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tion in the Sonzogno competition at Milan
in 1902, was given in New York in 1903, and
was published by the Church Co.

COTTLOW, AUGUSTA (Apr. 2, 1878,
Shelbyville, 111.), after early lessons from her
mother, gave a piano-recital in Chicago when
only seven. She studied there with Wolfsohn
(piano) and Gleason (harmony), and made
her d6but with orchestra in 1889. In 1891
she first appeared in New York, playing the
Chopin E minor concerto under Seidl. In
1896 at Berlin she studied piano with Busoni
and theory with Boise. Concert-tours through
Germany, Holland, England and Russia
followed, and in 1900 she returned to America,
appearing first at the Worcester Festival.
She has made repeated tours, has played with
the Boston Symphony and other orchestras,
and, after a long sojourn in Berlin, is now
permanently in the United States. She married
Edgar A. Gerst of Berlin in 1912. [ R.7 ]

2, 1886, Antwerp, Belgium), early evinced
musical talent, playing concertos and sym-
phonies by ear at seven. He was taken as
piano-pupil by Blockx, then director of the
Antwerp Conservatory, continuing five years.
He played the organ at Notre Dame College
at twelve, writing his first composition, 'Vias
Tuas,' for boy-choir, string-quartet and organ.
At the solicitation of Mailly, of the Brussels
Conservatory, he entered on a four-years
course in organ and became his favorite pupil.
He took harmony with Gilson and Huberti,
counterpoint with Tinel, and won prizes in
piano and harmony in 1901, and in counter-
point, fugue, and transposition in 1902,
besides the International Competition (against
eight contestants). From 1902 he wag or-




ganist at Antwerp Cathedral, giving recitals
also in London, Paris, Rheims, Lille, Boulogne,
Liibeck, Hamburg, Louvain, Bruges, Liege,
etc. In 1904 he came to Oswego, N. Y., as
organist at St. Paul's, going thence to the
First Baptist Church in Syracuse, where he
has the largest organ in the State outside of
New York City. In 1917-18 he was also
municipal organist at Springfield, Mass. He
has lately undertaken concert-work, playing
with success in the East and the Middle West.
In 1919-20 he was concert-organist at the
Wanamaker Auditoriums in Philadelphia
and New York. At Philadelphia in March,
1919, he brought out Widor's Sixth Symphony
(dedicated to him) with the Philadelphia
Orchestra under Stokowski. He has written
several anthems, masses, other choral works,
and a 'Toccatina,' op. 13 all still in manu-
script. [ R.9 ]

29, 1852, Kingston, Jamaica). See article
in Vol. i. 630-1. He served as conductor
of the Cardiff Festival in 1902, '04, '07, '10,
of the Handel Festival at the Crystal Palace
in 1903, '06, '09, '12, '20, and of the Liverpool
Philharmonic Society till 1914. He received
an honorary Mus.D. from Edinburgh Uni-
versity in 1910, and was knighted in 1911.
Add to the list of works the cantata 'John
Gilpin' (1904), the oratorio 'The Veil' (1910),
the pantomime 'Monica's Blue Boy' (1917)
and the comedy-ballet 'Cupid's Conspiracy*
(1918). He has published My Art and My
Friends, 1913, and a humorous glossary,
Music as She is Wrote, 1915.

See Register, 9.

COWPER, HOLMES [Harry Mattingly]
(b. 1870). See COLLEGES, 3 (Drake U., la.).

(Kansas Wesley an U.).

(Albion C., Mich.).

