George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) online

. (page 91 of 194)
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original form. [See Gheene, Maurice.] Wil-
LiAJi Waloxd, possibly a son of his, about 1775
became organist of Chichester Cathedral, which
post he resigned in iSoi. After his resignation
he resided in Chichester in extreme poverty and
seclusion (subsisting upon an annuity raised by
the sale of some houses, and being rarely seen
abroad) until his death, Feb. 9, 1836. Some
fragments of chmrch compositions by him remain
in MS. in the choir-books of Chichester Cathe-
dral. EiCHARD, son of William Walond of
Oxford, bom 1754, matriculated from Christ
Church, Oxford, July 14, 1770. He was a
clerk of Magdalen College, Oxford, from March
24, 1775 until 1776. On March 14, 1776, he
took the degree of B.A. as of New College, and
was subsequently a vicar choral of Hereford Ca-
thedral. George, another son of W. Walond of
Oxford, was a chorister of Magdalen Coll., Oxford,
firom April 13, 1768 until 1778. [W.H.H.]

WALPUEGISNIGHT, the night (between
April 30 and May i) of S. Walpurga or Wer-
burga, a British saint, sister of S. Boniface, on
which a Witches' Sabbath is supposed to be held
in the Harz Mountains. 'The First Walpurgis-
night, Ballad for Chorus and Orchestra, the
words by Goethe, music by Felix Mendelssohn-
Bartholdy, op. 60,' is a setting of a poem of
Goethe's, which describes the fir.-t occurrence of
the event in an encounter between old heathens
and Christians.

The intention to compose the poem probably
came to Mendelssohn during his visit to Goethe
in 1830, and he announces it as a Choral Sym-
phony.^ He began to write it in April 1831, and
by the end of the month speaks of it as jjrac-
tically complete. On July 14, at Milan, how-
ever, he is still tormented by it, and the MS. of
the vocal portion is dated '15th July, 1S31.' The
Overture — ' Saxon Overture ' as he calls it — fol-
lowed ' 13th Feb. 1832,' and the work was pro-
duced at Berlin, Jan. 1833. Ten years later he
resumed it, re-scored the whole, published it, and

- Letter to Klingemann. Nov. 1840. The idea of a choral symphony
was carried out in the Lobgesang.



performed it, first in Germany, and then in Eng-
land (Pliilhariiionic, July 8, 1S44), to English
words by Mr. Bartholomew, [pee vol. ii. pp.
^666,2696,2840;.] [G.]

WALSEGG, Feanz, Graf von*, known for
the mystification he practised in regard to Mo-
y/irt's Eequiem, was a musical amateur living at
Stuppach, a village belonging to the Lichtenstein
family, near Gloggnitz, at the foot of the Semmer-
ing. He played the flute and cello, had quartet
parties twice a week at his house, and on Sun-
days acted plays, in which he took part himself
with his family, clerks, and servants. He had
moreover the ambition to figure as a composer,
and to this end conmiissioned various composers
to write him unsigned works, whicli he copied,
liad performed, and asked the audience to guess
who the composer was. The audience being
complaisant enough to suggest his own name he
would smilingly accept the imputation. On the
death of his wife, Anna, Edle von Flammberg,
on Feb. 14, 1791, he sent his steward Leutgeb to
Mozart to bespeak a Requiem, which he had
fetched by the same hand after Mozart's death.
He copied the score, headed it ' liequiem com-
posto dal Conte Walsegir,' and conducted a
solemn performance of it in memory of his wife
on Dec. 14, 1793. On his death the score, com-
pleted by .Siissuiayer, went to his heiress Countess
.Sternberg, and passing through various hands,
finally reached the Court Library of Vienna
(i 83S). [For further particulars of the autograph
score, see vol. ii. p. 402.] [C.F.P.]

