George H. Dadd.

The anatomy and physiology of the horse: with anatomical and questional illustrations. Containing, also, a series of examinations on equine anatomy and physiology, with instructions in reference to dissection and the mode of making anatomical preparations. To which is added, glossary of veterinary t online

. (page 1 of 44)
Online LibraryGeorge H. DaddThe anatomy and physiology of the horse: with anatomical and questional illustrations. Containing, also, a series of examinations on equine anatomy and physiology, with instructions in reference to dissection and the mode of making anatomical preparations. To which is added, glossary of veterinary t → online text (page 1 of 44)
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1. Frontal bone.

2. Parietal.

3. Occipital.

4. Temporal.

5. Nasal.

6. Lachrymal.

7. Malar.

8. Superior maxillary.

9. Anterior "

10. Inferior "

11. Cervical vertebrae.

33. Scapula.

34. Humerus.

From 4 to 7 is the zjgomatic arch.


*. Ligamentum colli.

a". Trapezius.

6". Rhomboideus longus.

c". Scalenus.

e". Stcrno scapulari — pectoralis transversus.

f". Antea spinatus.

g". Postea spinatus.

h". Teres.

c. Dilator naris lateralis.

d. " " anterior.

e. Orbicularis oris.

f. NasaKs longus.

ff. Levator labii superioris.

h. Buccinator.

i. Zygomaticus.

j. Retractor labii inferiorus.

k. Masseter.

I. Abducens aiu:em.

m. Attolentes et adducens aiu-em.

n. Retrahentes aurem.

o. Adducens vel deprimens aurem.

p. r. Tendon of the splenius and complexus major.

q. ObUquus capitis superior.

s. Splenius.

t. Obliquus capitis inferiorus,

u. Levator humeri.

V. Sterno maxillaris.

X. Subscapulo-hyoideus.

1. Temporal vein.

2. Facial vein.

3. Jugular vein.
10. Parotid gland.








#lossarg of ycttrinarjt Eethnicaliiits, oTovuological (fbart, anb giritonarg of ©tftrhiarn ^rirnre.








Entered accoriliug to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.



American Veterinary Literature has hitherto possessed no work devoted to
the anatomy and physiology of the Horse ; consequently such subjects are
either discussed theoretically and imperfectly, or else fail to be noticed. But
a new era is now dawning upon Veterinary Science ; a spirit of inquiry is
abroad; and the people of this Republic find themselves in possession of some
of the most magnificent specimens of "Uve stock" to be found in the world.
The natural inquiry is, "How shall we protect our property?" And the
conclusion arrived at is, "Veterinary science offers the only probable and
practicable security against the numerous casualties incidental to the halitats
of the barn and stable."

Hitherto, much indifference has been manifested regarding this science, in
consequence of the difficulty encountered in its study, for want of proper
text-books and teachers ; and its unsatisfactory results when tested by men
unacquainted with its fundamental principles. The well-known works of
Enghsh and French authors furnish all the necessary information, yet their
cost is beyond the means of many, and, therefore, their circulation is very

In view, therefore, of supplying the above deficiency, which is disclosed in
the barrenness of our anatomical and 23hysiological knowledge, and for the
purpose of furnishing a work that shall come wuthm the reach and financial
means of all men, the author has undertaken the double task ; and it is hoped
that the effort will not be thought untimely.

There are a vast number of highly educated physicians in this country
who are often urged by their employers to give advice in the management,
medical and surgical treatment, of the inferior orders of creation ; yet decline
to do so, in consequence of a lack of authoritative knowledge regarding
anatomy, physiology, therapeutics, and pathology. To such, whose sympathies
lean in the right direction, and who are wiUing to give counsel, and lend a
helping hand in the restoration of a sick or d3dng animal, this work is offered,
and the author, therefore, submits it to their candid perusal and criticism.

The work, however, is principally intended for veterinary surgeons, teachers
of the art, and students of veterinary medicine, whose wants the author
professes to have some knowledge of; and he has endeavored, to the best of
his abiUty, to cater to the same.

The necessity for such a work, at the present time, is evident from the facts,
that three veterinary colleges have lately come into legislative existence, and


it is very uatui-al to suppose that, ere long, many candidates for the honors of
these institutions will knock at the door of science, and seek admittance ; they
must then need fe.ii-ho6ks ; and, m view of furnishing a part of what the author
foresees every teacher and student must necessarily need, he oifers this, not as
a work pregnant with his own ideas, for that were presumptuous, when anat-
omy and physiology are the texts ; but, as a work carefully prepared from the
writings of our best authorities, the work may be considered as the legitimate
offspring of scientific observation and experience.

