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George Henry Tinkham.

History of Stanislaus County California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its growth and development from the early days to the pres online

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King, Charles J 1081

King, Nathan Harvey 1342

Kinnear, Samuel P 877

Kinser, James B 582

Kinser, Zearle A 1374

Kinsman, John K 1 194



Kirby, Charles H 640

Knapp, John F 1062

Knorr, Albert J 1050

Knowles, Ansel Litchfield 1237

Knox, George A 412

Knutsen, Fred 1436

Knutsen, K 444

Knutsen, Capt. Peter 1159

Knutson, George H 1255

Knutson, Walfrid 1472

Koehn, William C 1121

Kounias, S. George 1161

Krigbaum, Henry S 806

Krigbaum, Capt. Lowell G 734

Krogh, Hans, Jr 1456

Kumle, Hubert G 1479

Kyne, Patrick C 599

L

La Bree, Charles A 1433

Lacoste, Etienne 1267

Ladd, Albert H 282

Lafranchi, Joseph 1411

La Grange Gold Dredging Company 1342

Laird, David Terry 1277

Langdon, Mrs. Myrtie 281

Larsen, Lauritz P 643

Larson, Andrew 1115

La Source, Guy Nelson 1402

Latz, Philip 1497

Latz, Sylvain S 801

Laughlin, Earl Victor 1229

Laughlin, Guy 1238

Laughlin, Julius C 508

Layman, Mrs. Edith M 941

Lear, Edmund J 1172

Lee, Charles S 1461

Leedholm, Charley J 1320

Leek, William L 959

Leoni, Albert G 604

Lesnini, Tobia 1115

Leverton, Joseph 1256

Lewallen, Wilson W 1352

Liberini, Peter 1414

Linden, Emanuel M 1324

Lindwall, John A 1433

Litt, George W 812

Little, Charles Richard 369

Lock, George Mills 900

Long, Joseph Johnson 1014

Long, Joseph N 406

Long, M. P 745

Longis, Frank 1424

Longmire, Sylvester 1451

Love, Lewis A 1040

Lucid, Daniel D 871

Lucksinger, Frederick 1256

Lundborg, K. M., D.D.S 978

Lundell, Henry J 967

Lundgren, Arthur C 1357

Lundgren, Carl John 1271

Lundgren, Gustaf A 852

M

Macauley, Hector E 1 178

Machado, Manuel D 1409

Manning, Judson W 1387

Marshall, Fred J 1405

Matlock, C. Wilfrid 1349

Maze, Mrs. Birdie G 336



Maze, Charles George 867

Mazurette, Albert J . 972

McAlister, James W 771

McAlIen, Daniel Joseph 620

McAllen, Mrs. Mae Josephine 623

McBride, Samuel Nelson 803

McCabe, George T 455

M'cCabe, Eugene 398

McCabe, John W 1077

McCabe, Thomas F 627

McCabe, Owen 398

McCormick, James Edward ,. 754

McCready, Arthur C 1215

McDonell, Michael Leo 1432

McGee, Michael Joseph 1334

McGeorge, A 1328

McGill, A. L 466

McGinn, Thomas W 612

McGinnes, W. T 466

McHenry Brothers, Inc 447

McHenry, Oramil 233

McHenry, Robert 234

McHenry, Robert A 447

McHenry, Albert H 447

McLaughlin, William 1131

McPheeters, Earl R„ M.D 903

McPherson, Emmaline 295

McPhetres, Daniel Morton 1182

McVey, Frank 1325

Mead, George D 1043

Medford, Alvin D 1212

Medlin, Carl H 1484

Medlin, David G 1173

Medlin, Ora T .'.... 1295

Meier, Henry Charles 1443

Meikle, R. V 1366

Meily, A. P 674

