 PF.s (1794).— Sonata. PF. (4 har
Sonata (Der ehellche Zwiet). PF. with Strings. C— Pieces. PF
de Marlborough, var. PF.-March with var. PF.— 15 Var. (Lie
dem Lugner) PF.— 16 Var PF. F.-Pastorella, PF. (about II
Canzonetta Venezlana varii! (about 1807).— Var. (March and Sv
air) PF. (about 1812).6— Polonaise favourite, PF. D. (about 1
5 Var. on March from Samori. PF. Viol., and Cello. F.— 6 Var.o
(Was brauchen wir) in Samori, PF., Violin, and Cello. D.— 6 V
Duo in Samori, PF. Viol, and Cello. G.— 6 Var. on Trio (: 1(
Hoffnung) in Samori, PF., Violin and Cello. A.— 7 Var. uii 'i a
from the Overture to Samori, PF., Violin, and Cello. C.

Polymelos. or characteristic music of different nations. PI
Strings. (1792?)— Polymelos, a characteristic organ-concert, arr
tor PF. with Violin and Cello od lib. (1806 ?)7

Var. PF., with Orch. ace— Var. on ' Ah que dirai-je Mamaii ;,
with Orch. ace— Symphony in G (1779).— Do. in D min.— Ito. in *
Baierische Nationalsymphonie.— L'Invocazione, for Guitar, a

Tonwissenschaft und Tonsetzkunst. Mannheim, 177G.
Stimmbildungs kunst. Mannheim, 1776.
ChurpfiUzische Tonschule. Mannheim, 1778.10
Ilannheimer Tonschule. Offenbach."

Betrachtungen der Mannheimer Tonschule. Spire.12 (177.^1-'
Essai de diriger le goat des amateurs de musique. Paris. 17^;
Introduction to the Theory of Harmony (Swedish). StocklMilm
Method of Clavier and Thorough Bass (Swedish). Stockhului,

4 A. M. Z. 1820. Beylage V. June 21.

5 Giinsbacher says that ' Vogler's Quintet ' was played at the <
in Sonnleithner's house at which Vogler and Beethoven met. [8( 1.
i. p. 183 o.] This Nocturne Is perhaps meant.

(i The march is described as 'd. I'ordre d. Seraphins," bu li
appears to be only a short way of putting ' marche des (^hc, ■'
de l"ordre des Seraphins.' The Seraphin is the oldest Swedisli i

7 It is quite possible that the staple, at any rate, ot the tv
styled Polymelos is the same. The latter originated from, ami i-
tically the substance of an organ recital given by Vogler at .M
011 March 29 and 31, 1806. Its contents consist of sixteen inii,
viz. No. 1. Volkslied ; No. 2, Swedish Air; No. 3. Bavarian
Unser; No. 4. Venetian Barcarolle; No. 5, Volkslied; N... i:.
Ranz des Vaches ; No. 7, An African Air; No. 8.— No. 'j. l;a
Volkslied ; No. 10, Scotch Air; No. 11, Jan. 14— A Bridal S-.n;
12. A Cosack Air; No. 13, The Return of the Woundud i;a.
Knight; No 14. Moorish Air; No. 1.5, Greenland Air; X
Chinese Air. Each of these appears to have had variations ajiij'
and the variations on Nos 2 aird 15 were published separatfiy.
' (ireenland Air " is said to have been noted down by Vogler ii
country, while the seven Bavarian Volkslieder were the Abbi'
composition ; No. 11 is a piece commemorative of the marrii
Eugene Beauharnais with the Princess of Bavaria oa Jan. 14
and No. 13 was published separately as in ' Ode."

8 The last movement in this Symphony is called ' the Scala."
Symphony was not published till after Vogler*s death. At Kny
ciincert in Willis's Rooms on Feb. 25. 1811, the Second Part c| '
with a ' New Symphonic for 2 clarinets, 2 oboes. 2 flutes, 2 I ■.
and trumpet (obbligati)'— ' never performed in this country v
Vogler. but what this was it seems impossible to ascertain.