CRAFT, MARCELLA (1880, Indian-
apolis) , had a high-school course at Riverside,
Cal. Thence she went to Boston, from 1897
studied with Charles R. Adams, and sang in
concert and oratorio throughout New England.
In 1901 she went to Europe, studying singing
under Guagni and acting under Mottino in
Milan. She made her debut as Leonora in
'II Trovatore' at Morbegno in March, 1902,
and sang in various Italian theaters for three
years. In 1905 began engagements of two
years at Mayence, two at Kiel and five at the
Royal Opera in Munich, with guest-appear-
ances in many other cities. She had just
finished at Munich when the war began, and
she sailed for America in August, 1914. Here
she has appeared with the Chicago, Cincinnati,
St. Louis, Philadelphia and Minneapolis

Orchestras. During 1917-18 she sang aa
guest with the San Carlo Opera Company
and with the Society of American Singers
in New York. She has also been heard at
the Worcester, Maine, Oberlin and other
Festivals, and at four of the remarkable
Easter services on Mt. Rubidoux, Cal. She
has given many song-recitals in the larger
cities. She has taken the leading soprano-
roles in 'Madama Butterfly,' 'La Boheme,'
'La Traviata,' 'Faust,' 'Salome,' 'I Pagliacci,'
'II Segreto di Susanna,' 'II Trovatore,' 'Aida,'
'Otello,' 'Martha,' ' Rigoletto,' 'Carmen,'
' Tales of Hoffmann,' ' Tiefland,' ' Lohengrin,'
'Tannhauser,' 'Die Meistersinger,' 'The Magic
Flute,' 'Don Giovanni,' 'Benvenuto Cellini'
and 'Le Donne Curiose.' [ R.9 ]

CRANE, JULIA ETTIE (b. 1855). See
Register, 6.

CREHORE, BENJAMIN (d. 1819). See
Register, 2.

C., Mich.).

CRIST, BAINBRIDGE (Feb. 13, 1883,
Lawrenceburg, Ind.), spent his youth in
Washington, where he graduated from the
Law School in 1906. He then practiced in
Boston until after six years he abandoned the
law for music, which he had pursued since
childhood. He then studied in London, Paris
and Berlin, taking composition under Juon, and
singing under Emerich and Shakespeare.
For a tune he settled in London, but the
outbreak of the war caused him to return to
Boston, where he is engaged in composition,
vocal teaching and coaching. In 1918 he
temporarily abandoned music to put his legal
experience into war-work, but resigned shortly
after the armistice was signed. His com-
positions include the following :

For orchestra the choreographic drama ' Le Pied
de la Momie ' (1914, England), the symphonic
suite 'Egyptian Impressions' (1915, Boston Sym-
phony Orchestra), the vocal poem 'The Parting,'
and the coloratura aria 'O come hither' (last
three, Carl Fischer).

For string-quartet ' Japonaise ' and ' Clavecin.'

For piano 'Egyptian Impressions,' 'Retrospec-
tions ' (both Fischer) and ' Miniatures ' (Augener).

For voice 'Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes,'
' Drolleries from an Oriental Doll's House,' ' Into a
ship, dreaming,' 'This is the moon of roses,' 'The
Old Soldier,' ' You will not come again,' ' Yester-
year,' 'April Rain,' 'To the Water- Nymphs,'
'Butterflies,' 'C'est mon ami,' 'Tell Me,' ' Girl of
the red mouth,' 'Three Balladettes' (Fischer);
'Mistletoe,' 'Some One,' 'To Arcady,' 'If there
were dreams to sell,' 'The Little Bird,' 'A
Memory,' 'To Columbine,' 'Like April's kissing
May,' 'No Limit,' 'Shower of Blossoms,' 'Sep-
tember Eve,' 'The Window,' 'I can't abear,' 'The
Little Old Cupid ' (Boston Music Co.) ; A Bag of
Whistles,' 'The auld Scotch sangs ' (Ditson);
';The Lost Path,' 'Roses/ (Augener); 'To Folly
and Whim' (Schott) ; 'Au Clair de la Lune'
(Homeyer). [ R.10 ]




Chicago, was built in 1865 by Uranus H.
Crosby on Washington Street, between State
and Dearborn. It contained by far the best
opera-auditorium that Chicago had had, a
music-hall, art-gallery and numerous studios
for artists and others. It was opened with
opera-seasons under Grau and a concert-
season under Max Strakosch, and for a time
was the arena for much good music. But the
investment did not pay, and in January, 1867,
the building was put up at lottery, but in some
way merely transferred to Albert Crosby,
who continued it with curiously diversified
undertakings. In the fall of 1871 it was
renovated at large expense and the work had
just been completed when on Oct. 8, the
day before it was to be reopened with a concert
by the Thomas Orchestra, it was destroyed
in the great fire. See Upton, Musical Mem-
ories, pp. 236-51.