Meinecke, Edward 1389

Mendes, Joe 1488

Mendosa, Joe P 1356

Mendonza, Jesse 1470

Menghetti, Charles L 1172

Mensinger, William R 549

Mermann, Peter 1313

Mettler, Ernest 1349

Michael, Thomas Benjamin 764

Millard, David Anderson 789

Miller, Frank C 1264

Mills, Harry Edgar 1121

Minniear, Ore N 1291

Minto, John H 1193

Mitchell, John W 489

Modesto Milk Company 1384

Moffet, Fred W 816

Mondo, Sebastian C 1425

Monk, Albert C 1453

Montgomery, Samuel 1398

Moore, Jacob Curtis 616

Moore, Oliver Stanton 481

Moore, R. R 481

Morehead, James T 1156

Morgan, Antony 741

Morgan, James Wooley, M.D 666

Morganti, Epi ■• 1186

Morris, John 1391

Morris, Nat P 879

Morris, William 1487

Morse, Charles L 1058

Morse, Howard Henry 1390

Moulton, Albert Wellington 465

Mullally, Mrs. Lizzie 926

Mullin, Douglas Francis 304

Muscio, Oliver Joseph 1032



N -

Nazareth Swedish Lutheran Church 964

Neece, George F 874

Needham, Hon. James Carson. 261

Neill, Lester J : 1376

Nelsen, Eric A 1416

Nelson, George C 712

Nelson, George G : 1254

Nelson, Martin 1263

Nelson, Nels P 1468

Newman, Louis J 817

Newman Steam Laundry 1430

Newman, Simon 503

Newsome, William G 1145

N'ickelsen, Nickels 1350

Nickert, Chris 1288

Nicolaisen, James M 1440

Nielson, George 1483

Nylin, Andrew Peter 685

o

Oberg, Clarence E 894

Oberg, Gustaf A 883

Oberkamper, William Adolph 1022

Ohlsson, Erick W 1344

Ohmart, Jacob L 1455

Olds, Jake M 1398

Oldenhage, Horace Walter 919

Olesen, Andrew J 1168

Oliveira, Antonio A 1166

Olsen, Martin 1408

Olson, Mrs. Caroline 1371

Olson, George P 928

Olson, Ole 1329

Olson, O. G 1226

Olson, Oscar H 942

Olson, P. N 1318

Olson, Theodore R 635

O'Neal, Fred L 948

Orr, Jacob 1219

Orvis, William Snow ! 1449

Osvald, Mrs. Julia K. '. 592

Owen, Thomas Alonzo 470

P

Paioni, Joseph 1455

Pallesen, Peter 1234

Palmer, Harry Eugene 628

Patchett, Franklin A 991

Pearson, James 1469

Pelucca, Henry 1465

Perkins, Amsbury 496

Perley, George 348

Perry, Harry 1374

Persson, Albert W J091

Persson, Andres 1314

Peterposten, Erminio 1477

Peters, Rollie R 1166

Petersen, Hans N 992

Peterson, Albert T ;. 1330

Peterson, Arthur W 1287

Peterson, Axel 1434

Peterson, Charles 1274

Peterson, Chris E 1178

Peterson, Edwin A 1287

Peterson, Erick G 1356

Peterson, J. Edward ■. '.. 1299

Peterson, Louis H 960

Peterson, IVter 1317



Pettit, Alvin David 1362

Pfarr, George N 904

Philbrick, Cyrus J 699

Philipps, Rev. Charles 1341

Pike, George K 809

Pinckney, J. H 1139

Pitts, Edgar L 1002

Pitts, M'erideth R 612

Podesta, Louis A 1399

Pollard, Oliver L 1091

Pool, Chauncey E 837

Porter, Mrs. Florence Lander 296

Price, Thomas Jefferson 846

Prickett, George Washington 1208

Prien, John H 1444

Prouty, Mrs. Alice M 1476

Purvis, Mrs. Jennie Phelps 436

Purvis, Richard Benjamin 436



Quinley, John Win
Quirke, Rev. \V. J.