9 This may be the work of some musician of like nam.;. C •-
mann also speaks of a Sonata for Harp, with accompanlroer ,*r
Flutes and Celli. Rink, in his Autobiography, mentions Variatio 'If
Clavier on a Swedish March in E major.

10 Thisembodies the last-named work.

11 This embodies the three preceding works,

12 A magazine recording the progress of the school 177C— 1779 ?




fl School (Swedishl. Stockholm, 1797.

•al System. Copenhagen. 1800.

: zur Akustik. Offenbach, 1800.

dbuch zur Harmonie Lehre, und General-Bass. Prague, 1802.1

iserung iiber Hrn. Knecht's Harmonik. Prague, 1^02.

Srung der Buchstaben die in Grundriss der . . . neu zu erbau-

8. Peter's Orgel in Miinchen vorkommen. Munich. 1806.

ileichungsplan der vorigen mit der nun umgesohaffenen Orgel

bethause zu Miinchen. Munich, 1807.

it die harmonische Akustik. Munich, Offenbach. 1807.

idliche Anleitung zum Clavierstimmen. Stuttgart, Vienna,

tsche Kirchenmusik die vor 30 Jahren zu 4 Singstimmen und

gel herauskamen. und mit einer modernen Instrumentalbe-

ig bereichert. Munich, 1-^07.

im fur den Fugenbau. Offenbach. 1811.2

ir Chorale und Kirchengesfinge. Ein Beitrag zurGeschichteder

lost in 19th Jahrhundert. Munich, 1814.

liis class of works the following may also be fitly assigned :—

lessening der Forkelschen Veranderungen (of ' God save the

), 1793.

reludes for Organ in every key, with an analysis. Munich, 1806.

horales of J. S. Bach (arranged by Vogler and analysed by C. M.

)er). Leipzig, about 1810.

monj^'st Vogler's contributions to current
cal literature may he noticed, besides those
h were reprinted separately, and have been
dy mentioned : —

ral short notices in the Wetzlarischen Conzertanzeigen (1779—

der JIusik in Frankreich, in Kramer's Magazin der Musik.
rort auf verschiedene sein Sistem betreffende Fragen in Musik,
pondenz No. 2. 1730.

erkungen iiber die der Musik vortheilhafteste Bauart eines
:hor, in Journal von und fiir Deutschland, No. 2. 1792.

le following treatise not improbably belongs
is class : —

hetisch-kritische Zergliederung des wesentlich vierstimmigen
itzes des vom Knecht in Musik gesetzen ersten Psalms.

chtenthal also ascribes to Vogler the article
aer den Choralgesang der Bohmischen Kirche
ohann Hussens Zeiten,' in the A.M.Z. for

Scala Oder personiflcirte Stimmbildungs- und Singkunst, for
10 Solo, Chorus, and Orchestra.3

Eheiniibergang der AUiirten am Neujahrstag, 1814. Cantata
ccompaniment for full Orchestra.
ouia Oder Kriegslied, 1814, with Orch. ace.
[lordium und Trias Harmonica oder Lob der Harmonie.4
le Empfindungen bei der ZurQckkuuft eines Vielgeliebten.
5, with Orch. ace,

ands Grab, gedichtet von Ch. Westphalen. Chorus f( r 4 voices,
tfindungen en des Hessen an 14 Juni. Chorus for 4 voices.
Altarberg. For 4 voices, with PF. ace.
:stycke fOr d, 19 August!. Drottingholm, 1786.

vocazione del Sole alia mezza notte in Laponia.s
lenslied, (about 1607) —Der schone Morgen ; Die voile Monds-

Two songs with PF. accompaniment,
ischer Kriegertraum. Song with PF. accompaniment. 6
ilamatorium '— ' Tuiskon ist erwacht.''

