George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 89 of 194)
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protest now and then ; but they are powerless,
and Wagner's own appeals to the artistic or
intellectual conscience of the operatic world
appear to have been addressed to an unknown


quantity. Tt would seem that there is no hope
unless the pressure of public opinion can ba
brought to bear upon all those concerned.

IV. Chronological Lists, t


Die Ilochzeit: fragment of an opera; introduction, chorus, Md
septet.' Unpublislied ; autograph copy of the .score. 36 pages>
dated Marcli 1. 1833, was presented by Wagner to the Musikvereia
of Wvirzburg.

Die Feen : romantische Oper, in three acts ; 1S33. Never performeft^;
the overture only was played at Magdeburg 18.S4. Unpublisbodf
original score in possession of the King of Bavaria.

Das Liebesverbot : music composed 1835 and 3G. Performed on^'
only, at Magdeburg, March 29, 1^36. Original score in the posaWI
sion of the King of Bavaria. A song from the opera, 'Carne?4^
lied,' was printed in Lewald's ' Europa,' 1837, p. 24U, and pirated
at Braunschweig and Hannover

Eienzi, der letzte der Tribuiten, grosse tragische Oper, in 5 actl.
Music begun at Kiga in 1S38. Acts 1 and 2 finished 1839 at BI|t
and Mitau ; Acts 3. 4, and 5 at Faris, l&iO. First performed U
Dresden. Oct. 20. 1842.

Der fliegende Hollander: romantische Oper, in 3 acts. Uinb
written at Meudon, Paris, 1841. First performed at Dre9(talk
Jan. 2, 1843,

Tannhiiuser, und der Sangerkrief aufWartburg: romantische OpC^
in 3 acts. Poem written at Dresden, 1843; score completa<^
1844—45. First performed at Dresden, Oct. 19. 1S45.

Lohengrin, romantische Oper, in 3 acts. Poem written at DresdM
1845; music begun Sept. 9, 184i;. Introduction written Auggit
28, 1847 ; instrumentation of the entire work completed durtlif
the ensuing winter and spring. First perlormed August 23, IMl
at Weimar. .fv

Das Rheingold. Part I. of ' Der Ring des Nibelungen." Poem of Bat
Ring ' begun at Dresden 1848, executed in reverse order (Sttf^
frieds Tod. Siegfried, Walkiire, Rheingold) ; finished at ZSiMl
1851-52, Music to Das Rheingold begun in the autumn of I8B
at Spezzia; score finished in May 1854. First performed M C
Munich Sept. 22. 1869, PF, score published 1861 ; full do. 1871 ,'

Die Walkiire. Part Il.of ' DerRing des Xibelungen,' in 3 acts, SeMV
finished at Zurich 1856. First performed, June 26, 1S70, at .[
Munich. PF. score published 1?65 ; full do. 1873.

Tristan und Isolde : in S acts. Poem written at Zurich 1857 ; maiil
begun 1857. Score of Act 1 finished in the autumn of 18S7 tt
Ziirich; Act 2. March 1869 at Venice; Act 3. 18(0 tt 1^
Lucerne. First performed June 10, 1865, at Munich, PF. andftlll ^
score published I860.

Siegfried, Part IIL of 'Der Ring des Nibelungen," In Sacl«. Hnslt
begun at Ziirich, before Tristan. .\ct 1 finished April 1857 ; part
of Act2, up to the ' Waldweben' written inlW7; Act 2 completed :
at Munich June 21, 1865 ; Act 3 completed early in 1869. First
performed August 16, 1876, at Bayreuth. PF, score published
1871 ; full do. 1876. !

Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg: in 3 acts. Sketch 1845: poem:!
begun winter 1861-62 at Paris, printed as MS. 1862 : music begun 'J
1S62 ; score finished Oct, 20, 1867. First performed June 21, 1868, i
at Munich. PF. score published 1867 ; full do. 1868. :

Gotterdammerung. Part IV. of "Der Ring des Nibelungen.' (The :
first sketches to Siegfried's Tod date June 1848.) Slusic beeun
1870 at Lucerne. Sketch of Introduction and Act 1 completed
Jan. 20. 1871. Sketch of lull score finished at Bayreuth June 22, ,'.
1872. Instrumentation completed Nov. 1874. First performed >t5
August 17, 1876, at Bayreuth. PF. score published 1875; full dot

Parsifal: Ein Eiihnenweihfestspiel, in 3 acts (the first sketches ot
Charfreitagszauber, belong to the year 18.57. Ziirich). Foem
written at Bayreuth 1876-77 : sketch of music begun at Bayreutk
1877 ; completed April '15, 1879. Instrumentation finished Jan. 33,
1882 at Palermo, First performed July 20, 1882, at Bayreuth. FP,
score published 1882; full do. 1884,


Overture Bh (6-8). Unpublished. Performed 1830 at Leipzig. Score
apparently lost.