R

Radavero, Felix 1469

Rafter, James 1244

Ramazzina, Innocente 1471

Ramont, Herbert W 951

Ramos, P. D 1448

Ramsey, Francis A., M.D.C 567

Randolph, J. L 451

Ravelli, Rocco 1473

Rebman, Harvey W 1066

Reed, J. Wilson. M.D 1435

Reed, William M 1029

Reeder, Edward C 657

Reeves, James D 835

Reitz, Jacob 967

Repass, William M 1386

Reynolds, David Lee 1388

Reynolds, Roy F 894

Rezendes, Antonio D 1483

Rice, Eugene 899

Rice, Judge William Horace 542

Richards, James H 1393

Richardson, Ephriam 452

Richardson, Mr. and Mrs. Pearl C 737

Richardson, Thomas 302

Richina, Leonard Anton 1109

Rickenbacher, Lewis H 1282

Rieger, Fred 1423

Roberts, Alfred Jackson 291

Roberts, James S 1372

Roberts, Dr. James W 974

Robinson, John 374

Roen. John ' 935

Roessler, Mrs. I 1461

Rogers, Mrs. Serena Coleman .. 911

Roguet, Peter J 1171

Rohde, Arendt II 1013-

Rohde, Andrew H 987

Rollo, J. M 1495

Root, Mrs. M'ary J 563

Rose, Joseph V 1485

Ross, Mrs. Almina J 4.90

Ross, Robert Jackson 121 1

Rossi, Isidore P , 1203

Rossini, Silvio ' 1424

Rousse, Dr. A. J 1268



INDEX



Rousseau, Mrs. Leonora V 692

Routh, Elic L 1061

Rowe, Richard Henry '..... 435

Rushing, William Henry 775

Russell, John Coleman 1496

S

Sachau, Wm 1496

St. Clair, Milton I, 1082

St. Jaachira's Church. 1191

Salber, Carl F 1111

Samson, Mrs. Jean Marie 730

Samuelson, Joseph 749

Sandborge W 946

Sharp JohiW 738

Sharp, Wil Dalton 1198

Sieni, FredW. N 1479

Signorotti, Hix 1000

Sikes, Char| H 1105

Silva, Willi^J 1466

Silverthorn, Jiss Bessie B 729

Sisson, Benjlin 1273

Sjostrum, A. 1495

Smith, Anno B 1067

Smith, Franfeugene 794

Smith, Percyterwin 1006

Snedigar, Mrfclara H 319

Snedigar, This F 318

Snedigar, Will M 351

Snyder, ChestjG 1346

Snygg, John 1 957

Soares, Manuep 1448

Soderquist, A.I 13(S1

Sollars, Albert Ward 793

Sorensen, MrsUna 1 366

Sorensen, Ch

Soria, Archi<
Souza, Alvaro
Smiza, Anto
Souza, Manuel
Spencer, Hon. J.
Spencer, Rev. Jc



