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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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3. Nithart's Song-MSS. with melodies (lath century) ;
in the possession of Prof, von der Hagen, and printed b, 1
him in his work on the Minnesingers.

4. The Limburg Chronicle (1347 to 1380) ; preserve(
in the Limburg Library. This MS. (which has bee:
reprinted in 1617, 1720, 1826 and 1860) contains few rea
Volkslieder, but many knights' and mouks' songs.


, The Jena Minnesinger Codex, with melodies (14th
tury) ; preserved in the University Library at Jena.
, Spbrl's Song-book (latter part of 14th and beginning
;5th cent.) ; Imperial Library, Vienna.

The Prague MS. (early in the 15th century) ; in the
iversity Library, Prague ; entitled ' Ein musikalischer
ircompendium des H. de Zeelandia.' Contains many
I Volkslieder of the 14th cent.

The Locheim Song-book (1452-60); in the Ducal
rary, Wernigerode. Has been edited by Arnold and
lerman, with a most interesting preface.

The Dresden Minnesinger MS. (15th century) ; in
Eoyal Public Library at Dresden. A miscellaneous
lime, of which the more interesting portions are
le mystical hymns to the Virgin by JMichael Behaim.
). The Vienna Song-book (1533) ; in the Imperial
rary, Vienna. Consists of five part-books, with both
red and secular words and music.
I. "Werlin's Song-book of 1040 ; Koyal State Library,
nich. Contains many thousand melodies to sacred
, secular words ; some are genuine Volkslieder of
I and ICtli cent., others later and more artificial.

B. Printed Collections.
Secular Song-books of the IGth and 17th centuries.
Johann Ott, 121 Songs, in 5 parts ; Nuremberg,
:. A perfect copy of this valuable song-book in the
raries at Munich and Zwickau.
Hejnrich Finck's Songs, in 4 parts ; Nuremberg,
1. Contains 55 sacred and secular songs, not all corn-
id by Finck. Perfect copies in Munich and Zwickau
raries ; an imperfect one in British Museum.
Forster's Song-books ; Nuremberg, 1539 to 1556.
9 numbers, containing altogether about 380 songs in
jral parts. Many scattered copies in the Mvinich,
ckau, Berlin, Leipzig, and Gottingen Libraries. In
B. M. an imperfect one, 1549.

G. Ehaw's 3-part Song Collection ; Wittenberg,
I. A copy at G-ottingen.

G-. Ehaw's 2-part Songs ; Wittenberg, 1545. Copies
tie Berlin and Vienna Libraries, and B. M.
Joh. Ott, 115 Songs, in 4, 5, and 6 parts; Nurem-
f, 1544. Of this valuable collection only two copies
vwn, one in the Berlin Library, and one in the B. M.
Orlando Lasso. Several collections of songs (dating
lectively 1507, 1572, 1583, and 1590), in 4, 5, and 6
;s, in the Eoyal Library, Munich.
Jac Eeynart's Villanelle ; Nuremberg, 1574. 07 songs
three voices in Sonnet form, which were very popular
widely sung during Eeynart's lifetime. Copies in
lin and Munich Libraries.

Joh. Eccard. Two collections in 4 and 5 parts;
hausen and KOnigsperg, 1578 and 1589 ; an imper-
copy of the latter is in the B. M.
I. Hans Leo Hassler. Two collections of songs in
6, and 8 parts after Italian models, Nuremberg 1600,
Augsburg 1596. A copy 1596 is in the B. M.
. MelohiorFranck's Song-collections. 16 in number,
ited either at Nuremberg or Coburg between 1602

1623. Each collection contains a variety of songs
4 or more voices. A copy in the Berlin Library.
)ther (Coburg, 1023) in the B. M.

Sacred Song-books of the IGth and 17th centuries.
(1) Lutheran.