Overture D minor (4-4). Unpublished. Performed Dec. 25, 1S81, at
Leipzig. Score at Bayreuth.

Overture in C. (* Konzert-ouverture— ziemlich fugirt '). Unpublished.
Written \&?.\, performed April 30, 1833, at Leipzig, and May 22, 1S7J
at Bayreuth.

Overture ' Polonia.' C major (4-4). Unpublished. Written 1832 a)
Leipzig. Score at Bayreuth.

Symphony in C. Unpublished. Written 1832 at Leipzig, and performed
at Prague, summer. 1832 ; Dec. 1832 at the Euterpe, and Jan, 1ft
1833, at the Gewandhaus. Leipzig ; Dec. 24. 18.«2, at Venice.

New Year's Cantata. Introduction and two choral pieces. Unpub-
lished. Performed at Magdeburg on New Year's Eve, 18S4-£s an(i
at Bayreuth, May 22, 1873.

Overture ' Columbus." Unpublished. Written and twice performei
at Magdeburg 1835; repeated at Riga 1838, and at Paris, Feb, 4
1841 (after the last performance score and parts disappearec
and have not been heard of since).


1 Not Ecitet,



ital music— songs— to a ■ Zauberposse.' by Gleich. 'Der Berg-
t, Oder Die drei Wunsche.' Magdeburg, 1S36. (Unpublished,
, probably lost.)

re 'Kule Britannia." Unpublished. 'Written at KSnigsberg,
;. Score was sent to the London Philharmonic Society in 1840.
iparently lost.)

aust Ouverture.' Written in Paris, 1839-40 ; first performed,
f 22. lt*i, at Dresden ; rewritten 1855.

LiDgsmarsch. TTritten 18«. Published 18«9. The original
re, for a military band, remains in MS. The published version
the usual full orchestra, was begun by Wagner and finished by

d Idyll. Written ICTO. Published ISTT.
narsch, 1S71.

Festsmarsch (Centennial Eihibition, Philadelphia), 187G.
besmahl der Apostel. Eine biblische Scene fur Maanerchor
I grosses Orchester. lSt3.

iheits Cantaie. For unveiling of bronze statue representing
,g Friedrich August at Dresden, June 7, 1*43. Unpublished.
in den KOnig. 1844. Published, (u) for 4 male voices ; (,6j as
ing with PF.

bers Grabe. (n) Trauermarsch for wind instruments on
lives from Eurvsmhe ; (fc) Double quartet fur voices, 1844. Score
, published i-i'..


Bb. Written 1^31. Published 1832.

se. D. Four hands. Written 1S31. Published 18^.

eFJf minor. Unpublished. Written lt31.

Sonate. for Frau Mathilde Weseudonck, in Eb. Written 1853.

ilished IST?.

lumblatt, for Furstin Mettemich. in C. Written 1861. Pub-

!d 1871.

)latt, for Frau Betty Schott, in Eb. Written Jan. 1, 1875.

lUshed 1876.

falslied' from 'Das Liebesverbot." 1S35-3S. Eeprinted at
inswick, 18S5.

oon enfant ' ; ' Mignonne ' ; ' Attenle.' Paris 1839—40. Appeared
' Musikbeilagen ' to Lewald's ' Europa,' 1841 and 42, Kepub-
ed with a German translation lb71.

IX Grenadiers. (Heine's ' Die beiden Grenadiere.') Paris,
». Dedicated to Heine. Music fits the French Version.
nneiibaum. I»t0. Published 1871.

