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A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

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song and the liturgical singing of the church.
In 1835 he was appointed Canon and Precentor
of the Cathedral of Lifege, and conducted the
services with a care and taste which produced
remarkable results. He published a ' Vesperal '
[1829), a ' Graduel ' (1831), and a 'Procession-
ale' (1S49), which have passed through many
editions in Belgium ; also, a ' Traite du Plain-
Chant' (1839), and a 'Manuale Cantorum'
[1849). His last work, 'De la Musique Eeligi-
suse' (1866), written in conjunction with the
Chevalier Van Elewyck, is a collection of docu-
ments and observations relating to the Congresses
sf Paris (i860) and Mechlin (1863-64) on service
music. De Vroye died at Lifege, July 29, 1873.

He must not be confounded with A. de Vroye,
a, clever flute-player, who has played in Paris
every winter for the last dozen years, but of
whose history nothing can be discovered. [G.C.]

VUILLAUME, a family of French musical
instrument makers, originally from Mirecourt.
As far back as the first half of last century there
was a Jean Vuillaume established in this small
town among the Vosges mountains, but it is
doubtful whether he was any relation of Claude
Vcillaujie, born 1771, died 1834, maker of
cheap violins, and head of the family afterwards
80 well known. Claude had four sons, who all fol-
lowed in the same line of business. The eldest,

Jean Baptiste, was born at Mirecourt, Oct.
7, 1798, and apprenticed to his father, but find-
ing nothing further to learn in his native town,
went to Paris in 1818. His first master was his
fellow-townsman Fran9ois Chanot, who with his
guitar-shaped violin expected to revolutionise the
art of violin-making. [Chanot, vol. i. p. 355 a.]
Jn this he was mistaken, but he was of groat
service to Vuillaume by leading him to more
scientific methods of working than the old-
fashioned rule of thumb. In 1821 he left Cha-
not for Let4 an organ-builder at Payonne. Li^te
was son-in-law to Pique, an excellent workman,
who saw at once the value of the new partner,
who for his part learnt much from Pique, and
retained through life a grateful recollection of
him, and of the experiments they made together.
In 1825 Let^ set up with Vuillaume at No. 30,
Rue Croix des Petits Champs. Vuillaume's
marriage in 1826 brought him into the society
of several influential people, including, amongst
others, Felix Savart, the professor of acoustics,
intercourse with whom gave a fresh turn to his
studies. Henceforth his chief aim was to discover
the secret of the old Italian masters, and the cause
of the superiority of their violins. Becoming his
own master in 1827, he removed to 46,^ Rue Croix
des Petits Champs, where he lived till i860,
and turned out many instruments now of great
value. The style of his workmanship was speedily