Walther's Hymn-book, 1524. The first hymn-book
tten in parts. Contains 32 German and 5 Latin hymns,
ies in Vienna, Berlin, Munich, and Zwickau Li-

Souterliedekens ; Antwerp, 1540. Free metrical ver-
is of the Psalms, set to secular melodies, chiefly
th German and Flemish Volkslieder, and French
nsons. A copy in the Eoyal Library, Dresden.
Luc. Lossius Psalmodia ; Wittenberg, 1552. Several
r editions of this work have appeared, and a copy
bie 1569 edition is in the Library at Wernigerode.
iontains 429 Latin and 9 German hymns in 4 and
.rts. Copies of 1553, 1561, 1569, and 1571 in B. M.
Triller's Song-book ; Breslau, 1559. Contains many
kslieder in their earliest form, but arranged for
sral voices. Copies in tlie Berlin and Wernigerode

Keuchenthal's Hymn-book ; Wittenberg, 1.573. Tlie
lest collection of the 16th century in melodies. Copy
5erlin Library.
'OL. IV. FT, 3.



6. Mich. Praetorius, 'Musae Sionise ; for 4 to 8 voices
in 9 numbers, 1C05 to 1610. A perfect copy in Eoyal
Library, Berlin. Nos. from 1605 to 1609 in B. M.

(2) Roman Catholic.

1. Beuttner's Hymn-book ; Gratz, 1G02 and 1660. 154
hymns and 89 tunes. A copy in University Library,

2. Corner's Hymn-book of 1631; Nuremberg. Melodies
partly collected from previous song-books and partly
taken down from the mouths of the Austrian peasants.
Copies in the Wurzburg and Vienna Libraries.

C. Modern Collections of Volkslieder and Chorales, and
Works relating to them, alphabetically arranged.

1. W. Arnold: 'Deutsche Volkslieder.' Elberfeld.
(In ten numbers with a well-arranged PF. part.)

2. C. F. Becker : ' Lieder und Weisen vergangener
Jahrhunderte.' Leipzig, 1843-58. (A small collection
of early Volkslieder ; words and melodies taken from
the original, but the melodies in modern notation.)

3. C. F. Becker : ' Die Tonwerke des 16ten und 17ten
Jahrhundert.' Leipzig, 1854.

4. Franz M. Bohme : ' Altdeutsches Liederbuch aus
dem 12ten bis zum 17ten Jahrhundert.' Leipzig, 1876.
Tlie best work existing on the Volkslied. Has an in-
valuable preface on the form and the history of the
Volkslied, and a very large collection of old melodies,
with words, and trustworthy history of each.

5. Franz M. Bohme : ' Volkslieder f. Mannerstimmen.'

6. E. de Coussemaker: 'Chants populaires de Fla-
mands de France.' Ghent, 1856. (Many N. German and
Flemish Volkslieder being identical, this collection is

7. F. W. Ditfurth : ' Volks- und Gesellschaftslieder des
IGten, 17ten und 18ten Jahrhundert.' Stuttgart, 18i4.
(Many songs in this collection contain no music.)

8. E. Eitner : ' Das deutsche Lied des 1.5ten und IGten
Jahrhundert in Wort, Melodie, und mehrstimmigen
Tonsatz.' Berlin, 1876. (A trustworthy collection.)

9. LudwigErk: 'Die deutschen Volkslieder mitihren
Singweisen.' Berlin, 1838-45.

10. L. Erk : 'Deutschos Liederhort.' Berlin, 1856.

11. L. Erk : 'Deutschen Volksgesangbuch : 1 Gerraania.'
Berlin, 1868. (Erk's collections are not always genuine.)

12. G. W. Fink: 'Musikalischer Haussohatz der
Deutschen.' Leipzig, 1843, 1802, and 1878. (Contains
more ' VolksthUmliche ' Lieder ' than real Volkslieder.)

13. Prof, von der Hagen: 'Die Minnesinger.' (In 4
volumes, the last containing the melodies in old and
modern notation. A standard work.)

14. Hoffmann von Fallersleben and Ernst Eichter:
' Schlesisohe Volkslieder mit Melodien aus dem Munde
des Volkes gesammelt.' Leipzig, 1842.

15. W. Irmer: 'Die deutschen Volkslieder mit ihren
Singweisen.' Berlin, 1842.

16. ' Leipziger Commers-Buch.' Leipzig, 1860. (This
volume contains a large number of Students' songs.)

17. E. von Liliencron and W. Stade : ' Lieder und
Sprilche aus der letzten Zeit des Minnesanges.' Wei-
mar, 1854. (Melodies arranged for 4 voices.)