Another argument in favor of the necessity that will soon exist for a text-
book of anatomy and physiology is founded on the fact, that agricultural
colleges will soon be endowed in every State of the Union ; many already
exist; and each mil, probably, endow a professorship of veterinary science.
With such, and among the young and aged men that may seek for knowledge^
the author hopes that his work may find favor; and, if such should be the result,
he will have the satisfaction of knowmg that he has not labored in vain.

There are other classes of men that need a work of this description; namely,
the husbandman, the horse-owner, and the horse-lover, as well as the purely
scientific man. The three first, incited by laudable sentiments, or pecuniary
motives, will read the following pages, and study the anatomical illustrations ;
some with veneration of that wonderful piece of mechanism, a horse's structure ;
others for the purpose of making themselves acquainted with the form, action,
and capacities of the same.

The purely scientific man, who desires to inform himself how veterinary
science is to be studied, — what are its legitimate objects, and its appropriate
sphere, — will read these pages with considerable profit.


Boston, January, 1857.


The plau of the author, in the commencement of this work, was to prepare a
complete manual of examinations on the Anatomy and Physiology of the Horse ;
but findino- that he could not bring the mutter withm the prescril^ed limits, the
plan was speedily abandoned. The examinations, exceptmg those descnptive
of the osseous structure, are intended, either to elicit some physiological tact,
or to introduce topics that have not been treated of in the body of the work.

In attempting to furnish the public with a systematic treatise on Anatomy
and Physiolocrj" it wiU be obvious that the author must necessarily avail
himself of the labor of others; for, as regards the science of anatomy, no one
has anythino- new to offer. The industrious anatomists and dissectors ot early
times have°borne off all the laurels, and there remains but little, if anything,
for future discovery. As regards physiology, also, there are very few tacts to
discover: we now allude," however, to practical physiology— that science which
teaches us the functions of the animal body, or the uses of its parts, ihe
author has, however, occasionally stepped beyond the details of practical
physiolo^ry, and has endeavored to throw some light on the complex combina-
tions in which vital phenomena present themselves, and the nature ot their
dependencies one upon another. _ Matter of this kind he has thought best to
introduce in the form of examinations. ■, , ^ x

In preparincr this work, the author has endeavored to select the most recent
and rehable information. The following list of authors consulted and com-
pUed from, together with the foot notes and the writers' names appended will
serve to indicate the principal sources on which the author has rehed tor
information. ^ , , , .

Mr PercivaU's Aiiatom>/ of the Horse has been freely employed m composing
the anatomical part of the work. The description of the abdommal viscera
is from the pen of Mr. Gamgee, and was witten as a pme cssai/, and pub-
lished in the London Veterinarian. Carpenter's Physiology, general and compar-
ative, is also quoted. Liebig's Chenmtry, Hooper's Dictionary, Percivalls Ucppa-
pathology, Eoget's Outlines of Physiology, have also been consulted, and extracts
made from the same. The iUustrations, not otherwise indicated, are by Inrard;
explanations translated by the author. For the loan of the French plates, the
author is indebted to C. C. Grice, V. S., of New York City. ^ ^^ , .. ,
The plan of the examinations was suggested to the author |jy Ludlow s Manual,
of Examinations,— ii work which he formerly, while studying medicine, had
occasion to use. The subject matter, in this work, of course diflers kom that ot

"fcliG foniiGr

In preparino- the ''Definitions of Veterinary Technicalities," and "Diction-
ary" the author has availed himself of the works of Cooper, Hooper, Cleve-
land, Blaine, Mahew, and White ; and, regarding the method of making ana-
tomical preparations, etc., the works of Parsons, Pope, and Swan, have been
consulted. ^- ^- ^-


Preface, - 3

Remarks regarding the composition of the work, .-.-.. - .. 6

Remarks on the osseous, cartilaginous, and ligamentous structures, .-..-. 11

TeGUMEXTARY System. — On the hair of horses ; examinations on the common integument; physiol-
ogy of the skin, of the cellular membrane, of the adipose tissue ; examinations on the same, 14-17
Of the External Parts. — The hoof; its form, spread, color, magnitude ; the wall ; its situation and
relation, connection, figure, di\'ision, solar border, laminae, quarters, heels, coronary border and

bars, 17-23

The Sole. — Situation and connection, figure, arch, di\ision, surfaces, and thickness, - - 23-25