.iedchen (1871), a little humorous vote of thanks to Kerr
ift of Leipzig. Printed in Muller T. der Werra's Eeichscom-

ledichte. 1. Der Engel ; Z Stehe still ; 3. Im Treibhaus
Lidie zu Tristan und Isolde) ; 4. Schmerzen ; 5. Traume
adie zu Tristan und Isolde). 1862. English by Francis

Iphigenie en Aulide. "Xach der Bearbeitung von Richard
Fagner.' PF. arrt. by H. von Bulow. (Published 1-59.J
core of close to overture published 1859.

. Don Juan— revised dialogue and recitatives— performed at
rfcb, ISoO. Unpublished.

ina. Stabat Mater, mit Yortragsbezeichnungen eingerichtet.
re published 1877.

I zu der Arie des Aubrey, in dem Vampyr von Marschner (in
nin.). Score, 142 bars of additional text and music, instead
the 53 bars of the original, dated WQrzburg, Sept. 23, 1833, in

possession of Herr W. Tappert. Berlin.

ven. Ninth S.i^mphony, Clavierauszug. 1830. Unpublished.
tti. La Favorite. PF. score, Paris.

Elisir d'amore. PF. score.
. La Beine de Chypre. PF. score, Paris 1841.
Le Guittarero. PF. score. Paris 1841.


eutsche Oper' ; 183i. Laube's Zeitung fur die elegante Welt,
rfo von Canto Spianato. Nov. 18»t. (Bay. Bl. 18.84, pp. 337-31:J).
uckliche Barenfamilie ' ; a libretto for a comic opera, after a
ry in the Arabian Nights. 1839 (MS.).
r Amusements.

;. May 5. IM. (Bay. Bl. 1884. pp. («-68).
r Fatalitiiten fur Deutsche. Signed V. Freudenfeuer. Appeared
1 in Lewald's ' Europa."

a e Giuseppe." oder • Die Franzosen in Nizza." libretto for an
Era after H. S. KOnig's novel, " Die hohe Braut." Sketch sent
Scribe in 1833. Put into verse for Capellmeister Eeissiger.
Dresden; subsequently set to music by J. F. Kittl, and
rformed at Prague 1848.

arazener ' ; detailed plan for the libretto to a tragic opera (1841).
rich Bothbart ' ; sketch for a Drama. BIS. ims.
gehalten im Vaterlands-Yerein zu Dresden, 14 June, 1848.
ippert. pp. 33-42).

terreform.' Dresdener Anzeiger, 16 Jan. 1849. (Tappert, pp.

n Egmont." Ballet von Rota. An article in the Oesterreich-
he Zeitung, signed P. C. (PeterlCornelius), but partly written

chrift fur Carl Taus'g. 1873.

rd Wagner: Entwurfe. Gedanken. Fragmente. Aus den
chgelassenen Papierea zusammengestellt. 18S3.


(Tea Volumes. Leipzig 1671-85.)
Vorwort zur Gesammtherausgabe.
.^utobiographische Skizze (bis 1841).

• Das Liebesverbot." Bericht iiber eine erste Opernauffiibrung (ex-

tracted from Autobiography).
Eienzi, der letzte der Tribunen.
Ein deutscher Musiker, in Paris. Novellen und AufEsSlze (1840 und

1*41). 1. Eine Pilgerfahrt zu Beethoven. 2. Ein Ende in Paris.

3. Ein glucklicher Abend. 4. Ueber deutschesMusikwesen. 5. Der

Virtues und der Kunstler. G. Der Kiiustler und die Oeffentlich-

keit. 7. Rossini's ' Stabat Mater."
Ueber die Ouvertiiro.
Der Freischiitz, in Paris (1841). 1. 'Der Freischatz." An das Pariser

Publikum. 2. 'Le Freischiitz." Bericht nach Deutschland.
Bericht iiber eine neue Pariser Oper ('La Reine de Chypre' von

Der fliegende Hollander.


TannhSuser und der Sfingerkrieg auf Wartburg.
Bericht Qber die Heimbringung der sterblichen Ueberreste Karl

Maria von Weber's aus London nach Dresden. Rede an Weber's

letzter Ruhestiitte. Gesang uach der Eestattung. (Extracted

frum the Autobiography.)
Bericht iiber die Auffuhrung der neunten Symphonie von Beethoven.

im Jahre 1846. nebst Programm dazu. (From Autobiography.)

