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Grove's Dictionary of music and musicians : American supplement : being the sixth volume of the complete work online

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developed through the progressive liberality
of Reuben R. Springer, to whom it owes its
endowment and much of its equipment.
Theodore Thomas was director in 1878-80,
but resigned because of disagreement with
Nichols as to administrative policy. Nichols
was succeeded as president in 1885 by Peter
Rudolph Neff, who continued till 1894. In
1894-99 Frank Van der Stucken was director,
and in 1899-1920 Arnold J. Gantvoort was
general manager. From the first the College
has had close relations with the Festival
Association. The faculty numbers about 25,
including many names of national reputation.
The total number of students since the begin-
ning has been about 30,000, and the annual
enrolment is about 700. There have been
about 500 full graduates, besides perhaps
1400 receiving certificates. The College has
its own buildings, which contain unusually
commodious concert-halls.

'college' was originally an adaptation to
colonial conditions of a type of institution for
higher education that was prevalent in Eng-
land. The pioneer settlers were alive to the
importance of training intellectual and moral
leaders. Of the colleges now existing 2 date
from before 1700, about 25 from before 1800,
and about 35 from before 1835. Though
technically organized in somewhat different
forms, these really exemplified a single type.
They were for men only, especially of the
upper social classes, were designed to prepare
for 'the learned professions,' especially the

ministry, and offered a fixed four years' cur-
riculum leading to the degree of A.B.

After about 1835 the number of these in-
stitutions increased rapidly, but the original
type was either much modified or replaced
by new types. Colleges for men gradually
altered the balance of the curriculum, so aa
to make a more democratic appeal and prepare
for varied careers, and tended to allow increas-
ing freedom in the choice of studies. The
new types included colleges for women only,
those for both sexes, the composite 'state
universities,' and a variety of special or
occupational schools. A few of the earlier
colleges had had something of a true 'uni-
versity' ideal, and others adopted it, though
without dropping or minimizing their
'academic' or 'collegiate' departments. In
general, except in the case of the 'state uni-
versities' and a few others, all colleges are
private corporations and with few exceptions
are affiliated with some religious denomination,
either by origin or by present administration.
After about 1835, in consequence of the rapid
expansion of the country, great differences
of policy and standard became common in
different sections. Much of this inequality
still persists, though with a tendency toward
a degree of uniformity through competition
or mutual agreement.

The number of institutions counted in this
general class by the United States Bureau of
Education is now over 600. Of these, those
for men number only about 60 (almost wholly
in the East), those for women about 90
(chiefly in the East and South), and those
for both men and women at least 350, includ-
ing the 'state universities' as a class. The
balance are special institutions not important
for consideration here.

Music as a topic for study had no place in
the older curriculum. It did not appear until
differentiation set in, and even then for a long
time only sporadically. It is still unusual
in colleges for men, except where they have
expanded into universities. But in almost
every divergent type it has been emphasized
in colleges for women,' in those for men and
women, in state and most other universities,
and even in some specializing colleges. The
growth of this recognition has become so
extensive that some summary statements about
it are demanded here, although the amount
and intricacy of the data at hand defy satis-
factory presentation in any brief form. 1

In the topics that may be offered for entrance
to many colleges, 'music' is often included, but
credit is confined to certain lines of theory or
information rather than expertness in per-

In preparing this article far more material was
collected than it has proved possible to use.




formance. This brings the colleges into rela-
tion with those high schools that offer musical