WALSH, John, one of the most eminent
music-publishers of his day, commenced business
probably about 1690 at the sign of ' The Golden
Harp and Hautboy in Catherine Street in the
Strand.' In 1698 the epithet 'Golden' was
discontinued. He held the appointment of
'Musical Instrument Maker in Ordinary to His
Majesty.' Walsh published many works in con-
junction with 'J. Hare, INIusical Instrument
Maker, at the Golden Viol in St. Paul's Church
Yard, and at his Shop in Freeman's Yard in
Cornhill, near the Eoyal Exchange,' or ' att y®
Viol & Flute in Cornhill, near the Royall
E.xchange.' His earlier piiblications were en-
graved, but about 1710 he commenced the
practice of stamping upon pewter plates. His
work of both kinds is mostly rough and un-
finished. In 1700, copies of some of Corelli's
Sonatas having been imported from Pome,
Walsh announced ' Twelve Sonnata's in Two
Parts ; The First Part Solo's for a VioUn, a Bass-
Violin, Viol and Harpsichord ; The Second, Pre-
ludes, Almands, Coi-ants, Sarabands, and Jigs
with the Spanish Folly. Dedicated to the Elec-
toress of Brandenburgh by Archangelo Corelli,
being his Fifth and Last Opera, Engraven in a
curious Character, being much fairer and more
correct in the Musick than that of Amsterdam.'
His principal publications include Handel's over-
tures and songs in ' Rinaldo,' ' Esther,' ' Debo-
rah,' and ' Atbaliah,' the Utrecht Te Deum and
Jubilate and four Coronation Anthems, all in


full score ; Dr. Croft's thirty Anthems an
Burial Service ; Eccles's Collection of Songs an
'Judgment of Paris,' and Daniel Purcell
'Judgment of Paris.' He died March 13, 173!
having, it is said, amassed a fortune of £2o,oo<
He had, some time before his death, resigne
his appointment of Musical Instrument IMakc
to the King iu favour of his son,

John, who succeeded to his father's busines
and conducted it with great energy and succef
for nearly thirty years. He published the ovei
tures and songs in many of Handel's operas an
in most of his oratorios ; his ' Alexander's Feast
(for the Author) and 'Acis and Galatea,' an
his Funeral Anthem ; also the second volume c
his ' Suites de Pieces pour le Clavecin,' and hi
' Six Concertos for the Harpsichord or Organ
(Oct. 173S), of the copyright in which latte
Handel made him a present ; Dr, Greene's fort
Select Anthems, his ' Spenser's Amoretti,' Songj
Sonatas, etc. ; Dr. Boyce's ' Solomon,' ' Chaplet
'Shepherd's Lottery,' and 'Lyra Britannica'
Dr. Arne's ' Vocal jMelody,' Pergolesi's ' Staba
Mater,' etc., etc. He died Jan. 16, 1766, an
was buried, with much funeral pomp, at Si
Mary's, Strand.

After his death his business passed into th
hands of Williaji Randall, who commence
the publication of Handel's works, in score, iu
complete form. He used Walsh's plates, whe:
applicable, for the songs, and had new one
stamped for the recitatives and choruses, th
contrast of style between the two being ofte
very strikinir. One of his publications (' Met
siah ') bears the imprint of 'Randall & Abell
He was succeeded by Henry Wright, who cor
tinned the publication of Handel's works in
complete form, and published several of th
oratorios, etc. of the great master. Some of hi
imprints have the names of ' Wright & Co.,
and one (Xo. 10 of the Chandos anthems) thoB
of ' Wright & Wilkinson.' After his death
retirement the business was divided betwee
RoBEET BiRCHALL who had been assistant t
Randall, and Longman & Wilkinson. [Se

WALSIXGHA5I, an old English song w
lating to the famous Priory of Walsingham i
Xorfolk, and probably dating before 1538, v/he^^
the Priory was suppressed. The following 3
the tune in modern notation from Mr. ChappeU!
book : — i

' l-i — '■

As I went to Wal-sing-ham To the Shrine with speed,

Met I with a jol - ly pa'.m - er In a pil-grim's weed.

The air was a favourite among the earl
English composers, and many sets of variation
on it will be found in the lists of ViRGiNA
Music. [See page 308 a, 6 ; 311a, 6; 313 a
The title is once given 'Have with you to Wa
singham'; whether a different song or not "
uncertain. L"'