1 Altered in 1848 to 42.

recognised, and he gained silver medals at the
Paris Exhibitions of 1S27 and 1834, and gold
medals at those of 1839 and 1844. -H® ^®"* ^^^
'Octobasse,' and his splendid imitations of old
Italian instruments to the Paris Exhibition of
1849, but his name does not appear in the re-
port of the jury. At the London Exhibition of
1 85 1 he had a glass case containing two quartets
of stringed instruments, and his perfected ' Octo-
basse,' for which he was awarded the Grand
Council medal, a distinction acknowledged at
home by the Legion of Honour. At Paris in
i8j;5 he obtained the M^daille d'honneur, and
since then has been considered entirely above
competition. To reach this high position he
spared neither pains nor expenditure, making
long journej-s after special qualities of wood, and
going frequently to Italy, where he discovered
documents relating to Stradivari hitherto un-
known. In January, 1855, he spent 80,000
francs (£3,200) on the purchase of 250 instru-
ments, collected by Tarisio, including the splen-
did Strad violin, called 'Le Messie,' because it
was never allowed to be seen, though always
talked about. Having made his fortune, Vuil-
laume might have retired to his fine house at Les
Ternes, and his family, but work was to him a
prime necessity, and the successes of his son-in-
law, Dolphin Alard, only stimulated him to
further exertions. Several specimens of his in-
ventions maybe seen in the Museum of the Paris
Conservatoire, one being a violin of a new and
shortened form made for Jullien, a rebec of his
own design, an alto, an octohasse, a bow with
fixed head, others in hollow steel, etc., all show-
ing considerable ingenuity and great manipu-
lative skUl. He was an ardent devotee of Antonio
Stradivari, and virtually dictatedF^tis'sbiography
of him. For the last ten years of his life he oc-
cupied himself especially with studying effects of
sonority, and means of acquiring perfection of
tone. He invented a new mute, which he called
the sourdine instantance, and fancied he had
discovered a way of making strings perfectly
cylindrical, so that they were never out of tune.
He died in his Paris house. No. 3, Rue Demours,
Feb. 19,- 1875. He left nearly 3,000 instru-
ments, a certain number of which he had made
entirely with his own hands. His price was
300 francs (£12) for a violin, and 500 francs
(£16) for a cello. Each is now worth double,
but his instruments vary considerably and care
is necessary in distinguishing between the dif-
ferent kinds. He was fond of trying different
ways of drying wood, and imparting to it the
qualities of age, experiments which often failed,
and impaired the durability of his instruments.
He cannot be said to have turned out nothing
but chefs-d'ceuvre, but nevertheless he stands
with Lupot at the head of French musical in-
strument makers of the 19th century. The
second son of his brother, Claude Vuillaume,

Nicolas born 1800, died 187 1, passed his
life at Mirecourt, excepting the period between

2 Vidal, Pougin, and others, give the date March 19, but this is




1832 and 1842, when he was working with Jean
iJaptiste. He made cheap violins onh', and took
a bronze medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1S55
ior a pattern which he called the 'Stentor.' The
next brother,

Nicolas Fkancots, born at INIirecourt May
13, 1S12, apprenticed to his father, and after-
wards a pupil of Jenn Baptiste, settled at Brus-
sels in 1828. The instruments he sent to the
Exliibitiotis at Brussels in 1835 and 1S41 re-
ceived silver medals. Having been appointed
maker to the Conservatoire, and become intimate
with Fetis, he exhibited at London, Paris, and
Dublin, and was awarded medals of the first
class. Maintaining a constant intercourse with
his brother, the writer met him frequently, and
found him to have a special knowledge of the old
Italian instruments, which he repaired with
gfe\t skill. In 1873 he showed at the Vienna
lixhibitiou a double quartet which gained a

medal of the first class, a success rewarded by the
King of the Belgians with the Order of Leopold.
He died at Brussels of apoplexy Jan. 14, 1876.
Another brother,

Claude Francois, born 1807. and also ap-
prenticed to his father, took to organ-building,
and ended a chequered existence as a maker of
violin cases. His son,

Sebastian, born 1835, died 1875, a pupil of
his uncle Jean Baptiste, turned out some good
work, and took a bronze medal at Paris in 1867,
and a silver one at the Havre Exhibition of 1S68.
He is however best known as a maker of bows.

Thus the family of Vuillaume is now extinct*
Its principal member too died without having
carried into effect his favourite project of found-
ing with his brothers a museum at Mirecourb,
wherein should be deposited the best types pro-
duced by all native artificers of this cradle of
French musical instrument makers. [G.C.}

VIARD-LOUIS, Jenny, vee Martin, horn
September 29, 1 83 1 , at C arcassonne. She learned
the piano first at the Conservatoire, Paris, where
she obtained the first prize, and afterwards from
ISIalame Plejel. In 1S53 she married Nicolas
Louis, composer, and after Ins death iu 1857
devoted herself to a complete study of the great
masters. In 1859 ^^^ married M. Viard, a
merchant of Paris, and in 1864-65 undertook a
tour through Austria and German}', where her
performance of Beethoven's works obtained the
approval of various good judges, contemporaries
of the great composer. On returning to Paris
she gave concerts, at which the chamber music
of Brahms and Kaff was first introduced to
French audiences. In 1S74 a reverse of fortune