The Frog. — Its situation and connection, figm-e, division, surfaces; the cleft of the frog, its supe-
rior sm-face, the sides, the commissures, toe, heels or bulb, coronary frog band ; development of
hoof; structure of the hoof; production of the hoof; propftties of horn, .... 25-30

Intern.u- Parts of the Hoof. — The coronary substance ; its situation, connection, structure, and

organization, ..-.-...-....-. 30-31

The C.\RTn,AGES. — Their situation, attachment, and form ; the false cartilages, and their use ; the

sensitive laminae ; division of the same ; elasticity, number, dimensions, and organization ; the

sensitive sole ; its structure, connection, thickness, and organization ; the sensitive frog ; its

situation, division, sti-uctm-e, and organization, ...-.. - - 31-34

A tabular \iew of the bones of the horse, -...-... - 35

Anatomy of the skeleton, introduced in the form of questions and answers, embracing a complete

system of osteology, -. - ... - - - - 36-54

Remarks on the changes which horses' teeth undergo, with examinations on the same, - - 54-56

Myology. — A table of the names and number of muscles, divided into regions, ... 57-60

A tabular s}'nopsis of the number, name, region, situation, insertion, and action of all the

muscles, 61-78

Ox DissECTlox. — Dissecting instruments; subjects suitable for dissection; rides in reference to

dissection of muscles, .......-..-.- 79-80

Anatomical Prep.aratioxs. — Injecting instruments; directions for using the sjTinge, - 80-81

On THE DiFFEREXT KiXDS OF INJECTIONS. — FormultB for coarse warm injections ; fine injections ;
minute do; plaster mjection; cold injection; as regards the course of injections ; quicksilver
injections ; mode of injecting the Ij-mphatics with quicksilver ; method of injecting the lac-
teals, and parotid gland ; wet preparations ; preparations by distension ; method of preparing
and distending the limgs ; menstrua for preserving specimens ; method of preserving the brain
and lungs ; method of macerating and cleaning bones ; to render bones flexible and transpa-
rent; method of cleanmg and separating the bones of the cranium; exposition of Mr. Swan's
new method of making dry anatomical preparations, - - - - 81-87

Digestive System. — The mouth, lips, cheeks, gums, palate, tongue, salivary glands, pharj-nx,
oesophagus, and nasal fossa; cavity of the cranium; the orbits and cavities of the nose ; the
mouth, peritoneum, stomach, intestines ; the vessels, nerves, and IjTnphatios of the intestines ;
the spleen, liver, pancreas, kidneys, supra, renal capsules, ureters, bladder, urethra, - - 87-119

GENER.vTrvE Org.vns OF THE M.ALE. — Vasa defercutia, vesiculae seminales, ejaculatory ducts, pros-
trate gland, Cowper's glands, -......-•..- 119-121

0RG.4NS OF Generation Continded. — Testicles and scrotum, spermatic cord, epididjTnis, penis,

and urethra, - 121-125

Fem.\le Organs of Generation, 125-128

Physiological considerations on the reproduction of organized beings, ..... 128-136

Examination on the digestive system, 136-138

Remarks and examinations on the eye, - 139-143



Respiratory System. — Observation on the same; the larynx, glottis, epiglottis, trachea, hron-

chial tubes, pleura, mediastinum, lungs, bronchial glands, - - - - 144-154

Circulatory System. — Remarks on the blood ; examinations resumed on the blood, pericardium,

and heart, - - - - 155-167

Arterial System. — Distribution of the arteries, 158-163

A table showing the modes of the distribution of the arteries, - 164^166

Distribution of the veins, ...-. - .-. - - 166-168

A table showuig the mode of distribution*bf the veins, - 169-170

The brain and its appendages ; the nervous system, - 171-177

Examinations on neurology, . - ... - -. - 177-180

Distribution of the lymphatics, 181-184

A glossary of veterinary technicalities, - 185-193

Toxicological chart, - - - - 195-209

A dictionary of veterinary science, - 211-287

Appendix. — Ligamcntary mechanism of articulations and joints, - - - 289-291


FIGUKE I. Presents two ^iews : one of a portion of the osseous structure, showing the head, neck,

and shoulders ; and the other is composed of the supei-ficial muscles, covering the above parts ;
precedes the title page. - - - - - - -

FIGURE II. Is a section of the osseous structui'e, giving a side of the spinal column, ribs, and a part

of the rear, anterior, and posterior extremities. 10

FIGURE III. — Is a representation of the superficial muscles of the body, of a part of the neck, and

of the extremities, ... - - - - - - '■0

FIGURE rS'. — Has fom- illustrations of the hind extremities, as follows : No. 1 is a side -view of the
bones of the oft-hind leg ; No. 2 shows the muscles and tendons of the oiT-hind leg ; No. 3 is a
front view of the bones of the same ; No. 4 shows the muscles and tendons in the anterior region,
or front part, of the off-hind extremity. . - - 30