WALTER, GtJSTAV, born 1835, at Eilin,
oheinia, learned singing at the Prague Con-
jrvatorium from Franz Vogl, and made his first
opearance in opera as Edgar at a private repre-
jntation of Lucia. He played at Brunn for a
lort time, and in July 1856 appeared at
'ienna in Eli-eutzer's ' Nachtlager.' He has
een permanently engaged there, and has at-
[lined great popularity, both on the stage as
i * lyric ' tenor, and in the concert-room as an
iterpreter of the songs of Schubert, He came
) London in 1872, and made his first appearance
\n May 13, at the Philharmonic, where he was
ivourably received in ' Dies ' (Mozart),
ad songs of Riedel and Rubinstein. He also
'mg at the Crystal Palace, etc. His daughter
IiNNA, a pupil of Madame Marchesi, has played
1 Vienna and elsewhere, and is now engaged as
' principal soprano at Frankfort. [A.C.]

i WALTER, John, organist of Eton College
'i the commencement of the iSth century, com-
psed some church music ; but his chief claim
) distinction is having been the first music-
iiaster of John Weldon. [W.H.H.]

WALTER, William Henkt, born at Newark,
Tew Jersey, U.S.A., July i, 1825. WTien quite
lad he played the organ at the first Presbyte-
an Church, and was afterwards appointed
rganist at Grace Episcopal Church, Newark.
Lt 17 he came to New York, and in 1842 be-
ime organist of Epiphany Church ; then of
innunciation ; and in 1847 of St. John's Chapel,
'rinity parish. In 1848 he was promoted to the
rgan at St. Paul's Chapel, where he remained
ntil 1856, when he was transferred to Trinity
ihapel. Twenty-fifth Street, where he remained
ntil 1869. He was appointed organist at Colum-
■ia College, New York, in 1856, and in 1S64 re-
eived the honoraiy degree of Doctor in Music
rom that institution, with which he is still con-
ected (1885). His principal works are ' Com-
aon Prayer with Ritual Song,' * Manual of
'hurch Music,' ' Chorals and Hymns,' 'Hymnal
fith Tunes, Old and New,' ' Psalms with Chants,'
Mass in C,' and ' Mass in F,' besides a number
■f Anthems and Services for use in the Episcopal
yhurch. His son,

Geokge William, was bom at New York
)ec. 16, 1 85 1 ; began to make melodies at the
,ge of 3 years ; plaj'ed the organ at Trinity
'hapel, New York, when 5 ; completed his mu-
ical studies under John K. Paine of Boston, and
iamuel P. Warren of New York ; has resided in
(Vashington, D.C., since 1869, and in 18S2 was
reated Doctor in Music by the Columbian Uni-
'ersity of that city. His compositions have
>een written more for the virtue of his profession
han for performance or publication. As an
•rganist he is chiefly known for his facility in
xtemporaneous performance and for his skill in
egistration. His musical library numbers over
iooo works. [A.F.A.]

WALTHER, JOHANN, Luther's friend, and
■ne of the earliest of the composers in the
teformed Church, was born 1496 — according to



his tombstone, atGotha, near Cola, inThuringia ;
in 1524 was singer in the choir at Torgau, and
in the following year Capellmeister, or ' Sanger-
meister,' to the Elector of Saxony. In 1548 he
was sent to Dresden to organise and lead a choir
of singers for Moritz of Saxony, and remained
till 1555, when he returned with a pension to
Torgau, and there lived till his death in 1570.

In 1524 he was called to Wittenberg by
Luther to assist him in framing the German
Mass. The result of this was his ' Geystlich
Gesangk Buchleyn ' for 4 voices (1524), the
earliest Protestant Hymnbook. His other works
are 'Cantio Septem Vocum,' etc. (1544) ; 'Mag-
nificat octo tonorum ' (1557) ; 'Ein newes christ-
liches Lied' (1561) ; 'Ein gar schoner geist-
licher und christlicher Bergkreyen' (1561);
'Das christlich Kinderlied Dr. Martin Luthers,
Erhalt uns Herr, bei Deinem Wort . . . mit
etliclien lateinischen und deutschen Sangen
gemehret' (1566). Other pieces are included
in the collections of Rhaw and Forster, ' Montan-
Neubers Psalmenwerk ' 1538, and 'Motetten-
sammlung' 1540. [G.}