obliged her to come to London for the purpose
of teaching, and on Marcli4, 1876, she made her
first appearance, at the Alexandra Palace, in
Beethoven's Choral Fantasia. In the spring of
1878 she gave orchestral concerts at St. James's
Hall, in which she played various pieces, classical
and modern, including for the first time in public
a MS. Fantasia of Cherubini's. She was compelled
to abandon this enterprise, and devote herself
solely to teaching ; but since 1883 she has given
various concerts devoted to the chamber music of
Beethoven for piano solo, or piano and other
instruments. These are still in progress. Mme.
Viard-Louis has recently published a work en-
titled ' Music and the Piano ' (London, GriflStb
and Farran, 1S44). [A.C]




yy of the Rhine.) A modern German FoZ/ir*-

lied, which during the Franco- Prussian

■war of 1870-71 was so popular as to become a

national song.

Alkoi'O 77iareato,



Es braust eln Euf wie Don - ner - hall,

WlU des Stro - mes Ha - ter


Va - ter-land.

ru - hiff sein ;

gst ru - hig sein, lieb' Va - ter-land, magst

fest stebt und treu die Wacbt, die

Wacht am Khein 1

The poem is by Max Schneckenburger, a
manufacturer, born Feb. 17, 181 9, at Thalheira
in Wiirtemberg, and died May 3, 1849, at Burg-
dorf near Berne. It had its birth in 1840, when




e left bank of the Rhine was threatened by
::ince, and was soon seized on by composers: —
Mendel of Berne (1S40) ; Leopold Schroter of
orlitz (1852) ; and F. W. Seringof Strassburg,
id lastly by Carl Wilhelm, the author of the
elody given above, born at Schmalkalden in
I15, pupil of Aloys Schmidt, Anton Andre, and
)ohr, and from 1840 to 1865 conductor of the
iedertafel in Crefeld. The song was composed
r him as a part-song for men's voices, March
[, 1854, was first sung on the nth of the fol-
wing June, and quickly found its way into
•int. In 1 871 Wilhelm received a pension of
150 a-year from tlie Emperor, but did not long
rvive his good fortune, as he died Aug. 16,
)73, in his native town, where a monument has
sen erected to him.

The ' Wacht am Rliein ' is the subject of the
mous 'National Denkmal' near Bingen, by
)hannes Schilling, the sculptor, which was un-
liled by the Emperor in 1883. It must not be
nfounded with another Rhine-song (poem by
. Becker) of equal popularity in its time —

Sie sollen ihn nicht hahen,
Deu freien deutsclien Bhein,

bich was set to music by Kreutzer and many
ore, and sung everywhere in 1840 and 41. The
ng is sharply criticised by Mendelssohn in his
tters of Nov. 18 and 20, 1840. and Feb. 27,
541, and was answered by Alfred de Musset in
e well-known 'Nous I'avons eu, votre Rhin
lemand.' [M.F.]

WACHTEL, Theodoi?, born March 10, 1823
1824, at Hamburg, the son of a stable-keeper,
igan life by driving his father's cabs. He learnt
sing from Mme. Grandjean, and obtained
)eratic engagements at Schwerin, Dresden,
anover (1854), Berlin, Darmstadt, Vienna,
c. On June 7, 1862, he made his dtbut in
ngland at the Royal Italian Opera as Edgardo
. ' Lucia,' and failed completely. He sang there
jain in the seasons of 1 864 and 1 865 with better
isults; and indeed obtained a certain popu-
rity, more on account of his fine and powerful
lice than from any artistic use he made of it.
.in principal attraction was the way he pro-
uced a C in alt direct from the chest instead of
y the customary falsetto ; he brought out the
Dte with Stentorian vigour and great success,
specially when he played Manrico or Arnold,
f his other parts may be named Stradella on
le production of Flotow's opera of that name
t the Royal Italian Opera, June 4, 1864, and
'asco de Gama on the production of 'L'Afii-
line' in England, July 22, 1S65. Here-appeared
I 1870 and again in 1877 at Her Majesty's.
a. 1869 he sang in Paris with very indifferent
Jsults, but has been successful in America both
I German and Italian opera. Two of his most
opular characters in Germany are George
Irovvn (' Dame Blanche ') and Chapelon (' Pos-
illon '), especially the latter, in which he aflfords
reat delight to his audiences by the dexteious
lanner in which he cracks a coachman's whip
1 the Postilion's song. His son, Theodor,

l)egan life as a clockmaker; and at one period
of his life was a tenor singer of the same calibre
as his father. He died of consumption in Jan.
1871, aged 30. [A.C.]