FIGURE V. — Presents Ueo illustrations : the first shows the superficial muscles in the region of the
head, neck, and shoulders, on the near side ; and the other is a corresponding section of the osse-
ous structm-e, on wliich the insertions of the ligamentum colli into the occiput, cervical vertebrae,
and dorsal spines, are sho\ra. ... - - - - - 40

FIGURE VI. — Presents four views of the forward extremities : No. 1 shows the bones which enter
into the composition of the near fore-leg ; No. 2 is a side view of the muscles and tendons of the
near fore-leg ; No. 3 is an anterior \iew of No. 1 ; No. 4 is an anterior view of No. 2. - - 50

FIGURE Vn. Presents four views of the near fore-extremity : Nos. 1 and 3 are side and posterior

views of the bones of the near fore-limb ; Nos. 2 and 4 show the muscles and tendons belonging

to the above regions. ..-. - - - - - oO

FIGURE Vin. — Has four views of the off-hind extremity: Nos. 1 and 3 are side and posterior views
of the bones entering into the composition of the Hmb ; Nos. 2 and 4 show the muscles and ten-
dons of the same. .-. - - - - - - 70

FIGURE IX. — Presents two views : one, of the bones ; the other shows the superficial muscles of the

head, neck, shoulders, and breast, viewed in an anterior direction. - - - 80

FIGURE X. — Has two cuts : one of wliich shows a portion of the osseous framework ; the other

shows the superficial muscles belonging thereto. - - 90

FIGURE XI. — Is illustrated by two cuts : one of which shows a portion of the muscles of the body,
neck, and Umhs ; it is a sort of anterior side riew ; the second cut shows the bones which enter into
the composition of these parts. - . - - - - -100

FIGURE Xn. — Has two illusti-ations, which are the counterpart of Fig. XI., as seen from the oppo-
site or posterior dii'ection. .-.-. - - - - 119

FIGURE XHI. — Presents a side view of the deep-seated muscles : it is talien from Mr. Blaine's " Out-

Knes," and is one of the most magnificent plates ever presented to the pubKc. - - - - 120

FIGURE XrV. — Is a riew of the mu.scles and tendons of the fore and hind extremities. - - 140

FIGURE XV. —Is illustrated with five views of the off and rear fore extremity : Nos. 1, 2, 3 show very
distinctly the action of the flexors of the Umb, as well as their location, and that of the extensor
tendons and muscles. The triceps extensor brachii, and pectoral muscles, are also quite prominent
and easily recognized ; No. 4 is the same hmb divested of the soft parts ; No. 5 is an interior view
of the near fore-leg, and shows some of the tendons and muscles wliich are not seen in the other
cuts. - - - 150

FIGURE XVI. — Presents five views of the hind extremities, in wliich the use and action of several very
important muscles and tendons are accurately delineated : Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 compose the bones,
muscles, and tendons of the near-hind extremity ; No. 5 shows the muscles and tendons on the
inside of the near-hind leg. - - - - - - - 160

2 (ix)


FIGURE XVn. — Presents two views (as seen from a posterior direction) : one contains a great portion
of the superficial muscles of the body and limbs, and the other shows the basis of their super-
structure. - .-. - ... - - - 170

FIGURE XVm. — Is the skeleton of a horse, for which the author is indebted to Blaine's " OutUnes

of the Veterinary Art." .. - 180

FIGURE XIX. — Is a counterpart of Fig. XVn., as seen from an opposite direction. ... 175

FIGURE XX. — Is an excellent representation of the muscles of one side of the head, neck, body, and

Kmbs. 211

[The author considers it due to himself to remark, that, in consequence of not seouiing from the engraver good proofs of
the plates, there will occur a few inaccuracies between the lettering ou the cuts and explanations accompanying them.
These, however, are not of material consequence ; yet, if necessary, the reader can, from analogy, — by comparing one plate
with another, — correct the errors with a pen.]