WALTHE R, JoHANN Gottfried, a very skilful
contrapuntist ^ and famous musical lexicographer,
born at Erfurt, Sept. 18, 16S4 ; died at Weimar,
March 23, 1748 ; was pupil of Jacob Adlung
and J. Bernhard Bach in 1702 ; became organist
of the Thomas Church at Erfurt, and July 29,
1 707, town organist of Weimar (in succession to
Heintze) and teacher of the son and daughter of
the Grand Duke; and in 1720 'Hofmusicus'
(Court musician). Waltlier was a relative of J,
S. Bach, and during Bach's residence in Weimar
(1708-14) they became very intimate, and Bach
was godfather to his eldest son. The meagre
notice of Bach in Walther's Lexicon seems to
show that the intimacy did not last. Mattheson's
judgment of Walther, in his ' Ehrenpforte,' is a
very high one; he regards him as *a second
Pachelbel, if not in art the first.' In the arrange-
ment and variation of Chorales on the organ, he
certainly stands next to Bach himself. An
anecdote preserved by one of Bach's sons shows
that he was once able to puzzle even that great
player.^ He printed the following pieces : —
Clavier concert without accompaniment (1741) ;
Prelude and Fugue (1741), 4 Chorales with
variations ; and a mass of compositions remains
in MS. in the Berlin Library and elsewhere.
But Walther's most lasting work is his Dic-
tionary — * Musikalisches Lexicon oder musikal-
ische Bibliothek ' (Leipzig, 1732), the first to
combine biography and musical subjects, a work
of great accuracy and merit, and the ground-
work to many a subsequent one. This work
was the production of his leisure hours only.
He published a first sketch, of 68 pages, in
1728, under the title of ' Alte und neue musik-
alische Bibliothek oder musikalisches Lexikon'^
(Ancient and Modem Musical Library or
Musical Lexicon). Walther had prepared
elaborate corrections and additions for a second

1 See the Instances given by Spitta, ' Bach ' (Sovello), U. 384.

2 Ibid. ii. StiS.



edition of his great work, and after liis death
they were used by Gerber in the preparation of
his Lexicon. They ultimately came into the
possession of the ' Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde '
at Vienna. [G.]

[See p. 385-]

WALTZ, GusTAVDS, a German, who seems to
have acted as Handel's cook, and after some
time to have come out as a singer. He made
his first attempt on the hoards as Polyphemus
in Handel's 'Acis and Galatea,' when it was per-
formed as an 'English Pastoral Opera' under
Arne, at the 'new English theatre in the Hay-
market,' May 17, 1S32, showing that his voice
was a large bass. Seven years later (1739) he
and Eeiuliold sang ' The Lord is a man of war '
at the performance of ' Israel in Egypt,' their
names being pencilled by Handel over the duet.
He also sang Abinoam in ' Deborah,' Abner in
' Athaliah,' and Saul, on the production of
those oratorios. His portrait was painted by
Hauck, and engraved by Miiller. He is seated
with a cello, a pipe, and a pot of beer on the
table beside him. It now belongs to Mr. J. W.
Taphouse, of Oxford, and is exhibited in the Loan
Collection of the Inventions Exhibition, 18S5.

Handel on oneoccasion.speakingto Mrs. Gibber,
said of Gluck, ' He knows no more of contra-
punto than my cook Waltz.' This very impolite
speech is often ' misquoted, and given as if Han-
del had said ' no more music ' ; but its force as
uttered is very much altered when we recollect
that Gluck was no contrapuntist, and that Waltz
must have been a considerable musician to take
such parts as he did at Handel's own choice. [G.]

WANDA, Qdeen of the Samartans. A
romantic tragedy with songs, in 5 acts, by
Zacharias Werner, with music by Riotte. Pro-
duced at the Theatre an-der-Wien, Vienna,
March 16,1812, and repeated five times between
that and April 20. On one of these nights Bee-
thoven was in the house. He excuses himself
to the Archduke Eodolph for not attending a
.summons from His Highness, on the ground that
contrary to his usual custom he had not come
home after noon, the lovely weather having
induced him to walk the whole afternoon, and
Wanda having taken hira to the theatre in the
evening (Thayer, iii. 19,=;.) [G.)