WADE, Joseph Augustine, born in Dublin
at the close of the last or beginning of the present
century. Not only is the date of Wade's birth
doubtful, but his parentage also. According to
surviving members of his own family, he was
of gentle blood, but Dr. Richard R. Madden
(his schoolfellow), the generally trustworthy bio-
grapher of the 'United Irishmen,' tells us that
his origin was humble, his father being a dairy-
man near Tliomas Street, Dublin. A similar
uncertainty surrounds the place of his maturer
education. The tales of his presenting himself
at the gate of the University of Dublin, and
addressing the porter in Latin are wild fictions,
for the books of the L'niversity (called Trinity
College, Dublin) reveal the fact that Wade was
never a member of the place. He is said to
have entered the ' Irish Record Office ' as a
junior clerk, when little more than 16, but no
record remains of the fact in the books of the
office. Wade soon quitted Dublin, and married
a lady of fortune, Miss Kelly of Garnavilla, near
Athlone. The first recorded essay of his muse
is the words and music of a song, ' Lovely Kate
of Garnavilla.' His bliss was however but short-
lived, for he grew weary of the young lady,
returned to the Irish metropolis, and is said to
have acquired considerable skiU as an anatomist
and surgeon, but the books of the Irish College
of Surgeons contain no mention of his name.
About this time he published, through Thomas
Cooke & Co. in Dublin, a baliad, of which both
words and music were his own, 'I have culled
ev'ry flowret that blows' ; and made the ac-
quaintance of Sir J. Stevenson, who finding in
him literary and melodial gifts, and — what was
then extremely rare amongst amateurs — an ex-
tended knowledge of harmony and the theory of
music, strongly advised Wade to apply for the
University chair of music, dormant since 1774»
when the Earl of Mornington, appointed in
1764, had resigned the office. It was necessary
however to matriculate and become a member
of the University, and the matter fell to the
ground. After this, surgery was abandoned, and
Wade became a poet-musician. At this time
he was of mild and gentlemanlike manners, and
appeared about 25 years of age : it is possible
that it was now, and not during his boyhood,
that he and William Rooke found employment
in the Record Office in Dublin. However, his
restless disposition induced him to migrate to
London, where his talents soon brought him
into notice. From intercourse with orchestral
performers, he acquired sufficient confidence to
undertake to conduct the Opera during Mr.
Monck Mason's regime, a position he did not
long retain. In fact, he made but a poor pro-
fessor, the poverty of his orchestration being not
more remarkable than the antiquated style of
his melody. He had been engaged by the firm
of Chappell to make himself generally useful;




but he made no use of his gifts as poet, musi-
cian, and scholar, and the house reaped little
advantage from him. He frequented taverns,
drank to excess, and has been known to drinlc
all his companions under the table and finish
the night with the landlord. His Irish wife
having died childless, he seems to have formed
some fresh matrimonial connexion, judging by
an appeal made after his death for aid to his
wife and destitute children. His downward pro-
gress was rapid, and for the last few years of his
life he was unknown. He only once returned to
his native city — in Dec. 1840, travelling with
Lavenu's toui-ing party. It included Liszt,
Richardson the flautist, the Misses Steele and
Bassano, John Parry, and J. P. Knight ; two or
three of Wade's concerted pieces were included
in the concerts, at which however he did not
appear, even as accompanyist. He wandered
about for some weeks, visited one or two re-
latives, and returned to London, where he died,
July 15, 1S45, at his lodgings in the Strand.