Within college systems two distinct policies
are in evidence. The first makes music a
'chair' or 'department' like other subjects,
with a professor who is a member of the general
faculty. The second sets music apart in a
distinct 'school' or 'conservatory,' with its
own faculty and curriculum, either directly
controlled by the college authorities or bound
up with the system by some form of affiliation.
In a few cases under this second class music
is grouped with drawing, painting, sculpture,
architecture or other expressional arts in a
'school of fine art.' Under the first type
access to music-courses is usually limited to
those fully matriculated in the college, and the
courses that are magnified are those that are
readily coordinated with other courses in
science, history and literature, though there
is an increasing tendency to allow credit for
courses in musical praxis as well. Credit in
music counts (within some limitations) toward
the A.B. degree. Under the second type
music-courses are usually open to students
not otherwise matriculated, so that the
institution becomes a public music-school
(though usually with requirements for admis-
sion equivalent to those in the college proper) .
To college-students credit is given toward an
A.B., and in some cases this degree may be
taken with music as a 'major.' The topics
most universally credited are harmony,
appreciation and history, though the exact
method of credit varies much. Work in
praxis is also being credited more and more,
though with much natural restriction. For
non-collegiate students full music-courses
usually cover at least four years, with latitude
as to emphasis upon an instrument or the
voice, leading generally to the degree of Mus.
B. Less strenuous courses lead to a diploma
of graduation, a teacher's certificate (usually
for three years' work) or a public-school
certificate (usually for two years' work). In
all such cases the student is required to follow
a somewhat extensive curriculum, including
some subjects not musical. But many
schools also admit special students for limited
courses of their own choosing.

Topics that are taken in class, especially if
for college credit, are generally not subject
to fees, but individual lessons are as a rule
charged for at rates that vary widely in
different institutions. The use of rooms and
instruments for practice also involves extra
expense to the student. This pecuniary factor
places much music-study on a different footing
from other studies. On the other hand, most
institutions that emphasize music take over
into their general budget a large portion of

the 'overhead' charges of the department or

In general, theory-courses include rudi-
mentary training, appreciation (usually with
considerable demonstration), harmony (syn-
thetic and analytic), form, composition
(often extending to fugue and orchestration),
history (usually lectures and demonstration
combined), pedagogical methods (especially
for public-school work, but also for individual
teaching), and sometimes acoustics, aesthetics
and the relation of fine art to culture. The
praxis-courses usually include piano, organ,
violin and voice, and sometimes a variety of
other instruments. In most cases there are
one or more choruses (often large oratorio-
societies), a choir and one or two glee-clubs.
Orchestras and bands are becoming increas-
ingly common. Many institutions have at
least one large organ. Several have musical
libraries of importance. Wherever music
is emphasized a separate building is provided,
including a large recital-hall, often with an
elaborate equipment of practice-rooms, etc.
Extended and varied opportunities are quite
generally offered in the way of frequent recitals
and concerts, either by members of the staff
or by visiting artists and organizations. In
many cases there is an annual 'festival.'
Thus even institutions remote from musical
centers are able to supply a certain amount
of musical demonstration and experience.

The pedagogical consequences of bringing
music-courses into close connection with those
in other subjects are obvious. They are
forced to become definite and systematic,
so as to be stated with precision and be subject
to periodic examination. This is evidently
bringing to pass a notable degree of stand-
ardization. Emphasis is naturally laid upon
securing teachers whose training and quality
are comparable with that in the rest of the
faculty-body. There is a marked tendency
to exalt the relation of music as a discipline
to general culture rather than to treat it as
merely a means for securing a livelihood.
Whatever pervasive influence for culture
exists in the institution as a whole reacts on
all who pursue music, even as special students.
Even those who rank as only music-students
are often required to take some literary or
other studies.

It is impracticable to give details, except
in a few conspicuous cases, about the scope,
organization and facilities of the music-depart-
ments or schools in each institution. But
the following register, with its occasional
notes, will have some utility. In each case
the head of the department is named (the
director, dean, professor or chief instructor),
with the total number in the music-faculty
and the names of previous heads who have




had long or notable service. The institutions
are given in geographical order by states, but
alphabetically by places within the states.


Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me.

Edward H. Wass.
Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H.

Leonard B. McWhood (from 1918). Charles H.
Morse, 1901-16 and emeritus ; Philip G. Clapp,
Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.

William P. Bigelow (from 1894).
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Walter R. Spalding (from 1903) +4. John K.

Paine, 1862-1906.
Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.