18. E. von Liliencron: 'Die historischen Volkslieder
der Deutschen vom 13ten bis lOten Jahrhundert, gesam-
melt und erlautert.' Leipzig, 1865-09. (An admirable
work. The melodies are given in an appendix.)

19. Severin Meister : ' Das katliolische deutsche
Kirchenlied in seinen Singweisen von friihester Zeit
bis gegen Ende des 17ten Jahrhundert.' Freiburg,
1852. (A useful collection.)

20. F.L.Mittler: 'Deutsche Volkslieder.' Frankfurt-
on-the-Main, 1805.

21. Aug. Eeissmann: 'Das deutsche Lied in seiner
historischen Entwickelung.' Also :

22. ' Geschichte des deutschen Liedes.' Berlin, 1874.
(See especially the early chapters in both works.)

23. Aug. Saran : 'Eobert Franz und das deutsche
Volkslied.' Leipzig. (Contains interesting information
on the formal structure of the Volkslied.)

24. K. Schneider : ' Das musikalische Lied in ge-
schichtlicher Entwickelung.' Leipzig, 1803. (See espe-
cially vols. 1 and 2.)

25. F. L. Schubert: 'Concordia; Anthologie Klas-

> See SoNO, vol. Hi. p. GC], vote.



BJscher Volkslieder mit Clavierbogleitung.' Leipzig,
1863-67. (A very large but untrusiworlhy collection.)

26. F. Silcher: 'Deutsche Volkslieder.' TUbinfren
1827-iO. (Many of these Silcher compoaed himself ; but
they are now considered regular Volkslieder.)

57. A. Vilmar: 'Handbilchlein fUr Freunde des
doutschen Volksliedes.' Marburg, 1807-68. (Useful.)

liS. Philipp Wackernagel : 'Dasdeutsche Kirchenlied
von Luther bis auf Nic. Hermann.' Stuttgart, 1S41.

1!9. Philipp "Wackernagel : 'Das deutsche Kirchenlied
von altester Zeit bis zu Anfange des 17ten Jabrhun-
dert.' Leipzig, 18G8-76. (An important work.)

30. C. von Winterfeld : ' Dr. Martin Luther's deutsche
peistliche Lieder, nebst den wiihrend seines Lebens
dazu gebrauchlichen Tonsritzen Uber dieselben von
Meistern des IGten Jahrhundert.' Leipzig, 1840.

31. C. von Winterfeld: 'Der evangelische Kirchen-
Resang und sein Verhiiltniss zur Kunst des Ton^at^os '
Leipzig, 1842-47. (A standard work.) rA.H.W.I


explanation of this term see Song, pp. 621-5. To
the examples there cited another very good one
may be added, taken from a sketch-book ' of Bee-
thoven's of 1 81 5 and 1816, and remarkable for
freshness, melody, and fitness to the words.

Was frag Ich vlel nach Geld uad Gut, ivenii

— - — r^r:


Ich zu - frle - deu bin ?

Giebt Gott mlr nur ge -

sing aus dankbarem Gemath mein Morgen und mela Abendlied.

The words of the song are by J. M. Miller.
It is entitled ' Die Zufriedenheit,' and has been
Bet also by Mozart and C. G. Neefe.

The term Im Volkston, applied by Schumann as
a title to his five pieces for Violoncello and Piano,
op. 102, signifies that these pieces are of a popu-
lar or volksthiimliches cast. [A.H.W.]

VOLLWETLER, G. J., born 1770, an es-
teemed professor of music in Frankfort, where
he died Nov. 17, 1847. He was the author of
two instruction-books, one in PF-playing, nnd
one in singing for schools ; both published by
Schotts. Vollweiler was the teacher of two le-
iiowned musicians, Aloys Schmitt and Ferdinand
Hiller. His son Carl was born 1813, and died
at Heidelberg, Jan. 27, 1848, after a long and
varied musical career in Germany, Austria, and
Russia. TQ. "I


second time ; more commonly seen in the ablare-
viated forms, ' ima,' ' 2da,' or with the numerals
alone— an indication that the portion of an in-
strumental movement which is to be repeated, is
to undergo certain modifications at the close of
its second repetition, instead of being repeated
exactly. In the earlier development of the
sonata- form it was soon found that when the first
part of the movement closed on the dominant,