WANHAL — in English publications VAIST-
HALL — John Baptist, a contemporary of
Haydn's (i 732-1 809), was of Dutch extraction,
but born at Nechanicz in Bohemia May 12,
I 739- His instructors were two local worthies,
Koziik and Erban, and his first instruments the
organ and violin. His early years were passed
in little Bohemian towns near the place of his
birth. At one of these he met a good musician,
who advised him to stick to the violin, and also
to write for it ; both which he did with great
n-;siduity. In 1760 lie was taken to Vienna by
the Countess Schaffgotsch, and here his real pro-
gress began ; he studied (under Dittersdorf), read

' As for instance, ty Berlior In his 'Autobiography,' chap. xx.


all the works he could get at, played incessant!;
composed with great enthusiasm, and what ws
then thought extravagance, and was soon take
up by many of the nobility. One of these, tl
Freiherr Eiesch, sent him to Italy for a lor
journey, of which he took full advantage.
his return to Vienna he fell into a state of mei
tal depression, which for some time afi'ected hi
greatly. It was thus that Burney found him :
1772 ('Present State,' etc., p. 358). Life i
Vienna then was very much what it was «
years later, and Wanhal's existence was pass©
like Beethoven's or Schubert' .s, in incessant wor
varied by visits to Hungary or Croatia, whe;
the Count Erdody, the immediate predecessor f
Beethoven's friend, received him. He died i
Vienna in 1813. Though somewhat youngi
than Haydn his music arrived in England fir?
Burney mentions this fact (Hist. iv. 599) at
speaks of his symphonies as ' .spirited, natura
and unaffected,' and of the quartets and oth(
music for violins of this excellent composer j
deserving a place among the first productions i
which unity of melody, pleasing harmony, and
free and manly style are constantly preserved
Burney 's expressions about Haydn in the nej
paragraph show, however, how far higher I
placed him than Wanhal or any other con
poser of that time.

The list of his works is enormous. Dlabac
the author of the Dictionary of Bohemian Mus
cians, gives no less than 100 symphonies, ic
string quartets, 25 masses and 2 requiems, 3
Salve Eeginas and 36 offertories, 1 Stabat Mate
1 oratorio, 2 operas, and many other work
His sonatas were often met with in our graiM
niotheis' bound volumes, and Crotch has give
two pieces of his Specimens of Mu-sic. Many*
the symphonies and sonatas were produced
dozen at a time, a practice to which Beethove
gave the deathblow. They must not therefoi
be judged of from too serious a point of view. [G

WANLESS, Thomas, Mus. Bac, was iq
pointed organist of York Cathedral April ll
1691, and described in the Chapter book as 'l
musicis expjertum.' He graduated at Cambridg
in 169S. In 1703 he published at York a co
lection of the words of anthems sung in th
Cathedral. He composed a Litany, known^t
' The York Litany,' no two copies of whic
exactly agree. Dr. Jebb has printed three dil
ferent versions in his ' Choral Responses an
Litanies.' An anthem by Wanless, 'Awake n]
my glory,' is in the TuJway Collection (Hai^
MS. 7347). He died in 1721. [W.H.H.

WARD, John, published, in 1613, ' The Fir«
Set of English Madrigals to 3, 4, ?, and 6 paiiJi
apt both for Viols and Voyces. With a Mourt
ing Song in memory of Prince Henry,' dedicat^
' To the Honouiable Gentleman and my veil
good Maister. Sir Henry Fanshawe, Knight'
one madrigal in which, ' Die not, fond mail
is still well known to members of madrJgB
societies. He was one of the contributors t
Leighton's 'Teares or Lamentacions,' 1614. A



filing Service and two anthems by him were
ited in Barnard's Church Music, 1641, and
incomplete score of the Service and three
bems, including the two printed, are con-
led in Barnard's MS. collections. Nothing
nown of his biography beyond the fact that
lied before 1641. [W.H.H.]

V^AEIXG, WiLLTAir, translator of Eous-
u's Dictionnaire de Musique — 'a Complete
tionary of Music, consisting of a copious ex-
lation of all the words necessary to a tru3
wledge and understanding of Music. Lon-
, 1770. 8vo.' In the 2nd edition (without
3) Waring's name as translator was added to
title. [G.]

7ARX0T3, Hexet, bom July 11, 1S32, at
issels, was taught music first by his father,

in 1849 became a pupil at the Brussels Con-
ratoire, in harmony, pianoforte-playing, and
fing. In 1856 he appeared in opera at Liege
a light tenor, and was engaged for a short
iod at the Opera Comique, Paris. He next
g at Stvassburg, and on Jan. 24, 1S65, an
retta of his composition, ' Une Heure du
,riage,' was performed there. In 1867 he
3 engaged at the National Theatre, Brussels,
I in October sang in Flemish the hero's part in

Miry's Tranz Ackermann.' In December
the same year he obtained a professorship
:he Conservatoire, and retired from the stage.