Die Wibelungen. Weltgeschichte aus der Sage. (Written 1848, pub-
lished ism.)
Der Mbelungen-Mythus. Als Entwurf zu einem Drama.
Siegfried's Tod.
Trinkspruch am Gedeukstage des 300 jahrigen Bestehens der

kiiniglichen musikalischen Kapelle in Dresden.
Entwurf zur Organisation eines deutschen Nationaltheaters fttr das

Konigreich Sachsen (1849).

Einleitung zum dritten und vierten Bande.
Die Kunst und die Revolution.
Das Kunstwerk der Zukunst.

• Wieland der Schmiedt," als Drama entworfen.
Kunst und Klima.

Oper und Drama, erster Theil : Die Oper und das Wesen der Musik.

Oper und Drama, zweiter und drifter Theil : Das Schauspiel und

das Wesen der dramatischen Dichtkuust.— Dichtkunst und Ton-

kiinst im Drama der Zukunft.
Eine Mittheilung an melue Freunde.

Vol. V.

Einleitung zum fiinften und sechsten Bande.

Ueber die ' Goethestiftung." Brief an Franz Liszt.

Ein Theater in Ziirich.

Ueber musikalische Kritik. Brief an den Herausgeber der ' Neuen
Zeitschrift fiir Musik.'

Das Judenthum in der Musik.

Eiinnerungen an Spontini.

Nachruf an L. Spohr und Chordirektor AV. Fischer.

Gluck's Ouverture zu ' Iphigenia in Aulis."

Ueber die Auffuhrung des ' Tannhiiuser.'

Bemerkungen zur Auffiihrung der Oper ' Der fliegende Hollander.

Programraatische Eriiiuterungen. 1. Beethoven's ' Heroische sym-
phonie." 2. Ouverture zu ' Koriolan." 3. Ouverture zum ' Flie-
genden HoUiinder." 4. Ouverture zu ' Tannhaiiser." 5. Vorspiel
zu ■ Lohengrin."

Ueber Franz Liszt"s symphonische Dichtungen.

Das Bheingold. Vorabend zu dem Buhuenlestspiel : Der Ring des


Der Ring des Nibelungen. Buhnenfestspiel. Erster Tag: DieWalkare.
ZweiterTag: Siegfried. DrirterTag: GOtterdiimmerung.

Epilogischer Bericht iiber die UmstHnde und Schicksale. welche die
Ausfiihrung des Buhnenfestspieles ' Der Ring des Nibelungen "
bis zur Veroffentlichung der Dichtung desselben begleiteten.

Tristan und Isolde.

Ein Brief an Hector Berlioz.

• Zukunttsmusik." An einen franzOsischen Freund (Ft. VUlot) als

Vorwort zu einer Prosa-Ueberseizung meiner Opern Dichtungen.
Bericht iiber die Auffuhrung des ' Tanuhauser" iu Paris (Brieflich).
Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg.
Das Wiener Hof-Operntheater.

Dem kOniglichen Freunde, Gedicht.
Ueber Staat und Religion.
I Deutsche Kunst und deutschePoIitik.
I Bericht an Seine Majestiit den KOiiig Ludwig 11 von Bayern ub«r

eine in MCinchen zu erricbtende deutsche Musikschule.
I Meine Erinnerungeu an Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld.
i Zur Widmung der zweiten Auflage voa ' Oper und Drama.




C'ensuren: 3. W. 11. Eiehl. 2. Ferdinand niller. S. Eine Erlnner-
ung an ICossini. 4. Eduard Bevrient. 5. Aufklurungen ilber
*i>as Judeiitlium in der Musik.'

Ufber das Dirigiren. (18(W).

l>rei liediclite : 1. Itheinguld. 2. Bei der Vollendung des ' Siegfried.'

3. Zum lijth August lb7U.


An das deutsehe Ileer vor Taris (Januar 3s71 .)

Kine Kapitulation. Lustspit^l in aiitiker Lanier.

Krinnerungen an Auber.

Beethoven. I'ublislied Dec. 2, 1S70.

Ueber die Bestimniung der Oper. (The account of 'Wi'.helinine
Schroeder-Devrient is frum the autobiography.)

Ueber Schauspieler und Siinger.