Spenker, Joseph C 1048

Sperry, Charles A 1136

Sperry, Charles Edwin 359

Sperry, Louis Nelson 977

Sperry, Willard E 977

Sprowl, Walter M 1212

Spyres, Silas 884

Squire, George W 855

Stadie, Martin Henry 1222

Standiford, Admer Nelson.... 293

Starr, George H 1058

Staudenmaier, Leonard 1452

Stelck, Richard Detlef 1452

Stevens, Walter A 1021

Stevens, Walter E 1493

Stewart, John Ferguson 500

Stone, Buryl Foster 1192

Stone, Roy E~ 1434

Strader, Ulysses Grant 619

Strandberg, C. 1359

Summers, Hartwell 1426

Sunderland, Roy 1065

Surryhne, Benjamin F., M.D 515

Swan, C. Leslie 1383

Swanson, Charles G 935

Swanson, Otto E 1467

Swanson, P. J 1417

Swedish Evangelical Mission Church 1429

Sweeney, Archie L 138S

Swensen, Swen 1288

Sylvan Club 872

T

Talbot, Allen 746

Talbott, M. C 1072

Taylor, Carl R 1397

Taylor, Lon J 1167

Tell, Carl G 1188

Thompson, David B 708

Thompson, Harrison H 708

Thompson, Howard G 780

Thompson, Irving Boyd 1005

Thompson, James 426

Thompson, John E 356

Thompson, Luther D 842

Thompson, Richard Grant 767

Thompson, Walter Oregon 632

Thompson, William H 836

Thornburg, Delwin C 1310

Thornburg, Glen E 1309

Thornburg, Lamott E 652

Thornburg, Mrs. Oresta S 524

Thornburg, Ray H 1309

Thorsen, Andy 1368

Threlfall, George A 878

Tienken, Emil H 1018

Tobias. John 1462

Tombaugh, Ira S 1401

Tomlinson, Nathaniel Lenox 558

Toomes, William D 1066

Torgenson, C. L 1351

Tornell, C. A 1367

Tornell, Charles 1198

Torvend, Ole 1026

Townsend, Travis B 1017

Trask, Edward O 925

Trask, John Byron 826

Trtimbly, Warren L 1376

Trueblood, Harry A 1445

Tucker, Lewis 1410

Tucker. Mrs. Martha E 251



INDEX



Tupper, Jerome B 1088

Turlock Ice & Fuel Company 712

Turner, Arlo V 1344

Turner, Charles C 533

Turner, Mrs. Christiana Van Xorman 529

Turner, Garrison and Elizabeth Jane Starr.. 274

Turner, George D 1285

Turner, Henry G 759

Turpen, Addison Edgar 443

Turpen, Major A. M 443

Twiggs, Marcellus D 1420

Tyrrell, Robert S 892

u

Uhl, Edward A 1405

Ulch, Mrs. Allura E. Averill 287

Ullberg, Edwin 1360

Ulrey, Silas Everington 1406

Ulrich, George J 1106

Updike, Samuel M 355

V

Vanatta, Sidney C 1430

Van Eebber, Philip 1418

Van der Plaats, Volkert 1233

Van Vlear, William R 931

Van Wagner, Ralph 1381

Varley. Edwin Lincoln 1417

Vetter, John W 1400

Vieira, Antone R 1477

Vincent, Joe F 1278

Vincent, Joseph M' 1036

Vivian, John 301

Vivian, Stephen 405

Voight, August H 1221

Voight, Henry 1419

Volkman, F. D 1025

Vollstedt, Herman 1411

Voorheis, Mrs. Mary Ann 669

w

Wade, Seth 1436

Wafer, Mrs. Estella llvrr.m 878

Waite, William E 674

Wakefield, S 1122

Walden, Miner 390,

Wallace, S. G 1459

Wallin, Jonas S 858

Walthall, John Madison SI 1

Walther, Clarence J 1117

Walti, Fred William 1333

Walton, Dana J , 776

Ward, John L 673

Ward. Joseph R 1385

Warner, James J 1



Warner, James F 410

Washburn, Francis M 999

Watson, Arthur M 1377

Watson, Ralph E 1043

Webb, Walter H 982

Weichert, George P 1390

Weilberg, Christopher Robert 937

Weiss, Henry 1 126

Welch, Charles Edwin ' 310

Welch, Mrs. Sarah E 557

Welty Brothers 1437

Westrope, Abner James 611

Wheeler, William Floyd 107S

Whitmore, Clinton N 477

Whitmore, Daniel 235

Whitmore, Richard Keith 1385

Whitworth, George H 327

Wickstrom, G. E 1353

Will, Foster A 973

Willeford, Edward 1493

Williams, Humphrey Lincoln 504

Williams, Joseph S 1447

WUliams, 0. D 1358

Williams, Thomas L 504

Willms, John R 3S9

Wilson, John Benjamin 1186

Wilson, Mrs. Sarah E 1186

Wilson, W. Lester, M.D 1306

Winklebleck, Levi 893

Witmer, Jacob 1101

Witten, P. W 1292

Wolfe, John S 1187

Wood, Amos Addison, D.D.S 581

Wood, William Henry 586

Woods, Frank P 1457

Woods, John H 785

Woodside, Charles LeRoy 915

Woodside, Mrs. Emeline 311

Woolsey, A. C 1404

Woolsey, Eugene D 83S

Wootten, Denver M 1009

Wren, George J 324

Wright, Claud 1353

Wyant, William Swickard 1393

Y

Yates, James D 1207

Yeram, Aram H 1403

Young, James A , • ■ . . # . . . 280

Young. J. Audley. M.D 1087

Young, Shruder 393

Young, William Franklin 1068

Young. William X 13S1

Yrigoyen, Gregorio 1492



H. E 1382



HISTORICAL

HISTORY of STANISLAUS COUNTY

By GEORGE H. TINKHAM

ra

CHAPTER ONE

STANISLAUS COUNTY'S FIRST INHABITANTS
INDIANS EVERYWHERE DISCOVERED

From whence came the first inhabitants of Stanislaus County? No man knoweth.
Columbus in 1492 landing at the island of San Salvador, and later at Cuba, discovered
a new race. He believed that he had reached the East Indies and so believing he
named the people Indians. When Fernando Cortez sailed from Spain in 1519 with a
small army and several horses, he also landed at Cuba, and then sailing westward to
Mexico, he there found Indians. They were quite intelligent and were ruled by King
Montezuma whom they loved and honored. The Spanish soldiers married the women
of the tribe and from thence came the Mexican people.

Leaving Mexico in 1542 Cabrillo sailed along the entire coast of Cape Mendocino,
and at every point the navigator found this strange people. They worshipped the
white men and believed them gods. Sir Francis Drake sailing along the Pacific Coast
in 1579 discovered the harbor that now bears his name. He landed and the Indians
came crowding around him as he held the first Protestant religious service on the
Pacific Coast. Capt. Gaspar de Portola, in his famous march from San Diego to
San Francisco Bay in 1769 found Indians all along his route. They were a peaceful,
fairly intelligent race and they brought the soldiers many gifts.