1 Kottebohm, In ' Mus. Wochenblatt.' Nov. S, 1S76.


or— in the case of a mo« gnt".: and vocal, in
on the relative major, it ^s con.'+Vi the cross
the transition back to the tonic, or to sin.-uficrii''
ing subject, by means of some short and obvio
figure, which without disturbing the rhyth
the music should prepare for the return to „h
beginning. In cases where the second h; . c
the movement began, like the first, in the tonic
the transitional figure could of course be retaine
without alteration, but where the second hal
began in the dominant or any other key, th
tran.sitional figure had, so to speak, to changP
its direction, so as to lead into such other kej
or it might be omitted in cases where the clos
of the first half and the beginning of the secoa
were in the same key. The transitional figur e
occupied generally not more than part of a bar
and where it had to be altered, both version^
were written side by side, one immediately bf i'
fore the repetition mark, and the other iranw
diately after it. A line was drawn above botl
and the words ' Piima volta,' or the figure 3 '<■
placed over the first version, and ' Seconda volta, 8
or simply 2, over the second. At first the playe «
goes straight on to the repeat, but at the second «
repetition he passes from the beginning of th
line where 'Prima volta' stands, to the doubl 1
bar, so that the portion after the double
is played instead of that before it. Two ver|l
good instances of this simplest form of transitio;
are the Gavotte in Bach's 3rd (G minor) Eng
lish Suite, and the first movement of his so:
Emanuel's beautiful Sonata in F minor. In th
Scherzo of Beethoven's 7th Symphony, the onl
difference between the prima and seconda volt
is one of force ; both consist simply of a long
held A, but the first time it is held out for
tissimo, and at the second, there is a diminuend
to the ■piano with which the trio begins. Bu,
as the development of the form went on, Xhr
transitional figure followed the example of air
the other parts and became longer and morH
elaborate, often occupying so many bars tlia*''
the rhythm is no longer strictly adhered to, bui,"
is held in abeyance till the transiti(jn has beeil''''
made. [J.A.F.M. ''

VOLTE, a kind of ancient dance, in threeif
time, so called from the figure containing man ;g
turns (rolti). Thoinot Arbeau, in his 'Orchejl
sographie' gives the following air of a Volte, it.




-^—e=) - ^


'Turn over quickly.' This direction, or thij
initials V.S. — an exact musical equivalent ti
' P.T.O.' — is used in manuscript and old printec
music, at the bottom of a page where, without it
it might be supposed, for one cause or another
that the piece had come to an end. For in !
stance, where a double bar closes the bottom line I



TKOYE '^"'EO •'inued overleaf, tlie direc-
vriter o'- -^ rem. the performer that it is

wiiB end. It was not an uncommon practice,
writing out instrumental music, if a conve-

;nt pause, in which the player could turn
er, happened to come not far from the end
a page, to leave the rest of the page blank
d put the direction or the initials after tlie
use. This practice is still retained in orches-
d parts, where the copyists always take ad-
ntage of a few bars' rest to give the player the
poitunity of turning over for himself. In
)re recently printed music for pianoforte the
section is hardly ever found, as it is supposed
fit if the player cannot manage to turn over,
Ip will be found. In such things as string
rts of chamber music, the engraver generally
mages that the end of a movement, or else a
V bars' rest, shall come at the end of a page,
the appendix to vol. i. of C. H. Bitter's Life
J. S. Bach, part of a song, ' Bist du bei mir,*
m the music-book of Anna Magdalena, Bach's
:ond wife, is given in facsimile of the com-
ser's writing. A double bar closes the page,
.t evidently the song does not end there ; the
mposer, to prevent any mistake, has added
e words ' Volti cito,' the meaning of which is
eeisely the same as the more usual version of
e direction. [J.A.F.M.]

VOLUME, when applied to the sound of an
strument or voice, is the quantity, amount, or
llness thereof. The word has acquired this
waning since the time of Johnson, In Kous-
a,u's Dictionary, Volume is explained to mean
)mpass — 'the extent or interval between the
^hest and lowest sounds.' [G.]