Sumner Salter (from 1905).
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

David Stanley Smith (from 1920) +11. Gustav
J. Stoeckel, 1854-96, Horatio Parker, 1894-1919.
Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y.

William H. Hoerrner (from 1912) +1.
College of the City of New York, New York City.

Samuel A. Baldwin (from 1907).
Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.

George A. Rusaell (from 1917).
Seton Hall College, South Orange, N. J.

Francis C. Schreiner.
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

Abel L. Gabert.
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind.

Charles Marshall +4.
Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis.

Liborius Semmann (from 1911) +35. See art.
DePaul University, Chicago, 111.

Walter Keller (from 1912).


Girls' schools were occasionally undertaken
in New England from about 1810. After 1837
more significant 'seminaries' began to be
established, including Mount Holyoke in
Massachusetts, many in the South, and some
in Ohio and Illinois, but only two or three
offering anything like a 'college' curriculum.
After the Civil War the number increased
and the standard was rapidly raised. There
was no music-instruction till about 1860, but it
has now become almost universal (with Sim-
mons, Bryn Mawr and Goucher as striking ex-
ceptions) . As a rule, these music-departments
are well organized and decidedly effective.

Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass.

Walter R. Spalding (from 1903), with some op-
portunities at Harvard University.
Smith College, Northampton, Mass.

Henry Dike Sleeper (from 1903) +23. Benjamin
C. Blodgett, 1878-1903, Louis A. Coerne,
Wheaton College, Wheaton, Mass.

Hiram G. Tucker (from 1878) +1.
Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass.

William C. Hammond (from 1900) +10.
Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass.

Hamilton, C. Macdougall (from 1900) +10. Charles

H. Morse, 1875-84, Junius W. Hill, 1884-97.
Connecticut College, New London, Conn.
Louis A. Coerne (from 1915) +3.

Wells College, Aurora, N. Y.

Emil K. Winkler (from 1894) +5.
Elmira College, Elmira, N. Y.

George M. McKnight (from 1894) +7. Max Pi-

utti, 1874-83, Edward Dickinson, 1883-92.
Barnard College, New York City.

Some courses open at both Columbia University

and the Institute of Musical Art.
Hunter College, New York City.

Henry T. Fleck +7.
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

George C. Gow (from 1895) +8. Frederic L.
Ritter, 1867-91, Edward M. Bowman, 1891-
Skidmore School of Arts, Saratoga Springs, N. Y.

A. Stanley Osborn (from 1917) +3.
Beaver College, Beaver, Pa.

M. Ellery Reed (from 1918) + 6.
Moravian Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa.

T. Edgar Shields + 3.
Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pa.

Rudolph Wertime (from 1917) +3. Orlando

A. Mansfield, 1912-17.
Irving-College, Mechanicsburg, Pa.

Harry C. Harper, 1903-18.
Pennsylvania College for Women, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Walter Wild (till 1920) +4. T. Carl Whitmer,

Hood College, Frederick, Md.

Henry W. Pearson (from 1916) +5.
Maryland College for Women, Lutherville, Md.

Howard R. Thatcher (from 1906) +5.
Sullins College, Bristol, Va.

Carl Fallberg (from 1917) +8.
Rollins College, Hollins, Va.

Erich Rath (from 1907) +6. J. A. E. Winkler,

1852-62, H. L. Pauli, 1873-92.
Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Va.

John H. Davis (from 1899) +7.
Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, Va.

Helen F. Young +5.
Queen's College, Charlotte, N. C.

J. R. Niniss +4.
Greensboro College for Women, Greensboro, N. C. '

Conrad Lahser (from 1914) +6.
Meredith College, Raleigh, N. C.

Charlotte Ruegger (from 1915) +9.
Salem College, Winston-Salem, N. C.

H. A. Shirley (from 1896) +13.
Chicora College, Columbia, S. C.

Heinrich H. Bellamann (from 1907) +9.
Coker College, Hartsville, S. C.

Carl J. Tolman (from 1908) +7. Festivals since

Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C.

Henry D. Guelich (from 1914) +12. A. O.