CROSS, BENJAMIN (1786-1857). See
Register, 3.

1833, Philadelphia : Sept. [26, 1897, Phila-
delphia) , son and pupil of the foregoing, also
studied composition with Meignen, violin with
Charles Hommann and 'cello with Engelke.
From 1848 he was organist, first at St. Patrick's
and other churches, from 1862 at the (R. C.)
Cathedral and from 1880 at Holy Trinity
(P. E.). He directed various local organiza-
tions, besides others in New York and Brook-
lyn, and was a prominent teacher (Huneker
was one of his pupils). Like his father, he
exerted a powerful influence for good in the
musical life of Philadelphia. [ R.4 ]

COLLEGES, 3 (Culver-Stockton C., Mo.).

NICHOLLS (1808-1896). See Register, 4.

18, 1835, Vilna, Russia : Mar. 14, 1918,
Petrograd). See article in Vol. i. 643-5, add-
ing that 'Mam'zelle Fifi' was produced in
Petrograd in 1903 and that two further operas
were 'Matteo Falcone' (1908, Moscow) and
'The Captain's Daughter' (1911, Petrograd).
Note also critical sketch by the Comtesse
Mercy-Argenteau, Paris, 1888, and Weimarn,
Cui as Song-Writer, Petrograd, 1897, besides
general works on Russian music.

See Register, 9.

UNIVERSITIES (Mont. State C.).

27, 1866, Chelsea, Mass.), was a pupil of
Kneisel in violin and of MacDowell in com-
position and orchestration. For some years
he was engaged as choral and orchestral
conductor. In 1914 he taught in Berlin,
but then became teacher of harmony at the
New England Conservatory in Boston. His
larger works, still in manuscript, are the
overture 'Blomidon' (1902, Worcester); an
' Elegie ' in the form of an overture ; the
symphonic poem 'Atala,' after Chateau-
briand (1908, given 1911, Boston Symphony
Orchestra) ; and ' The Winning of Amarac,'
a Keltic legend for reader, women's chorus
and orchestra. He has published choruses
for men's, women's or mixed voices, 11 songs,
a Barcarolle and other piano-pieces. [ R.9 ]

1920). See Register, 7.


CURTIS, VERA (b. 1880). See Register,

1902). See Register, 4.

CUTTER, BENJAMIN (Sept. 6, 1857,
Woburn, Mass. : May 10, 1910, Boston),
was the son of a physician of musical tastes.
He studied violin with Eichberg in Boston and
with Edmund Singer in Stuttgart, harmony
with Emery in Boston and composition with
Goetschius and Seifriz in Stuttgart. On
his return to Boston he first taught violin,
but from 1888 concentrated upon harmony
and analysis, becoming professor at the New
England Conservatory. In 1882-89 he played
in the Boston 'Symphony Orchestra. He was
held in high regard as a superior teacher by
a large number of pupils. His larger com-
positions were a Mass in D, the cantata 'Sir
Patrick Spens,' considerable chamber-music,
and choral works, sacred and secular. He
also wrote Exercises in Harmony, 1901, Har-
monic Analysis, 1902, and How to Study
Kreutzer, 1903. [ R.7 ]

in four acts by Walter Damrosch on a libretto
made by William J. Henderson after the play
by Rostand. It was first given at the Metro-
politan Opera House in New York on Feb.
27, 1913, under the direction of Hertz, and four
times repeated.



DAILEY, LEE N. See COLLEGES, 3 organized the Denver Chorus Club in 1882,

(Yankton C., S. D.).

1885, London, England). See note in Vol.
v. 628. The list of his works in 1919 was

Symphony in A, for orchestra.

Overture, 'The Tempest,' for orchestra (1902).

Fantasia for organ and orchestra (1903).

Concert-Overture in G minor, for orchestra (1904).

Suite for viola and piano (1907) (Novello).

Phantasy for viola and piano (1911) (Schott).