VOLUMIER,^ Jean Baptiste, a Belgian
asician, chiefly remembered for his accidental
nnexion with John Sebastian Bach, said to
,ve been born in 1677, in Spain, and biought

1 at the French Court.^ He entered the
ectoral Chapel of Prussia Nov. 22, 1692,
d soon became Mattre de Concert and Direc-
r of the dance music at the Berlin Court,
.d was renowned for his Ballets. On June 28,
09, he was appointed Concertmeister to the
)urt of Dresden. Here he kept up his former
putation for dance music and divertissements,
it was also celebrated as a violin-player, es-
cially of French compositions, and a performer
I an instrument of the Hackbrett kind, of his
m invention. He was on friendly terms with
ich and an enthusiastic admirer of his genius,
id it was during his residence at Dresden, and
so at his instigation, that the famous match
as arranged between Bach and Marchand the
rench player, which resulted in the flight of
e latter. Volumier died at Dresden Oct. 7,
r28. (See Fiirstenau, 'Zur Geschichte Musik
. . am Hofe Dresdens ' ; Matheson, ' Ehren-
orte' ; Forktl, ' J. S. Bach.') [G.]

VOLUNTARY. The name given to the pieces
' organ-music played before, during, and after

' The name is said to have been orisinally Woulmyer.
> MendeU



Divine Service; and possibly derived from the
fact that from their not forming a part of the
regular service, it was optional with the organist
to play them or not. These took the form of
highly embellished versions of Hymn-tunes,
Diapason piece. Trumpet voluntary. Introduc-
tion and fugue. Cornet voluntary, with half-
comic ' ecchoes ' on the 'Swelling Organ.' The
voluntary proper flourished chiefly between 1720
and 1830. Croft, Greene, Boyce, Keeble, Battis-
hill, Kelway, Beckwith, Bennet, S. Wesley, Rus-
sell, and T. Adams were all writers of voluntaries.
Many of their compositions have a tranquil grace
which is not unpleasing, but they are too small
in plan and too artless in execution to make
themselves heard against 19th century bustle.
Those by Russell ought not so to die. They are
almost in suite - form and generally contain a
melodious fugue with clever modulation and
climax. Handel's airs and choruses (not always
sacred by the way — ' Wretched Lovers ' being 3,
great favourite), scraps of symphonies andquartets,
even sonos without words, gradually crowded out
this gentle music, not always to the advantage
of art. Now again better taste seems to have
brought in real organ works. Not to mention
the greatest composers, Wesley, Smart, Hopkins,
Best, and a large number of good German writers,
have been encouraged to write suitable music.
Some day we may hope to hear the best of all —
John Sebastian Buch's wonderful settings of the
Chorale. [W-Pa.]

VORSCHLAG (Ger.\ an ornament made at
the commencement of a note, and therefore the
opposite of the Nachschlag, which is placed at
the end. It usually consists of a note one degree
above or below the principal note, as the note
which it embellishes is called (Ex. i), though it
may be more distant from it (Ex. 2), and it may
also consist of more than one note (Ex. 3), in
which case it has a special name. [Slide, Double

1. Written. 2.jr



,•- • , r\ ^f""*-


-^ — I — ' ta^ — — f-

The Vorschlag is written as a small note or
notes, and is not accounted for in the time of the
bar. In order to make room for it, the principal
note is slightly curtailed and its entrance de-
layed, as is shown in the above examples. This




13 in accordance with a rule which is insisted
upon by all the best authorities, at least sa far
as regards the works of great masters, namely,
that all graces must fall within the value of their
principal note. Tiirk (Clavierschide) mentions
with disapproval the custom of playing it before
the beat, and therefore within the time of the
preceding note, which method of rendering be
describes as ' in the French style,' though it does
not appear to have been universal among French
musicians, for Boyvin, an eminent French organ-
ist, in his 'Premier Li\Te d'Orgue' (1700), ex-
plicitly directs that the Vorschlag shall be struck
exactly with the bass.