Bauer, 1902-14.
Converse College, Spartanburg, S. C.

Edmon Morris (from 1913) +6. Arthur L. Man-
chester, 1904-13. Festivals since 1895.
Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Ga.

Christian W. Dieckmann (from 1918) +3. Joseph

Maclean, 1893-1918.
Bessie Tifft College, Forsyth, Ga.

William P. Twaddell (from 1920) +10.
Brenau College, Gainesville, Ga.

Otto W. G. Pfefferkorn + 11. August Geiger,

Wesleyan College, Macon, Ga.

Joseph Maerz (from 1914) +11.
Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Fla.

Ella S. Opperman (from 1911) +7.
Oxford College for Women, Oxford, O.

Clem A. Towner (from 1914) +4. Karl Merz,
1861-82, Max V. Swarthout, 1905-11.




Western College for Women, Oxford, O.

Alice A. Porter (from 1901) +6. Edgar S. Kelley,

associated from 1910.
Lake Erie College, Painesville, O.

Henry T. Wade +3.
Milwaukee-Downer College, Milwaukee, Wis.

Claudia W. McPheeters (from 1895) +7. John

C. Fillmore, 1878-84.
Illinois Woman's College, Jacksonville, 111.

Henry V. Stearns +11.
Rockford College, Rockford, 111.

Laura G. Short (from 1918). F. Marion Ralston,

Hamilton College, Lexington, Ky.

Isabel Mets (from 1914) + 3.
Tennessee College, Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Stanley Levey (from 1918) +4.
Judson College, Marion, Ala.

Edward L. Powers (from 1900) +7.
Woman's College of Alabama, Montgomery, Ala.

Edward B. Perry (from 1917) +5.
Belhaven College, Jackson, Miss.

Mary Wharton +5.
College of St. Catharine, St. Paul, Minn.

S. Scion ti +11.
College of St. Teresa, Winona, Minn.

Glenn D. Gunn, Horace G. Seaton, William Mc-

Phail, Ancella M. Fox.
Central College, Lexington, Mo.

Delano F. Conrad (from 1897) + 4.
Hardin College, Mexico, Mo.

Arthur L. Manchester (from 1918).
Central College, Conway, Ark.

J. Harry Aker +6.
H. Sophie Newcomb College, New Orleans, La.

Leon R. Maxwell (from 1909) +13.
Baylor Female College, Belton, Tex.

T. S. Lovette +6.
Colorado Woman's College, Denver, Colo.

Josephine S. White (from 1911) +3.
Mills College, Mills College, Cal.

Edward F. Schneider + 10. Louis Lisser, 1880-
1900 and emeritus.


Coeducation in colleges first appeared in
1833 at Oberlin and from 1850 steadily became
more common, especially in the State Uni-
versities as they were founded and in other
institutions in the Interior and the West.
(For the State Universities, see article.) As
a class, colleges of this order tend to provide
musical instruction, often in an extended and
impressive way. They are often notably
successful in arousing enthusiasm for choral
music of different grades. While the. cultural
ideal is usually emphasized, occupational
preparation is also provided for, especially
as regards teaching.

Bates College, Lewiston, Me.

Edwin L. Goss.
Colby College, Waterville, Me.

Alice H. White.
Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt.

Lewis J. Hathaway.
Boston University, Boston, Mass.
John P. Marshall (from 1903) +8 lecturers. After
the founding of the New England Conservatory
in 1867 Boston University was loosely affiliated
with it, offering advanced work in composition.

Tufts College, Tufts College, Mass.

Leo R. Lewis (from 1895).
Brown University, Providence, R. I.

Edwin E. Wilde (from 1914).
Alfred College, Alfred, N. Y.

Ray W. Wingate (from 1912).
Adelphi College, Brooklyn, N. Y.

William A. Thayer +1.
Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y.

William L. Wood.
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Hollis E. Dann (from 1906).
Columbia University, New York City.