Introduction and Andante for six violas (1913).

English Dance, for violin and piano (1916) (Anglo-
French Music Co.).

'Before the paling of the stars,' for chorus and
orchestra (1912) (Novello).

Sonata in D minor, for piano (1905) (Novello).

'Night-Fancies,' for piano (1907) (Ricordi).

The songs 'Carpe Diem' and 'A Dirge of Love'
(1918) (Shakespeare, Novello).

Three Carols, 'In Bethlehem, that noble place,'
'The Holy Birth,' 'The Shepherds and the
Mother' (first two, Novello, third, Stainer & Bell).

His viola-music has received special at-
tention, and, despite its novelty, has been
widely performed. From August, 1914, he
was long interned at Ruhleben, Germany.

DALMORES, CHARLES (Dec. 31, 1871,
Nancy, France), was trained at the Nancy
Conservatory, where he took prizes for French
horn and solfeggio, with 'cello as a secondary
study. The city of Nancy provided means
for his going on with the horn at the Paris
Conservatory. Here he took first prize in
1890 and played two years each in the Colonne
and Lamoureux Orchestras. In 1894 he
became professor at the Lyons Conservatory.
Meanwhile he studied singing with Dauphin,
and in 1899 made his d6but as tenor at the
Theatre des Arts in Rouen. Then followed
six years at La Monnaie in Brussels, seven
at Covent Garden and four (1906-10) at the
Manhattan Opera House in New York.
Since 1910 he has been with the Chicago Opera
Company. He took the role of Lohengrin
at Bayreuth in 1908 and in Berlin. He sings
in French, Italian and German, and has
appeared in 'Thais,' 'Louise,' 'Pell6as et
M61isande,' 'Salome,' 'Samson et Dalila,'
'Quo Vadis,' 'Romeo et Juliette,' 'Aida,'
'Siegfried,' 'Die Gotterdammerung,' 'Le Roi
Arthus,' 'Carmen' and 'Faust.' [ R.9 ]

See Register, 10.

1859, Breslau, Germany). See article in Vol.
i. 656-7. He was educated in the public
schools and the College of the City of New
York. Among his piano-teachers was Joseffy.
In 1879 he went to Denver because he wished
to make his own way on his merits. He

and was appointed music-director in the
public schools in 1884. Among his many
engagements as choral conductor in or near
New York after 1885 the most important was
with the Oratorio Society, which continued
till 1912. In 1905 he became director of the
Institute of Musical Art, founded and en-
dowed by James Loeb, and still occupies this
position. The aim of his life has been to spread
the appreciation and culture of good music
among all classes. The People's Singing-
Classes have initiated thousands of wage-
earners into the choral works of the great
masters. The Symphony Concerts for Young
People are training children and adults to
appreciate symphonic music. The Musical Art
Society emphasizes the old Flemish and Italian
masters, such as Palestrina and Orlando di
Lasso, and also the modern schools of a
cappella singing, appealing to a highly cul-
tivated taste. The Institute of Musical Art
provides for serious and talented students
the best obtainable musical education, equal
to that of the foremost European conserva-
tories. He has written Some Essentials in the
Teaching of Music, 1916, and has edited many
choral works, particularly] for the Musical Art
Society. In 1904 he received the degree of
Mus.D. from Yale University. [ R.7 ]

DAMROSCH, LEOPOLD (Oct. 22, 1832,
Posen, Germany : Feb. 15, 1885, New
York). See article in Vol. i. 656. Dr. Dam-
rosch was of commanding presence and strong
character. Although his constitution was
not robust he had an impressive fund of
energy and magnetism. All his life he strove
with every fiber of body and spirit for the
realization of the highest art-ideals and was
able to communicate his zeal to all about
him. On his arrival in America he found the
old Italian operas esteemed the greatest treat
of the musical season. Symphonic music
was presented with mechanical precision in
execution, but failed to render the spirit of
the music. Oratorios were performed in
a tedious and perfunctory manner. Against
opposition from the established forces, he
gradually attracted the cooperation of men
and women of true culture with whose help
he organized the musical societies mentioned
in Vol. i. and gained the opportunity to bring
the true genius of the great masters to the
consciousness of the musical public. It was
often a struggle against ignorance, indifference
and ill-will, but by his energy, perseverance
and knowledge, by his high artistic perception,
and by the charm of his personality, he
succeeded in winning the admiration and





confidence of the lovers of good music. In-
deed, the great advance in the appreciation
and culture of music in America during the
last forty years dates from the years of his
activity in New York and is largely due to
his labors. [ R.6 ]