Zum Vortrag der Neunten Symphonie Beethoven's.

iJendschreiben und Kleinere Aufsiitze : 1. Brief iiber das Schau-
spielerwesen an eineu t-'chauspieler. 2. Ein Kinbhck in das
lieutige deutsclie Opernwesen. 3. Brief an einen italienisclien
l-'reuiid iiber die Auffiilirung des ' Loliengria * in Bologna.

4. Sclireibeii an den Biirgermeister von Bologna. 5. AnEriedrich
Nietzsche, ord. Prof, der Klass. I'hilologie in Basel. 6. Ueber
the Bennenuiig 'Musikdrama.' 7. Einleitung zu eiiier Vorlesuns
der •liotterdiimmeruug' vor eiuem ausgewiililten Zuhiirerkreise
in Berlin.

•BayreutU": 1. Schlussbericht iiber die Umstiinde und .Schicksale,
welche die Ausfiibrung des Biihnenfestspieles ' Der King des
Nibelungen' bis zur Griindung von Wagner-veieinen begleileien.
2. Das Biibnenfestspielhaus zu Bayreulh, uebst eineui BericU-
tiber die Uruudsteiulegung desselben.


Ueber eine Opernautriihrung in Leipzig. Brief an den Ilerausgeber
des 'Musikalischen Wochenblatles.'

Bayreuth. Bayreuther Eliitter : 1. An die geehrten Vorstiinde der
Bichard Wagner-Vereine. 2. Entwurf. veriiffentlicht mit den
Statuten des I'atronatvereines. 3. Zur Einfiihrung (Bayreuther
BlHtter, Erstes Stiick). 4. Ein Wort zur Einfiihrung der Arbeit
Hans von Wolzogens, "Ueber Verrottung und Errettung der
deutschen Sprache.' 5. Erkliirung an die Mitglieder des ratmn-
atvereines. C. Zur Einfiihrung in das Jahr 18K0. 7. Zur Mit-
theilung an die geehrten I'atroiie der Biihnenfestspiele in Bay-
reuth. S. Zur Einfiiluuiig der Arbeit des Uralen Uobineau 'Ein
Urtheil iiber die jetzige Weltlage.

"Was ist deutsch? (lsG5-lt)7SJ.


I'ublikum und TopularitJit.

Ein Ruckblick auf die Hiihnenfestspiele des Jahres lt76.

"Wollen wir hoffen ? (1^711).

Ueber das Dichlen und Komponiren.

Ueber das Opern Dichten und Komponiren im Besonderen.

Ueber die Anwendung der Musik auf das Drama.

Offeiies Schreiben an llcrrn Ernst von Weber, Verfasser der Schrift:
■ Die Folterkammern der Wissenschaft."

Keligion und Kunst (ISSO) : 'Was nUtzt diese Erkenntniss?" Ein
Nachtrag zu 'Religion und Kunst.' Ausfiihrungen zu 'Keligion
und Kunst ' (IKSl). 1. ' Erkenne dich Selbst.' 2. Heldenlhum
und Christenthum.

Brief an H. v. Wolzogen.

Offenes Schreiben an Herrn Friedrich Schon in Worms,

Das BQhiienfestspiel in Bayreutli 1J<^2.

Bericht iiber die Wieileraulfiihrung eines Jngendwerkes. .\n den
Herausgeber des, * Musikalischen Wocheublattes.'

Brief an H.v, Stein.


(Lebenserinnerungen. This is the privately printed autobiography
from wliich the extracts in vols. i. and ii. aud ix. mentioned above,
are taken).


Glasenapp, C. F., und H, v. Stein. W.igner Lexicon,
Stuttgart, ISSIi. (An admirable compendium ot
Wagner's writings.)

Glasenapp, C.F. EichardWagner'sLebenund Wirken.
2 vols. Lind ed. Leipzig, 1S82. Based on an inti-
mate acquaintance witli Wagner's writings .and .a
diligent study of periodicals, etc. Somewiiat ver-
bose but reliable on the whole.

Kastner, E. Wagner Catalog. 1S7S.

Briefe Ki chard Wagners an seine Zeitgenossen
(18uU — 1S8L!) chronologisch geordnet 18S5. (A valu-
able list ; but very far from complete.)

Oesterlein, Nic. Katalog eiuer E. Wagner Bibliothek.