Daniel Gregory Mason (from 1910) +3. Edward
A. MacDowell, 1896-1904, Cornelius Rybner,
1904-19. In Teachers College, Charles H. Farns-
worth (from 1900).
New York University, New York.

Thomas Tapper (from 1908) and William L. Wright

(from 1914).
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y.

George A. Parker (from 1882) +20.
Upsala College, Kenilworth, N. J.

Oscar M. Magnusson.
Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pa.

E. Edwin Sheldon +5.
Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa.

Frances E. Waddel +4.
Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa.

John M. Jolls +2.
Thiel College, Greenville, Pa.

Stanley J. Seiple +4.
Grove City College, Grove City, Pa.

Hermann Poehlmann +3.
Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pa.

Edythe M. Ring +2.
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa.

Paul G. Stolz +7.
Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa.

Per Nielsen +6. William W. Campbell, 1906-19.
Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa.

Thaddeus Rich +13.
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Will Earhart (from 1919) +2.
Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, Pa.

Rudolph J. Meyer +2.
Blue Ridge College, New Windsor, Md.

William Z. Fletcher +4.
Western Maryland College, Westminster, Md.

Maude E. Gesner +3.
Bridgewater College, Bridgewater, Va.

Charles W. Roller (from 1905) +3. George B.

Holsinger, 1882-98.
Bethany College, Bethany, W. Va.

Jean C. Moos (from 1899) +2.
West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, W. Va.

George S. Bohanan (from 1916) +3.
Elon College, Elon, N. C.

Ava L. B. Dodge +4.
Atlantic Christian College, Wilson, N. C.

Ivy M. Smith +3.
Piedmont College, Demorest, Ga.

S. P. Spencer +2.
J. B. Stetson University, DeLand, Fla.

Paul R. Geddes +4.
Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla.

Susan H Dyer +7.
.Ohio Northern University, Ada, O.

Frederic T. Killeen (from 1916) +2.
Mount Union College, Alliance, O.

Edwin L. Allen (from 1917) +5.
Ohio University, Athens, O.

Alexander S. Thompson (from 1913) +9.
Baldwin- Wallace College, Berea, O.

Albert Riemenschneider (from 1898) +9.




Bluffton College, Bluffton, O.

Gustav A. Lehmann +8.
Cedarvilla College, Cedarville, O.

Florence Russell (from 1918) +1.
Western Reserve University, Cleveland, O.

Charles E. Clemens (from 1899) +1.
Defiance College, Defiance, O.

Flossie E. Whitney (from 1916) +3.
Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, O.

Horace Whitehouse (from 1918) +8. Samuel H.
Blakeslee, 1884-96, Charles M. Jacobus, 1901-
18. Music-courses since 1854.
Findlay College, Findlay, O.

Royal D. Hughes (from 1916) +3.
Denison University, Granyille, O.

Karl H. Eschman (from 1913) +7. Otto Eng-
werson, 1894-1904, Carl P. Wood, 1906-13.
Musical instruction began about 1840. Festi-
vals since 1905.
Hiram College, Hiram, O.

T. Morgan Phillips +2.
Muskingum College, New Concord, O.

Edward H. Freeman (from 1914) +2.
Oberlin College, Oberlin, O.

Charles W. Morrison (from 1902) +35. George
N. Allen, 1837-64, Fenelon B. Rice, 1869-1901.
Rio Grande College, Rio Grande, O.

Edna V. Starr.
Wittenberg College, Springfield, O.

Miriam H. Weaver +4.
Heidelberg University, Tiffin, O.

Frank W. Gilles +6.
Otterbein College, Westerville, O.

Glenn G. Grabill +4.
Wilmington College, Wilmington, O.

Ruth Brundage +1.
College of Wooster, Wooster, O.

Neille O. Rowe (from 1914) +6. Karl Merz,

1882-90, J. Lawrence Erb, 1905-13.
Adrian College, Adrian, Mich.

Harrison D. LeBaron (from 1919) +2.
Albion College, Albion, Mich.

Harlan J. Cozine +4.
Alma College, Alma, Mich.

Clifford F. RoyeY +3.
Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Mich.