5 much of what is stated in this article is
il, it may be well to specify the sources from

jranslation from the Swedish.

tis declares that this work was not published till after the
•'s death. The preface, however, is dated ' Darmstadt. 1811.'
ihe incident In which it originated see Meyeebeee, vol. ii.

e analysis prefixed to this work, after stating that it was finished
■mstadt on August 25, 1810. declares that the author had in 1777
I a prize of 100 Louis d'or for the discovery of a device by which
IS should each sing a scale up and down in only 16 chords, and
one had been able to find out the secret. The solution given
s Scala * is certainly ingenious.

cantata for Voices and Full Orchestra to words by Professor
;er. Rousseau's air of three notes is used as the foundation of
>ole composition, which extends to eleven numbers. Vogler
use of this air as the theme of a piece of considerable di men-
it a concert in Stockholm April 28, 1799, and published it in
il parts in the A, M. Z. for June 12 in the same year.
;erzetto published in the A. M. Z. for June 12. 1799.
e publisher's advertisement gives ' Treue' for 'Traum.'
is piece, an orchestral accompaniment to a declaimed poem.
:obably one of Vogler's last works, as it was brought out at
leim early in 1814. The poem was by Madame Burger.

which it has been derived. Besides the ordinary
biographical notices in various Dictionaries, which
in this case seem to have been written with
unusual independence, use has been made of the
monograph on Vogler by Th. Nisard (the Abb^
Normand), and of the Life of C. M. v. Weber by
his son. The vast mass of information relating to
Vogler and his views contained in the 'AUge-
meine Musikalische Zeitung ' has been carefully
sifted. Much has been gained from the articles
in Nos. 15 and i6 of the 'Musikalische Correspon-
denz ' for 1790 by Christmann and Schubart. By
the kindness of Dr. Gansbacher of Vienna the
writer has been able to consult the MS. ' Bio-
graphic Gansbacher' in his po.ssession, from which,
and from the letters of Vogler belonging to him,
many interesting details have been gained. In
one of Weber's letters to Gansbacher he states
that he was working hard at Vogler's biography,
but the result of his work seems to have completely
disappeared. Special thanks are due to Herr
Becker, Librarian of the Ducal Library at Darm-
stadt ; to Baron von Weber ; to Herr Max
Friedlander ; to Prof, Schaf hautl of Munich ;
to Mr. Walter White, of the Royal Society, and.
on the matter of ' the simplification -system ' to
the Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley, Bart., to Messrs.
Thorold & Smith (successors of Kirtland & Jar-
dine), and to Messrs. Brindley & Foster; also to
the organist of All Saints', Northampton, for a-
careful minute on the Schulze organ in that town.

Amongst the curiosities of Vogler literature
must be placed Browning's poem on ' Abt Vogler,*
audits Greek version in 'Translations into Greek
and Latin Verse, by R. C, Jebb, M.A.' [J.H.M.J

VOGT, GusTAVE, French oboe-player, born
at Strassburg, March 18, 1781, studied at the
Paris Conservatoire under Sallantin, and took
the first oboe-prize in 1799. While in Rey's
class, he began to play in public, and was ap-
pointed oboe-solo at the Opera Italien in 1801,
and co-professor at the Conservatoire in 1802. In
1 805 he entered the band of the Imperial Guard,
was present at Austerlitz, and during the occu-
pation of Vienna made the acquaintance of
Haydn and Beethoven. After the peace of
Tilsit he returned to Paris, and never left it
again for any distance. After some time at the
Theatre Feydeau, he succeeded his friend and
master Sallantin as oboe at the Op^ra^
(1814), and professor at the Conservatoire,
where he taught with marked success from
Apr. I, 1816, to Nov. I, 1853. His fame spread,
and in 1825 the Philharmonic Society invite(i
him to London, and he played in their concerts.
His tone was thought to be thin, harsh, and
forced, but his execution was astonishing,* and he
was engaged again in 1828. He was an original
member of the Soci^t^ des Concerts du Conserva-
toire, and played there regularly till his resignation
in 1 844, often producing with success compositions-
of his own. As first oboe in the Chapelle du Rpi
from 1815 to 1830 he received the Legion of
Honour in 1829. He formed many talented

1 ' Qarmonicon,' 1S2S,



pupils, including Brod,' Vinit, Verroust, Barre,
Lavigne, Delabarre, Cras, Colin, Berth^leniy, and
Bruyant, some of whom still speak of him with
respect and gratitude. He lived to be 98, and
died in Paris Maj- 30, 1S79. ^og* left a con-
siderable number of pieces for the oboe. His
best works are his concertos, solos (written for
the examinations at the Conservatoires), * M^lo-
die Anglaise' ('Home, sweet home'), and his
duet for two oboes, all with orchestra. The
library of the Conservatoire has the MS. of his
' Method for the Oboe,' and the Museum contains
his oboe, cor anglais, and baryton. [G.C.]