Nietzsche, Fr. Richard Wagner in Bayreuth (Unzeit-
gemiisse Betrachtungeu, ites Stiick). Chemnitz,

Die Geburt der Tragfidie aus dem Geiste der
Musik. 2nd ed. Chemnitz, 1878.

Liszt. Lohengrin et Tannbaiiser. Leipzig, 18.51,

Der fliegendo Hollander ( 18.54). Das Klieingold
(18.55). 'Vol. iii'^ of Liszt's Gesammelte Schriften.
Zieipzig, 1881.

Bi'ilow, Hans von, Ueber E,W.'s Faust-ouvertiire. Leta-

zig IsCd.

Mayrberger, Karl. DieHarmonikE.W's. Chemnitz, ISS^
Schur^, Ed. Le Drame JIusical. 2 vols, Paris, 1,S75.
Pohl, Kich. Eichard Wagner. Ein Lebensbild. Leipzia

Eichard Wagner. StudienundKritiken. Leiprig^

Tappert, W. Eichard Wagner. Sein Leben und seint
Werke. Elberleld, 188:5.

Ein Waguerlexicou — WCrtorbuch der Unhiflich-

Wolzogen, H. v. Erinnerungen an Eichard Wagner,
Vienna, 18S.'3.

Eichard Wagner's Lebensbericht (original of 'The

Work aud Mission of my Life,' Nortli American Ba.

view, for Aug. and Sept. 187'J. Sanctioned by WagnMJ

but apparently not written by him). Leipzig, 18M.

Die Sprache in Eichard Wagner's Dichtungen.

Leipzig, 1878. Full of valuable information,

Poetisclie L.autsymbolik. Leipzig. 1870.

Der Nibelungen Mythos in Sage und LiteratSlI.

Berlin, 1870.

Tliematische Loitfaden : Nibelungen, Tristta,

Porges, H. Die Auffuhrung von Beethovens ixte. Syni'
phonie uuter Eichard Wagner in Bayreuth. Leip
zig, 1872.

Die Biihnenproben zu den Festspielen im Jabn

1870. i. aud ii. Chemnitz 1883. (In course of pob


Gasperini, A. de. Eichard Wagner. Paris, 18CC.

Baudelaire, Ch. E. Wagner et Tanuhauser a Paris


Wagner. Quatre Podmes d'opdra traduits en proB(
fran^aise, prric6des d'une Lettre sur la musiquepai
Eichard Wagner. Paris. ISCl.
.^lUller, Franz. Tannhiiuser und Wartburgkrieg. '^53
Eichard Wagner und das Musikdrama. 1S6L
Der Eing des Nibelungen. 1802.
Tristan und Isolde. 180.5.
Loliengrin und Die Meistersinger von Numbergll
Munich, 1800. "

Hueffcr. F. Eichard Wagner and the Music of tinfi
Future. London, 1874. (Translated into Gcrnum
as 'Die Poesie in derJMusik.' Leipzig, 1874.)
Eichard Wagner. London, 1881,
Parsifal, 'An Attempt at Analysis.' Londoner!
The Nibelung's Eing, in the alliterative verse of thi

original. By Alfred Forman.
The Eing, etc. German original facing the Englis!
translation. By H. and F. Corder. London, ls77.
Die Meistersinger. Translated by H. and F. Cordei

London, 1882.
Tiistan und Isolde. Translated by H. and F. Cordei

Loudon, 1882.
Parsifal. Translated by H. and F. Corder. Londoi


Eichard Wagner's The Music of the Future. TtmiI

lated by E. Dannreuther. London, 1873.
Eichard Wagner's Beethoven. Translated by F. Dail

reuther. London, 1880.
Eichard Wagner 'On Conducting.' Translated b
E. Dannreuther. London, 1880. FED

WAINWEIGHT, John, a native of Stock
port, Cheshire, settled in Manchester about th
middle of last century, and on May 12, 176;
wa.s appointed and singing man of th
Collegiate Church, now the Cathedral. He com
posed anthems, chants, and psalm-tunes,
collection of which he published in i797' -^
died Jan. 1768.

His son, Robert, Mus. Doc, born 1748, a<'
cumulated the degrees of Mus. Bac. and Mus
Doc. at Oxford, April 29, 1774. On March ]
1775, he was appointed organist of St. Peter 1
Liverpool. He was also organist of the Colleg

Wagner's Letter on Liszt's Symphonic PoeiBiyi
islated by F. Hueffer. London, 1881.