Indians Build Missions

Then came the Franciscan Fathers founding missions all along the California
Coast. In their work of building missions the Indians performed all of the work. They
cultivated the soil in the raising of wheat, corn and vegetables and they herded and
cared for the sheep, horses and cattle that roamed over a thousand hills.

The good priests taught the Indians much useful knowledge and they were in
most of the Missions kind and gentle rulers to these, the children of the Church.
In some Missions, unfortunately, the Fathers were harsh and cruel taskmasters. This
treatment caused in the neophytes a spirit of hatred and revenge and they endeavored
to escape from the Mission at the first opportunity.

The Chief Estanislao

One of the Indians who succeeded in escaping was a neophyte named Estanislao.
He was a man naturally bright, of far more intelligence than the most of his tribe
and he had received a good education in the Mission. Burning with hatred against
the Fathers and all of the Spanish race, he began a propaganda among the Indian tribes,
inciting them to rob the Missions and kill the "sons of Castile."

Succeeding in his object the Indians began harassing the Fathers of the San Jose
Mission by driving off their horses and killing them for food. Then on every possible



34 HISTORY OF STANISLAUS COUNTY

occasion they would meet the Christian Indians and persuade them to run away. To
check this work so far as possible the government sent out military expeditions. They
were commanded to punish the culprits and bring in as prisoners, the men, women and
children. In this manner the Fathers repopulated their Missions, for the Mission
confinement caused them to quickly die.

It was in one of these expeditions, that of 1829, that Estanislao defeated the
famous Gen. Marino G. Vallejo, previously having routed Lieut. Alfred Sanchez.
The Lieutenant was sent out from San Francisco May 5, with a company of forty
soldiers, a few drawing swivel guns or cannon. He soon arrived at a locality where
he found the Indians fortified in a thick wood on the bank of the River Laquismes, as
the Stanislaus River was then called. As soon as the soldiers came within distance the
Indians opened fire with a shower of arrows and a few old muskets. The firearms
were harmless, however, as the Indians had no shot nor bullets. They fired the
muskets, hoping to frighten the Spaniards. Sanchez attempted to use his swivel gun
but finding it out of commission was compelled to rely on his musketry. The parties
fought throughout the day, apparently with none killed or wounded. That night
Sanchez camped after retiring some distance from the enemy. The following day the
fight was renewed without success and as Sanchez's ammunition was exhausted he was
compelled to return to San Francisco. The fight was a victory for Estanislao. Two
soldiers were killed and eight wounded, and eleven of the Christian Indians were
wounded and one was killed.

The Defeat of General Vallejo

A week later a second expedition was organized against the brave chief. General
Vallejo was placed in command. He had just returned from an expedition to the
"tulares," where with a company of forty-five men only he had fought and killed forty-
eight braves. Vallejo's company crossed the San Joaquin River on a raft and they
were received immediately with a cloud of arrows. Vallejo soon learned that the
enemy could not be driven from their stronghold and commanded that the woods be
set on fire. This was a movement Estanislao had not anticipated and the Indians
were driven out by the smoke and fire, several of them being killed. The fight, however,
was carried on throughout the day, and three more soldiers were wounded. That night
the Indians abandoned their stronghold. The following morning Vallejo's men entered
the woods and found a series of pits and ditches skillfully arranged and barricaded by
trees and brush. It would have been an impossibility to have driven out the Indians
except by fire.

The following day the Indians again challenged the soldiers to battle from another
thicket near the Rancho Arroyo Seco. Vallejo tried to parley with them, but they
refused either to compromise or surrender. The soldiers then made an attack and
brought into use their small cannon. The Indians slowly retreated to their new
trenches which they had thrown up, in the meantime wounding eight soldiers. In a
short time the ammunition of the militia was all gone and they were compelled to
cease fighting. The following morning the company left the field to the enemy.

This was a second victory for the brave Indian Chief, Estanislao. It is said that
dating from that fight the Spaniards dared not invade the territory north of the San
Joaquin River and that they named the river where the battle took place, Stanislaus.
Later the county took its name from the river.

Our Knowledge of the Indians

It may be of interest, perhaps, to many persons to know something of the customs,
habits, religion and life of those who first lived in the "sunny Stanislaus." The
knowledge that we have of the race is limited. It is obtained only from the trappers
and travelers who visited the coast in early years and from those pioneers who saw
the last of the tribes in the '50s.