There is little doubt that Wade was a man
of remarkable gifts and acquirements. His
personal appearance was much in his favour ; he
was witty and quick in perception, and had ac-
quired some knowledge of the Latin classics, as
well as of one or two modern languages, and
also had a smattering of anatomy. His memory
was retentive in the extreme. Above all, he
possessed a gift for creating melody : add to this
fair skill as a violinist, and a trifle of orches-
tral knowledge, and what might not Wade have
accomplished but for incredible indolence and
folly? It remains but to add a list of his w^orks,
with their approximate dates : — ' The Prophecy,'
an oratorio (Drury Lane 1S24) ; ' The two Houses
of Granada ' (ib. 1826) ; ' The pupil of Da Vinci '
(^operetta by Mark Lemon); 'Polish Melodies'
(words and music") 1831 ; ' Convent Belles' (with
Hawes) 1S33 ; 'A woodland life' (polacca in-
terpolated in ' Der Freischiitz ' and sung by
Braham) ; ' Meet me by moonlight alone ' (sung by
Vestris) ; the duet 'I've wandered in dreams,'
and ether vocal pieces. This last obtained a popu-
larity equalling the preceding ballad, which had
the good fortune to be further immortalised
in the pages of Frazer's Magazine for October
1834, by the witty Father Pro ut, in French attire.





Viens au bosquet, ce

r sans te - moin Daiis le


val-Ion au clair de la lune. etc.

It should be said that Wade was associated
with Mr. G. A. Macfarren as pianoforte arranger
of the earlier issues of Mr. Wm. Chappell's
National English Airs. [R.P.S.]

WAELRANT, Hubert, one of the most
distinguished of the second generation of the
great Flemish masters, was born about 1 5 1 S at
Tongerloo/ in the district of Kempenland("Nurth

Brabanty An old tradition relates that he wen
in liis youth to Venice, and there studied unde
the guidance of his great fellow-countrymaD
Adrian Willaert ; but this lacks confirmation
and may very possibly be as apocryphal as th'
similar story usually told with reference t'^
Sweelinck's sojourn at Venice, and the lesson f
he had from Zarlino later on in the century. [Sei
SwEELTNCK.] Be this as it may, Waelrant i
found in the year 1544 established in Antwerp
as a singer in the choir of the chapel of thi
Virgin at Notre Dame. Three years later h>
had a school of music there, where he introduce!
a new method of solmisation, that known a
hocedisation or the voces Belr/icw." [See Sot
MiSATioN ; Voces Belgic^.] He is said now fa
have entered partnership with J. de Laet as i
publisher of music ; but this was more prob
ably not until 1554.^ The association laste(
until 1567, when de Laet retired or died. Wael
rant was twice married, first in 1551, and agaii
before 156S ; by his first wife he had six chilcken
He died at Antwerp in his seventy-eighth year,
Nov. 19, 1595.

Among contemporaries Waelrant was held ii
very high repute, not only as a teacher of music
but more especially as a composer, chiefly
madrigals and motets. Guicciardini, in hi
' Descrittione di tutti i Paesi bassi '^ include
him in a list of the greatest living musicians
his time. His first musical works were ' Chan
sons' published by Phalesius at Louvain, 1553-
1554, and 'II primo Libro de Madrigali e Can
zoni francesi a cinque voci; Anversa, Hubert'
Waelrant e J. Latio, 1558.' It is remarkabl
however that of the numerous volumes of musi
which he published — Psalms, ' Cantiones Sacr;p,
' Jardin musiqual,' etc. — only two (of tli
' Jardin ') include compositions by himself. H'
seems in fact to have preferred to publish eithe
by Tylman Susato or Phalesius. Seven of the col
lections of the latter contain works by Waelrant
One of these was also edited by him under th
following title, ' Symphonia angelica di diver?
eccellentissimi Musici, a quattro, cinque, e st
voci: Nuovamente raccolta per Uberto Wae!
rant, 1565.' 6 [R.L.P.

WAERT, DE. [See Wert, De.]