Church, Manchester. He composed services
I anthems, and an oratorio, ' Tlie Fall of
y^t,' performed at Liverpool in 1780 and
II. He died July 15, 1782.
Another son, Richard, born 175S, was or-
list of St. Ann's, Manchester. In Sept. 1782
was chos-en to succeed his brother, Robert, as
anist of St. Peter's, Liverpool, which he
irwards quitted for the organistship of St.
aes, Toxteth Park, Liverpool, but in 18 13
imed his place at St. Peter's. He published
ollection of hymn-tunes of his composition.
1 glee, 'Life's a bumper,' was very popular.

died Aug. 20, 182.^. His execution was'
larkable — more remarkable perhaps than his
.6. It was of him that Schnetzler the organ-
[der exclaimed, ' He run about the keys like one
; he will not gif my pipes time to shpeak.'
L third son, Williaji, was a singing man at

Collegiate Church, Manchester, and also a
former on the double bass, besides caiTying
the business of music- selling in Manchester,
Dartnership with Sudlow. He died July 2.
7. [W.H.H.]

7 AITS, THE. A name given, from time
nemorial, to the little bands of rustic Musi-
is who sing and play Carols, by night, in
ntry places, at Christmas-time; and still very
inionly applied to their less unsophisticated
resentatives, in larger towns, and even in
idon. The word is a very old one, and
ley (Etym. Diet., 1 790) defines it thus — ' A

of Musick, or Musicians [either of vxdting,
luse they attend on Magistrates, OfEceis, etc.,
*omps, and Processions ; or, o{ r/ii^f, a Watch,
juettcr, to watch, Fr., because they keep a
t of Watch a-Nights].' Mr. Skeat (Etym.
t.) saj's that 'Wait' is identical with 'watch'

'wake,' and that 'a wait' is one who is
iJce for the purpose of playing at night.'
'he title of ' The Waits ' has also been given,

reasons which no one has hitherto been
i to ascertain, to a little Fa-la, for four
;es, by Jeremy Savile, a Composer who ap-
rs to have been popular about the time of

Restoration, but is now known only by
le Songs printed in Pla5'ford's ' Select Musi-

Ayres and Dialogues,' in 1653, and the
;e in question, which first appeared in 1667,
Playford's ' Musical Companion ' — a new edi-
i, with extensive additions, and a sub.sidiary
s, of Hilton's ' Catch that catch can. '
'he Madrigal Society concludes all its meet-
3 with Savile's Fa-la ; and the custom has
n adopted by the Bristol Madrigal Society,
i many other provincial associations of like
racter. The oldest mode of performance on
>rd was that of singing the Music four times
3ugh ; first /, then p, then j)}}, and lastly
always, of course, without accompaniment.
. T. Oliphant wrote some words to it, to avoid

monotony of the continuous Fa-la, —
Let us all sing, merrily sing.
Till echo ax-ouiid xis responsive shall ring.
288 words are now adopted by most ^Madrigal
ieties ; and, by advice of Mr. Oliphant, the



piece is usually sung three times, instead of
four. [W.S.R.]

WALDHORTS" (that is. Forest horn), Corno
Di CACCIA. The old ' French horn,' without
valves, for which Beethoven wrote. The valve
horn, necessary for the passages of modern writers,
beginning with Schumann, is fast superseding it,
and tlie French horn will soon be as much a
thing of the past as a harpsichord ; but its tones,
and the contrast of its open and closed notes
(adding another to the many human character-
istics of the instrument) — as in the Allegretto of
the Seventh Symphony or the Adagio of the
Ninth — can never be replaced, and the want of
them will always be a distinct and cruel loss to
orchestral music. [G.]

or DAS Madchen isi Spessartswalde). An
opera in 2 acts ; words by Ritter vou Steinsburg,
music by Weber. His second dramatic work ;
couiposed in 1800; produced at Freiberg, Nov.
24, 1800 — not at Chemnitz in October. It was
used up in Silvana das Waldmadchen, his
sixth opera, 18 10, and only three fragments
are known. Silvana w;is produced in English
(as 'Sylvana') at the Surrey Theatre, under

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