The first account we have of the number of Indians in the territory of Stanislaus
is the record of the old trapper and hunter, James J. Warner. Writing of the year
1832, he said, "There were a number of Indian villages on King's River between its



HISTORY OF STANISLAUS COUNTY ' 35

mouth and the mountains; also on the San Joaquin from the base of the mountain
down to, and some distance below, the great slough. On the Merced River, from its
junction with the San Joaquin, there were no Indian villages, but from about this
point on the San Joaquin (Hill's Ferry) as well as the principal tributaries, the Indian
villages were numerous and many of the villages contained from fifty to a hundred
dwellings. On the Tuolumne and Stanislaus rivers there were Indian villages above
the mouth, as also at or near the junction with the San Joaquin." Mr. Warner then
pays a tribute to the wonderful fertility of the territory by saying: "On no part of
the Continent over which I had been or since have traveled was so numerous an Indian
population subsisting upon the natural products of the soil and waters as in the San
Joaquin Valley."

Classification of Indians
The Indian tribes of California were so many in number that it is almost impossible
to classify all of them. The Coast Indians alone, according to Boscana, numbered
over a hundred different tribes and spoke that many different languages. Powers, who
made a study of Indian life, called the Indians living in Tuolumne and Stanislaus
counties under the general name of Modocs. They were subdivided into four classes,
the Wallas, Wallalshumnes, Potoancies and Yachichumnes. The tribe first named
lived in the mountains between the Stanislaus and Tuolumne rivers, the second tribe
dwelt in the valley, the third tribe lived in the region between the Tuolumne and the
Merced and the fourth tribe lived on the west side of the San Joaquin River. The
entire race were called by the people in general "Walla Wallas" or "Digger Indians"
because of their custom of digging in the earth for edible roots.

Physical Appearance of Tribes

In their physical appearance the Indians were very much alike. They were
scarcely more than five feet eight in height, and a man over six feet was a rarity.
They had low, retreating foreheads, black, deep set eyes, thick, bushy eyebrows, high
cheek bones and a nose depressed at the roots and wide spread at the nostrils. They
had large mouths, with projecting lips, large white teeth and large ears and hands
and large flat feet. "This," said a well-known writer, "was the prevailing type. The
description agrees fully with the Walla Wallas, both men and women, as I saw them
around Stockton in early days."

Tribal Government 1746224

Their government, if such it might be called, was very simple. Each tribe had a
"captain chief" and his authority and commands were absolute. Considerable dignity
was attached to him and his family and they were treated with the greatest respect.
His widow and daughters, after his death, were considered as persons of nobility and
they were not compelled to labor as were the women of the common people. In fact,
among the tribes there was a certain degree of aristocracy. The family and their
relatives were governed by a chief. He was subject to the authority of the captain
chief. The chieftainship was hereditary along the male line and the eldest son suc-
ceeded the father at his death. Sometimes, however, the son would be deprived of his
rightful authority. A favorite of the captain chief would be appointed to office because
of some exploit or bravery in a horse-stealing expedition.

Marriage
When a young brave wished to marry he observed carefully the young maiden
who was the most industrious in digging roots or herbs and could carry the heaviest
load. The women were the slaves of the men, and they collected the firewood, built
the fires and performed all of the drudgery of the wikiup. When the young Indian
had made his selection of a strong and industrious maiden, he informed the chief that
he desired the girl for his "helpmate." The chief almost always gave his consent.
This was all the marriage ceremony that was necessary. The girl could refuse to live
with the young man, but the penalty of refusing was severe, as she then became public
property. If an Indian wished to divorce his wife all that was necessary was to drive



36 ' HISTORY OF STANISLAUS COUNTY

her out into the cold world. A female could have but one husband, but on the reverse
an Indian could have as many wives as he could feed and shelter. In their wild, un-
civilized life, adultery on the part of the woman was always a cause of divorce by the
husband. When, however, the Indian came in contact with the vileness and corruption
of the white man, he frequently sold his wife for a short period of time.

The girls frequently married at the age of fourteen years and gave birth to children
at the age of sixteen. A marriage of May and December was not prohibited among
the Indians and often there would be offspring. Powers relates a case within his
knowledge where an Indian child of ten years gave birth to a babe, her husband being
a white man of sixty summers. At childbirth no physician or midwife was necessary,
for Nature provides for its own. If the tribe were traveling the woman would lag
behind for an hour or more. Then she would overtake the tribe carrying upon her



Online LibraryGeorge Henry TinkhamHistory of Stanislaus County California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its growth and development from the early days to the pres → online text (page 2 of 177)