(Jan. 30, 1862, Breslau, Germany). See arti-
cle in Vol. i. 657. He is still conductor
of the New York Symphony Society, which
was endowed in 1914 by Harry Harkness
Flagler, its president, with an annual income
of $100,000. In 1917 he also returned to the
conductorship of the New York Oratorio
Society. He directed the first American
productions of Tchaikovsky's Fifth and Sixth
Symphonies, Brahms' Fourth, and Elgar's
First and Second ; Saint-Saens ' ' Samson and
Delilah,' Tchaikovsky's 'Eugene Onegin'
and Wagner's 'Parsifal.' His opera 'Cyrano
de Bergerac' was performed at the Metro-
politan Opera House on Feb. 27, 1913; the
comic opera 'The Dove of Peace' (libretto
by Wallace Irwin) at Philadelphia and New
York in 1912 ; his incidental music to
Euripides' 'Iphigenia in Aulis' in California
in 1915 ; and he has also composed incidental
music to Euripides' ' Medea ' and Sophocles'
'Electra.' He received the degree of Mus.
D. from Columbia University in 1914. The
numerous and country-wide tours of the
orchestras under his direction have done
much for the enlargement of popular acquaint-
ance with standard orchestral works, besides
introducing many novelties. In 1920 the
Symphony Society, under his leadership,
made an extended tour in Europe. At Rome
he was made a member of the Order of the
Crown of Italy. [ R.7 ]

1875, Middleport, N. Y.), in 1916 succeeded
his father, William H. Dana, as head of
Dana's Musical Institute at Warren, O.
He studied piano with Jacob Schmitt, di
Kontski, Sherwood and Goldbeck, and theory
with H. Clark Thayer, W. H. Dana and J.
D. Cook. For fifteen years he was con-
nected with the Chautauqua Institution, in
1914-16 was president of the Ohio M. T. A.,
and he was the first secretary of the Association
of Present and Past Presidents of State
Music Teachers' Associations. He has com-
posed the oratorio ' The Triumph of Faith ' ;
many piano-pieces and songs ; a sonata for
violin and piano ; and a trio for violin, 'cello
and piano. He is director of the American
Musical Festival held annually at Lockport,
N.Y. [ R.8 ]

DANA, WILLIAM HENRY (1849-1916).
See Register, 6.

DANKS, HART PEASE (1834-1903).
See Register, 4.

1861, Canton, Pa.), after graduating from the
Canton High School in 1878, attended the
Elmira Business College and the Rochester
School of Music, and continued his musical
education for several years with private
instructors in Boston. He received the
degree of 'Mus.D. from Alfred University
in 1906. In 1887-1903 he had charge of
public-school music in Ithaca, N. Y. In
1906 he became the head of the department
of music in Cornell University. Under his
direction the Cornell Music Festival and the
Cornell Glee Club have become renowned.
In 1910 he established courses in the Univer-
sity summer-school for training supervisors
and teachers of music, which has become
a foremost agency of its kind. In 1918-19
he was song-leader at Camp Taylor in Ken-
tucky. In 1919 he was chorus-conductor for
the National Music Supervisors' Conference,
and was made president of the Conference
for 1920. He has contributed much to
public-school music, through text-books,
pamphlets and papers. Since 1910 he has
published Christinas Carols and Hymns, The
School Hymnal, Assembly Songs, 2 vols.,
Standard Anthems, vol. 1, and The Hollis
Dann Music Course, in seven grades, with a
Manual for Teachers. [ R.7 ]