1869 he was appointed Director of the
hestra of the Brussels City Musical Society,
I in 1870 he founded a school of music at

Josse-ten-Noode-Schaernbeeck, a subm-b of
issels, and of which he is still Director. In
lition to the operetta, M. Warnots has com-
ed a patriotic cantata performed in 1S67 at
ent. His daughter and pupil,
5llt Wakxots, born 1S57, ^^ Li^ge, made
■ d^but in 187S, at the Theatre de la Monnaie,
issels. In 1 88 1 she was engaged at the
rgola, Florence, and on May 17 of the same
X made her first appearance in England at

Royal Italian Opera, as Marguerite de
lois, in the Huguenots. During the season

also played the part of the same Queen in
rold's Pre aux Ciercs, and was favourably
eived. Since then Miss Warnots has been
^uently heard at the Promenade Concerts, at

Crystal Palace, and elsewhei-e. [A.C.]

iVARREN, Joseph, bom in London March
1804, in early life commenced the study of
■■ violin, which he gave up for the pianoforte
I organ. In 1843 he became organist of St.
try's (Roman Catholic) Chapel, Chelsea, and
oposed some masses for its service. He was
ihorof ' Hints to Young Composers,' 'Hints to
■ung Organists,' 'Guide to Singers,' and other
lilar works, and editor of Hilton's 'Ayres, or
las,' for three voices (for the Musical Anti-
irian Society), an English version of Beetho-
I's ' Christus am Oelberge,' Boyce's ' Cathedral
isic,' for which he wrote new biographies of
? composers, including, in most cases, ex-
jstive lists of their compositions, and many

other works. He died at Bexley, Kent, March
8, 1 881. He was an able musical antiquary, and
the possessor of an extensive musical library, the
greater portion of which he disjjosed of, piece-
meal, during his latter years. [W.H.H.]

WARTEL, Pierre Francois, bom April 3,
1S06, at Versailles. From 1823 to 1828 he was
a pupil in Cboron's School of Music, and after-
wards at the Conservatoire under Banderali and
Nourrit, where he obtained a first prize for sing-
ing. From 1S31 to 1S46 he played small tenor
parts at the Grand Opera. He afterwards sang
with success in Germany, but on his return to
Paris devoted himself entirely to teaching. He
was considered one of the best teachers of the
day, and among his pupils must be named
Christine Nilsson, Trebelli, Mile. Hisson (Grand
Opera), etc. M. Wartel has another claim for
distinction, as having introduced into France and
popularised Schubert's songs. Indeed it was he
who drew the attention of the Viennese to them
in 1842, at a time when Schubert was completely
eclipsed by Proch, Hackel, etc., and an occa-
sional performance of the Wanderer was the
only sign of his existence (Hanslick, Concert-
wesen, 346). Wartel's wife,

Atala-Theeese- Annette, n6e Adrien, was
born July 2, 1814. Her father was violinist at
the Grand Op^ra, and leader of the Conserva-
toire band. She received instruction in music
at the Conservatoire, was appointed accom-
panyist there, and in 1831 obtained a profes-
sorship, which she resigned in 1838. She was
tlie first female instrumentalist ever engaged at
the Society des Concerts. In 1S59 she visited
England with her husband, and gave a concert
at the house of Mr. Grote, where she played
JNIendelssohn's Pianoforte Trio in D minor with
Joachim and Patti. She composed Studies and
other works, including her Lessons on the Piano-
forte Sonatas of Beethoven. Their son,

Fmil, was engaged for many years at the
Theatre Lyrique, but has since then established
a vocal school of his own. [A.C.]

WARWICK, Thomas, of the family of War-
wick, or Warthwyke, of Warwicke, Cumberland,
was, in 1625, a musician for the lute to Charles
I. On July I in the same year he was sworn
organist of the Chapel Royal in the place of

Online LibraryGeorge GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) by eminent writers, English and foreign : with illustrations and woodcuts (Volume 4) → online text (page 91 of 194)