11. Cervical vertebra.

12. Dorsal "

13. Lumbar "

14. Sacrum.

15. Coccygeal bones.

16. True ribs.

17. False "

18. Sternum.

19. Pelvis.

20. Posterior part of the pelvis, or ischiatic spines.

21. Inferior, or pubic region.

22. Femur.

23. Patella.

24. Tibia.

33. Scapula.

34. Humerus.

35. Radius.
e. Fibula.
/. Ulnar.



The bones are the solid framework which fibrous arrangement is more irregular and

gives stability to the whole fabric, and af-
ford fixed bearings upon which the powers
regulating the varied movements operate.
The bones, then, are considered as the most
dense and solid structures of the animal
frame : affording support, and in many parts
protection, to some of the softer parts ; at
the same time, the leverage which regulates
the action of a Kmb is derived from the
osseous structure.

On making an examination of a bone,
we find that its external surface is the hard-
est part, and it differs very much in thick-
ness in different bones, and in different
animals. The long bones (or cylmdrical)
of the horse contain less marrow, and are
more cancellated within, than the bones of
the human subject: in many of the former
the whole arena is occupied by cancelli.
The bones of the ribs have an osseous plat-
ing differing in thickness in various sub-
jects, and within is a cellular structure which
may be termed diploe.

The marrow, as it is termed, is a soft
substance of an oleaginous character, con-
tained in an infinite number of sacs, depos-
ited and suspended in the cavities of bones
and in the canceUi. The marrow sacs are
composed of a delicate vascular membrane,
which isolates them from each other, and
prevents the marrow from gravitating or
passing into the osseous structure.

Bones present the appearance of lamella,
yet they are fibrous ; the fibres of the cylin-
drical bones are longitudinal; in the flat
bones they have a radiated appearance, and
in the short and peculiar shaped bones, the

difficult to trace.

The basis of the osseous structure is
nearly the same as the membranous parts,*
being composed of fibrous laminae or plates,
which are connected together so as to form,
by their intersection, a series of cells anal-
agous to those of the cellular structure.
This theory has been disputed by some
distinguished physiologists; the moderns
contend that the osseous fabric is ceUular.f

Bones are invested, on their exterior, ex-
cept those parts plated with cartilage, with
a membrane termed periosteum. Through
this medium an arterial and venous com-

* " The analysis of a bone into its two constituent parts
is easily eftected by the agency either of acids or of heat.
By macerating a full-gro-mi bone for a sufficient time in
diluted muriatic acid, the earthy portion of the bone,
amounting to nearly one-thu-d of its weight, is dissolved
by the acid; the animal portion only remaining. This
animal basis retains the bulk and shape of the original
bone, but is soft, flexible, and clastic ; possessing, in a
word, all the properties of membranous parts, and corres-
ponding in its chemical character to condensed albumen.
A portion of this solid animal substance affords gelatin by
long boiling in water, especially under the pressure, ad-
mitting of a high temperature, to which it may be si'.b-
jeeted in Papin's digester. On the other hand, by sub-
jecting a bone to the action of fire, the animal part alone
will be consumed, and the earth left untouched, preserv-
ing, as before, the form of the bone, but having lost the
material which united the particles, presenting a fragile
mass which easily crumbles into powder. Tliis earthy
basis, when chemically examined, is found to consist prin-
cipally of phosphate of lime, which composes eighty -two
hundredths of its weight ; and to contain also, according
to Berzelius, minute portions of fluate and carbonate of
lime, together with the phosphates of magnesia and of
soda." — Eoget.

t The best authority in support of the cellular theory is
Scarpa. Percivall advocates the laminated and fibrous




munication is established between the dense
and soft parts. The periosteum is anal-
agous to the fibrous textures, being com-
posed of numerous inelastic fibres of great
strengtJi and density.

The inner surface of the periosteum is
connected with the bone by the vessels pass-
ing from the one to the other, and also by
numerous prolongations, which pervade the
osseous substance.

The blood-vessels of the periosteum are
numerous, and are easily demonstrated by


The structure which appears most inti-
mately connected with the osseous is carti-
lage. It is a firm and dense substance,
apparently homogeneous in its texture, semi-
pellucid, and of a miUc-white or pearly color.

The surface of cartilage is smooth and
uniform, presenting neither eminences nor
cavities, pores nor inequalities. It has,
however, minute capillary vessels, the diam-
eters of which are too small for ocular
demonstration. Notwithstanding its den-
sity, it has a minute circulating apparatus,
wliich is demonstrated in diseases known
as spavin and ringbone, in which absorp-
tion of cartilage occurs.

Online LibraryGeorge H. DaddThe anatomy and physiology of the horse: with anatomical and questional illustrations. Containing, also, a series of examinations on equine anatomy and physiology, with instructions in reference to dissection and the mode of making anatomical preparations. To which is added, glossary of veterinary t → online text (page 1 of 44)