WAGENSEIL, Georg Christoph, born Jar,
15, 1 715, in Vienna, where he died March i
1777.'' He studied the clavier and organ witi
Woger, and the science of composition will
Fux and Palotta, the former of whom recom
mended him for a Court scholarship in 1736, am

1 The discovery of Waelrant's birthplace is due to the researchf
of JI. A. Goovaerts, Histoire et Eibliographie de la Typographi
musicale dans les Pays-bas, pp. 38-10, Antwerp 11*0. A confusio
with a namesake had led to the opinion previously universall
accepted, that the musician was a native of Antwerp ; see F(5tis, s.v.
Mendel and Keissmann, Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon, x
233, 2iid ed. isso ; and also E. vander Straeten, La Slusique aui Pay:
has, iii. 201-21M, lS7o.

2 See F. Sweertius, AtheniB Belgicoe p. SSO, Antwerp 1C2S, folio
vander Straeten, i. 62, kU7 ; Mendel and Iteissmann. xi. 234.

3 Goovaerts, p. 42. 4 Sweertius, I.e.

5 Page 42, ed. Antwerp, 15SS folio.

6 For the complete bibliography see the Goovaerts, p. 203-277,

' He was thus in his 63rd year at the time of his death, and not f
as Gerber states (vol. i.). and after him Fetis. Neither was he 1 0, ;
Burney supposed when he visited him in 1772.


Court composer in 1739, a post which he re-
aed till his death. He was also organist to
! Dowager Empress Elizabeth Christine from
(.t to her death in 1750, and music -master to
I Empress Maria Theresa and the Imperial
Jicesses, with a life-salary of 1500 florins,
long his pupils were Stetfan, then Court
pellmeister, and Leopold Hoffmann, after-
rds Capellmeister of the Cathedral. When
»zart, a little boy of 6, was playing before the
irt in 1 762, he enquired ' Is not Herr Wagen-
l here? he knows all about it,' and when the
ter came forward, he said, ' I am playing a
icerto of yours ; you must turn over for me.'
old ageWagenseii suffered from sciatica, which
ifined him to his room, and nearly lost the use
Ids left hand from gout. Nevertheless when
mey visited him he managed to play several
his compositions ' in a masterly manner, and
;h great tire.' * In his day he was a favourite
iposer for the clavier with both amateurs and
ists. He modelled his church music after
sse and Scarlatti, his dramatic music after
), and his instrumental after Eameau. Of the
;er many pieces were engraved in Paris, Lon-
i, Amsterdam, and Vienna. There are several
i. works of his in tlie Court Library, and in the
ihives of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in
tnna, both vocal (cantatas, Italian arias, etc,)
i instrumental (trios, quartets, divertimenti,
iphonies, etc.). Operas by him are also men-
led. Of permaner.t value are 'Suavis artifi-
te elaboratus, etc' in 6 parts (Bamberg, 1740) ;
•e Divertimenti per Cembalo ' (Vienna, 1761) ;
ivertissement musical,' 6 sonatas for clave-
, op. I (Nuremberg, Haffner) ; and 4 nos.,
h containing 'VI Divertimenti da Cembalo,'
licated to his pupils the Archduchesses Mari-
h, Marie Cristina, EUzabetb, and Amalia (all
lo), finely engraved on copper by Giorgio
jolai for Agostiuo Bernardi the Viennese pub-
ler. The theme of Handel's ' Harmonious
icksmith ' is often said to be taken from one
VVagenseil's pieces, but it has not yet been
ntified. [C.F.P.]

^'AGNEE, Johanna, niece of Eichard Wag-
', was bom at Hanover, October 13, 18 28,
ighter of Albert Wagner, a dramatic tenor,
married Elise Gollmann, with a voice of the
lormal compass of three octaves and two
;e3, who in her veiy short career is said to
7e sung the parts of Tancredi and of the Queen
N'ight, with equal fulness of tone.
Richard Wagner and his brother Albert lived
:ether in Wiirzburg during the whole of 1833.
lanna, then only five, sang everything she
ird ; and her rmcle, in after years, would often

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 81 of 194)