The Vorschlag in its ordinary form, consisting
of a single note one degree above or below the
]irincipal note, is of two kinds, long and short.
The long Vorschlag, generally known by its
Italian name of Appoggiatura, has a definite
proportional value, which varies with the length
of the principal note, being one-half of a simple
note (Ex. 4), two-thirds of a dotted note (Ex. 5),
or the whole value of the principal note when-
ever the latter is tied to another of the same
name (Ex. 6). The written length of the
Vorschlag, as may be seen from the examples,
bears no exact relation to its actual length in
performance, though it is customary in the case
of the Vorschlag to a simple note to write it of
its precise value, as in Ex. 4.

The short Vorschlag, also called unrerdmlcr-
lick (unchangeable) because its value does not
vary with that of the principal note, is made as
short as possible, and the accent is thrown on
the principal note. Like the Appoggiatura, it
is written .is a small note, usually a quaver
(a difference which produces no corresponding
diversity in the rendering), and in order to dis-
tinguish it from the long Vorschlag it became
customary about the middle of the last century
to draw a small stroke obliquely across the hook
of the note, thus f -^. This sign, though highly
practical and valuable, has unfortunately been
so irregularly and unsystematically employed by
composers, and so frequently abused by engravers
and printers, that it is at present unsafe to trust
to the appearance of the Vorschlag as a guide to
its length, which has rather to be governed by
considerations of musical effect. This is espe-
cially the case with modern editions of classical


compositions, both in8trum'nt"-ai and vocal, in
which it is quite usual to meet wih-the cross
stroke in cases where the long Ajjpoggiaturu is
imperatively demanded by good taste. For a
fuller description of both long and short Vor-
schlag see Appogiatdba. [F.T.]

VORSPIEL. (Germ.), a Prelude— a piece
played before something else, as a piece played
after is called a Nachspiel or Postlude. In the
sense of an introduction or first movement to a
fugue the terms Pkelude and Vorspiel have been
already examined. [See vol. iii. p. 28.] Bach's
Choral- Vorspiele have not however been touched
upon. There are organ pieces apparently in-
tended as an introduction to the singing of the
hj-mn — in which the chorale is taken as the
basis of the piece, the treatment being either by
florid and imitative accompaniments to the air
in the treble, or in some inner part, in canon or
otherwise, or in the bass, or as a fughetta, or in
any other way which occurred to the genius and
knowledge of this mighty master. Peters's The-
matic Catalogue of Bach's works contains 126 of
such Vorspiele, besides 32 ' Choral- variationen' on
4 Chorales. [G.]


organ stop of 8-feet tone and of the reed family,
but with very short capped pipes, which there-
fore reinforce only the overtones of the funda-
mental. The pipe for the CC note, which would in
the case of an ordinary reed-stop be nearly 8 feet
in length, is here often only 1 3 inches. The pipes
vary little in length, and there are perceptible
breaks in the timbre. As its name implies, the
stop is supposed to resemble the human voice.
Bumey (Tour through Germany, vol. ii. p. 303),
speaking of the specimen in the Haarlem organ,
says, 'It does not at all resemble a human
voice, though a very good stop of the kind : but
the world is very apt to be imposed upon by
names ; the instant a common hearer is told that
an organist is playing upon a stop which resem-
bles the human voice, he supposes it to be very
fine, and never enquires into the propriety of the
name or the exactness of the imitation. How-
ever, I must confess, that of all the stops I have
yet heard which have been honoured by the ap-
pellation of Vox humana, no one, in the treble
part, has ever j-et reminded me of anything
human, so much as of the cracked voice of an
old woman of ninety, or, in the lower parts, of
Punch singing through a comb.' This more
than century-old description is by no means out
of date. In acoustically favourable buildings,
and when only just audible, the stop has some-
times a weird effect which is not wnimpressive,
but distinctness is quite fatal. The Vox humana
should be placed in a box of its own inside the
swell box. It is nearly always used with the
tremulant. Opinions differ as to its capacity for
combining pleasantly with other registers, and
this depends upon the kind of stop. There are
instances where it gives a piquant quality to
other light stops. Its voicing is very delicate
and soon gets out of order. [W.Pa.j




TROYE, Theodore Joseph de, Belgian
(vriter on music, bom Aug. 19, 1804, at Villers-
la-Ville, between Ottignies atid Fleurus (Bel-
^um), was ordained priest in 18 28, and has de-
moted all his spare time to the study of plain-

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