Melville W. Chase (from 1869) +3.
Hope College, Holland, Mich.

Oscar Cress +2.
Olivet College, Olivet, Mich.

Elsie Duffield (from 1920) + 3. Elizabeth B. Bint-

liff, 1893-1909.
Earlham College, Earlham, Ind.

Samuel B. Garton +2.
Franklin College, Franklin, Ind.

Minnie B. Bruner (from 1898) +1.
Goshen College, Goshen, Ind.

Amos S. Ebersole (from 1915) +4.
DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind.

Robert G. McCutchan (from 1911) +11. James
H. Howe, 1884-94, Belle A. Mansfield, 1894-
Hanover College, Hanover, Ind.

Lloyd L. Alexander.
Indiana Central University, Indianapolis, Ind.

Marged E. Jones +1.
Taylor University, Upland, Ind.

A. Verne Westlake +6.
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind.

Edmund W. Chaffee (from 1899) +9. Henri W. J.
Ruifrok, 1889-95, William W.Hinshaw, 1895-99.
Vincennes University, Vincennes, Ind.

Joyce H. Hetley +2.
Lawrence College, Appleton, Wis.

Frederick V. Evans +14.

Beloit College, Beloit, Wis.

Max Miranda (from 1919). B. D.Allen, 1894-

1902, Abram R. Tyler, 1902-11.
Ripon College, Ripon, Wis.

Elizabeth B. Bintliff (from 1909) +5. John C.
Fillmore, 1868-77, Rossetter G. Cole, 1892-
Carroll College, Waukesha, Wis.

Clarence E. Shepard +2.
Hedding College, Abingdon, 111.

Mrs. Henry Lee Gash (from 1919) +3.
Shurtleff College, Alton, III.

Cornelia Brownlee (from 1918).
Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 111.

Edward Y. Mason (from 1919) +6. Henry P.

Eames, 1913-19.
Carthage College, Carthage, 111.

Ann Dvorsky (from 1914) +4.
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.

Robert W. Stevens (from 1911).
James Millikin University, Decatur, III.

Max V. Swarthout (from 1914) +18. Hermann

H. Kaeuper, 1903-14.
Eureka College, Eureka, III.

F. J. Sucher (from 1918) +4.
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.

Peter C. Lutkin (from 1897) +33.
Knox College, Galesburg, 111.

William F. Bentley (from 1885) +9. Festivals

since 1900.
Lombard College, Galesburg, 111.

Anna G. Bryant (from 1912) +4.
Greenville College, Greenville, HI.

Louwillie Kessler +4.
Illinois College, Jacksonville, 111.

William E. Kritch +10.
Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, 111.

Henry P. Eames +5.
Lincoln College, Lincoln, 111.

Herbert O. Merry +3.
Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111.

T. Merrill Austin +5.
Northwestern College, Naperville, III.

J. Francis Maguire +3.
Augustana College, Rock Island, 111.

J. Victor Bergquist (from 1912).
Wheaton College, Wheaton, 111.

Mabel A. Rippe +2.
Berea College, Berea, Ky.

Ralph Rigby (from 1905) +3.
Georgetown College, Georgetown, Ky

Bertram C. Henry +3.
Asbury College, Wilmore, Ky.

Edwin A. Gowen (from 1917) +4.
Kentucky Wesleyan College, Winchester, Ky.

Anna C. Goff +1.
Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn.

W. H. A. Moore +1.
Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn.

Jennie A. Robinson +6.
Carleton College, Northfield, Minn.

Edward Strong (from 1912) +5.
St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn.

F. Melius Christiansen +10.
Hamline University, St. Paul, Minn.

John A. Jaeger +3.
Macalester College, St. Paul, Minn.

Harry Phillips (from 1896) +15.
Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minn.

O. Waldemar Anderson +3.
Coe College, Cedar Rapids, la.

Earle G. Killeen (from 1910) +7.
Des Moines College, Des Moines, la.

Edith M. Usry (from 1912) +2. Maro L. Bartlett ,



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