VOICE — I.e. Singing voice (Voce; Sing-
siimme; LaVoix). Sound produced by the pass-
age of air through the glottis, or chink formed by
the apposition, without contact, of the vocal cords,
bands, or ligaments, the air impelled by the lungs
causing them to vibrate. The precise amount of
approximation of the vocal cords is only to be
secured after considerable patient practice, as
much mental as physical, as indeed all true prac-
tice must be; inother words, patient s<Mc7y. With
too close a chink the tone will be harsh and
tliin ; if too wide, it will be flaccid and woolly.
With a well-arranged glottis all the other parts
of the voice-organs must be so placed as to
favour the utmost amount of reverberation. The
respiration has a great deal to do, immediately,
with this important part of voice-production, as
the bones and tissue of a well-inflated chest
vibrate in sympathy with the vocal cords ; and
the various resonance chambers, the pharynx,
soft palate, hard palate, cheeks and lips, head,
even the nasal passages (closed, however, by the
internal muscles, except during the formation of
nasal consonants), all lending their aid and form-
ing a series of complicated sounding-boards.
Birds, and nearly all animals, with the exception
perhaps of fish, have their voice-registers, not
all so musical as the human voice, but subject
to the same laws. When a bull bellows, the
'break,' or change from chest-voice to falsetto,
is distinctly heard. In the neighing of a horse
the change is usually from falsetto to chest. In
the crowing of a cock the two registers are
plainly perceivable, as also in the barking of
dogs. With close attention even the notes in
the musical scale which are touched can be
recognised, whilst among birds there are some
^vhose notes are quite distinct. Of course to
produce a note the voice must remain station-
ary long enough for the ear to appreciate its
place in the scale. [See Singing.] To find a
hard and fast line where voice ceases and noise
(howling or shrieking, grunting or growling)
begins, is scarcely necessary. The distinction
will be more or less clear according to the
sensitiveness of the ear and mind. But almost
every one will have a sufiiciently clear idea,
witliout technicalities, of the difi'erence between
the one and the other.

1 Henri Brod, & freat French oboe playe-, born 1799, died 1839.
•Maitre, Bred est mort,' said a pupil to Cberubiui. 'Ah,' replied tbe
ateru old Italian, ' petit son, petit sou.'







The known extent of the human singing '
— that is, of all the different classes of voice
together — is very g
From the lowest not
a Russian Cathedral 1
singer (a) to the hie
note of a soprano Agujai
^^ [see vol, i. p. 456], thei

^ a range of five octaves

three notes. The average, however, of the la
number of great singers put together is a
.^ four octaves. Many im
duals are able to sound t
octaves, but a compass of
really good octaves is a '
bountiful gift of Provide:
It is usual to divide the voice into six cla
— three female, Soprano, Mezzo-Soprano,
Contralto ; and three male. Tenor, Baritone,
Bass. [See the articles under these heads.] Ti
are, however, distinctly two classes of Me
Soprano, the one tending to soprano, and sin{
moderately high soprano music at times, and
other decidedly tending to contralto both
quality and compass, and able to sing mode:
contralto music very creditably. It would be
reasonable to call the latter Mezzo-Contralto.
There is also considerable difference betw
Tenore leggiero andTenore robusto, but this ex
less inactual character and compass than in voh
and force. There are various characters of tt
voice besides those named. [See Tenok.]
French term, Basse-taiUe, or low-tenor, applie
baritone is not correct, as the baritone is
doubtedly a high bass.

In the interests of the voice the appai

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