1853, Cincinnati), after preliminary lessons
from local teachers, was sent by his brother
Edward to study in Berlin, where at the
Hochschule in 1871-73 his violin-teachers
were Joachim and De Ahna. After six
months in Paris he went to London, where
he taught and played for four years. In
1877 he returned to America and joined the
Mendelssohn Quintette Club, with which
he traveled for three years. He then settled
in Boston as teacher and player. With
C. N. Allen and Wulf Fries he played in
the Beethoven String Quartette, and for
two years was with the then newly-organ-
ized Boston Symphony Orchestra under
Henschel. In 1882-84 he directed the Buffalo
Philharmonic Society and gave about sixty
chamber-concerts. Coming to New York
in 1884, he founded the Beethoven Strins
Quartette (from 1894 till 1917 known as tho
Dannreuther Quartet) which was a leading
chamber-music organization. Lately he has
devoted himself entirely to teaching. He
has pubb'shed Elementary Scale- and Chord-
Studies for the Violin (Breitkopf) and has
in manuscript an extensive work on violin-
technique. [ R.6 ]

'DAPHNE.' A comic opera by Arthur
Bird, produced in New York in 1897.

DA PONTE, LORENZO (Mar. 10, 1749,
Ceneda [Vittorio], Italy : Aug. 17, 1838,




New York). See article in Vol. iii. 789-90.
In New York he not only joined himself to
Garcia in 1825-26, but largely through his
efforts the French tenor Montressor under-
took an opera-season late in 1832 at the
Richmond Hill Theater, which failed after
thirty-five performances. He then promoted
the erection of the Italian Opera House at
Church and Leonard Streets, which was opened
on Nov. 18, 1833, with a company led by
Rivafinoli. Six Rossini operas and one each
by Cimarosa, Pacini and Salvioni (conductor
of the company) formed the repertoire, and
the deficit after eight months was $30,000.
His Memorie, 4 vols., were published in New
York in 1823-27. He was buried in the
Catholic Cemetery on East Eleventh Street,
but in a grave unmarked. See Krehbiel,
Chapters of Opera, pp. 30-6. [ R.3 ]

DARBY, W. DERMOT (b. 1885). See
Register, 10.

DARLEY, WILLIAM. See Register, 2.


An opera by Arthur F. Nevin, produced on
Jan. 5, 1918, by the Chicago Opera Company
under the composer's direction.

JDAVEY, HENRY (Nov. 29, 1853,
Brighton, England), as he possessed an
exceptional memory, was very successful
in his school-days. In his youth he assisted
in his father's business. At 20 he went to
Leipzig and studied piano, composition and
especially harmony for three years. He
then lived at Brighton as teacher and writer
on musical subjects till he retired in 1903.
Literary work, particularly Shakespearean
research, has since been his principal occu-
pation. Besides many articles in The Dic-
tionary of National Biography, he has written
much in various English, German and
American musical journals. His principal
works are The Student's Musical History, 1891
(7th ed., 1919), History of English Music,
1895 (revised edition preparing), Handel, in
Masterpieces of Music, 1912, and apprecia-
tions in Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch (1896),
Monatshefte fur Musik-Geschichte (1896), in
Riemann's Geschichte der Musik seit Beethoven
(1900) and in Soubies' Histoire de la Musique,
lies Britanniqucs. His most important lit-
erary work is the Memoir in the Stratford
Town Edition of Shakespeare. An extensive
commentary on Shakespeare's works is well

6, 1869, Oswestry, England). See articles
in Vols.-i. 670-1 and v. 628-9. In addition
to his duties at the Temple Church, he was
conductor of the London Church Choir
Association in 1901-13, has been active as

an examiner and lecturer on musical subjects,
and during the war was a leader in the provision
of music for British soldiers. He has recently
become professor at the University of Wales.
His recent compositions arc the cantatas ' Five
Sayings of Jesus' (1911) and 'The Song of St.
Francis' (1912); the choral suite 'Noble
Numbers'; the orchestral suites 'Parthenia'
(1911) and 'Wordsworth' (1913); 'Conver-
sations,' a suite for piano and orchestra (1914) ;
and the a cappella 'Short Requiem' (1915).


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